Kings and Events of the Babylonian, Persian, and Greek Dynasties

Nebuchadnezzar

612 b.c. Nineveh falls to neo-Babylonian army (Nebuchadnezzar)
608 Pharaoh Necho II marched to Carchemesh to halt expansion of neo-Babylonian power
Josiah, King of Judah, tries to stop him
Death of Josiah and assumption of throne by his son, Jehoahaz
Jehoiakim, another son of Josiah, replaced Jehoahaz on the authority of Pharaoh Necho II within 3 months
Palestine and Syria under Egyptian rule
Josiah’s reforms dissipate

605 Nabopolassar sends troops to fight remaining Assyrian army and the Egyptians at Carchemesh
Nebuchadnezzar chased them all the way to the plains of Palestine
Nebuchadnezzar got word of the death of his father (Nabopolassar) so he returned to Babylon to receive the crown
On the way back he takes Daniel and other members of the royal family into exile
605 – 538 Babylon in control of Palestine, 597; 10,000 exiled to Babylon
586 Jerusalem and the temple destroyed and large deportation
582 Because Jewish guerilla fighters killed Gedaliah another last large deportation occurred

Babylonian  DynastiesSUCCESSORS OF NEBUCHADNEZZAR

562 – 560 Evil-Merodach released Jehoiakim (true Messianic line) from custody
560 – 556 Neriglissar
556 Labaski-Marduk reigned
556 – 539 Nabonidus:
Spent most of the time building a temple to the mood god, Sin. This earned enmity of the priests of Marduk.
Spent the rest of his time trying to put down revolts and stabilize the kingdom.
He moved to Tema and left the affairs of state to his son, Belshazzar
Belshazzar:
Spent most of his time trying to restore order.
Babylonia’s great threat was Media.

Rise of Cyrus

585 – 550 Astyages was king of Media (Cyrus II was his grandson by Mandane)
550 Cyrus II, a vassal king, revolted
Nabonidus, to restore balance of power, made alliances with:
1. Egypt
2. Crecus, King of Lydia
547 Cyrus marched against Sardis (capital Lydia) and captured all of Asia Minor
539 Gobiyas took Babylon without resistance (Dan. 5; Belshazzar Nabonidus’ co-regent; also Gobiyas possibly Darius the Mede, Dan. 5:31).
Oct. 11, 539 Cyrus entered as liberator from Nabonidus’ moon goddess, Zin
Cyrus’ Successors
530 Cyrus’ son succeeded him (Cambyses II)
530 – 522 Reign of Cambyses (Elephantine Papyri)
Added Egypt in 525 to the Medo-Persian Empire
522 – 486 Darius I came to rule
He organized the Persian Empire along Cyrus’ plan of satraps
He set up coinage like Lydia’s
486 – 465 Xerxes I (Esther)
Put down Egyptian revolt
Intended to invade Greece, but was defeated in the Battle of Thermopoly in 480
Xerxes I was assassinated in 465
480 Battle of Thermopoly
465 – 424 Artaxerxes I Longimanus (Ezra 7-10, Nehemiah, and Malachi)
Greeks continued to advance until confronted with Pelopanisian Wars
Wars lasted about 20 years
During this period the Jewish community is reconstructed
423 – 404 Darius II
Authorized the feast of unleavened bread in the Elephantine Temple
404 – 358 Artaxerxes II
358 – 338 Artaxerxes III
338 – 336 Arses
336 – 331 Darius III

Persian  DynastiesGREECE

359 – 336 Philip II of Macedon built up Greece
He was assassinated in 336
336 – 323 Alexander the Great (Philip’s son)
Routed Darius II at battle of ISUS
He died in 323 in Babylon of a fever after conquering the eastern Mediterranean and the Near East
Alexander’s generals divided his empire at his death:
1. Cassander – Macedonia and Greece
2. Lysimicus – Thrace
3. Selects I – Syria and Babylon
4. Ptolemy – Egypt and Palestine
5. Antigonus – small part of Asia Minor
Seleucids vs. Ptolemies
301 Palestine was under Ptolemy’s rule for 100 years
175 – 163 Antiochus Epiphanes
Wanted to Hellenize Jews, constructed gymnasium
Constructed pagan altars; priests were mistreated
Dec. 13, 168 Hog was slain on the altar by Antiochus Epiphanies. Some consider this to be the abomination of desolation.
167 Mattathias and sons rebel. Mattathias killed. Judas took control.
Judas Maccabeaus wages successful guerilla warfare
Dec. 25, 165 Temple rededicated

RULERS

BABYLON MEDIA

626 – 605 Nabopolassar dies (“Nabu, Protect the Sun”)
625 – 585
Cyrzares
605 – 562 Nebuchadnezzar II
(“Nebo, Protect the Boundary”)
585 – 550
Astyages
562 – 560 Evil Merodack 550
Cyrus II
556 Labaski Marduk
556 – 539 Nabonidus
Belshazzar
539 – Gobiyas

MEDO-PERSIAN

550 – 530 Cyrus II (538 Medo-Persian dominate power called Achaemenian Empire)
530 – 522 Cambyses II (Egypt added and Cyprus)
522 Gaumata or Pseudo, Smerdis (reign 6 months)
522 – 486 Darius I (Hystaspes)
486 – 465 Xerxes I (Esther’s husband)
465 – 424 Artaxerxes I (Ezra and Nehemiah in Palestine)
423 – Xerxes II
424 – 404 Darius II Nothus
404 – 359 Artaxerxes II Mnemon
359 – 338 Artaxerxes III Ochus
338 – 336 Arses
336 – 331 Darius III Codomannus

Greek DynastiesGREEK

359 – 336 Philip II of Macedon
336 – 323 Alexander the Great
323 – Generals divide Empire
1. Cassander – Macedonia
2. Lysimicus – Syria
3. Seleucus I – Syria and Babylon
4. Ptolemy – Egypt
5. Antigonus – Asia Minor (killed in 301 b.c.)
The Ptolemies controlled Palestine, but in 175 – 163 control passed to the Seleucids
175 – 163 Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the eighth Seleucid ruler

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Filed under Daily Biblical Studies for the Soul, Studies in The Book of Isaiah

5 responses to “Kings and Events of the Babylonian, Persian, and Greek Dynasties

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