Category Archives: Authorship of the Bible: Sermon Series

Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus

Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus, Our knowledge of the original text of the Bible comes from ancient hand-written manuscripts. The Old Testament was written in Hebrew, and the New Testament was written in Greek, except for Matthew we now know was written in Hebrew. No one has the original articles, but thousands of ancient copies have been discovered. Since these copies are hand-written, there are variations in spelling, word order, and sentence structure among them. Even though those variations do cause some confusion about the biblical text, most of the manuscript readings are in agreement. Out of about 500 pages in the Greek New Testament, the manuscript variations represent only about half of a page.

The majority of ancient manuscripts contain only small portions of the biblical text, like a book or a portion of a book. Among these manuscripts there are papyrus fragments, which are the remains of the most ancient scrolls, and typically represent only a few pages of text. These papyrus fragments have all been discovered during modern archaeological digs. Another group of manuscripts is the Uncials, which use all capital letters and are written on parchment or vellum, which is a smoother writing surface than papyrus, and allows for curved letters. The Uncial manuscripts were written between the 3rd and 8th centuries and were often bound as pages in a book, or codex, rather than a scroll. A few of these ancient codices have survived intact, giving us a solid view of the Bible used by the ancient church.

Two of the oldest complete (or nearly complete) manuscripts are the Codex Sinaiticus and Codex Vaticanus. They are both written on parchment, and have a large number of corrections written over the original text.

Codex Sinaiticus, also known as “Aleph” (the Hebrew letter א), was found by Count Tischendorf in 1859 at the Monastery of St Catherine on Mount Sinai. Portions of the manuscript were found in the monastery dump, and a larger portion was presented to Tischendorf by one of the monks. It is a large codex, with 400 pages (or leaves) comprising about half of the Old Testament in the Septuagint version and the full New Testament. It has been dated to the second half of the 4th century and has been highly valued by Bible scholars in their efforts to reconstruct the original biblical text. Sinaiticus has heavily influenced the translation work of modern Bible versions. Though it is considered by some scholars to represent an original form of the text, it is also recognized as the most heavily corrected early New Testament manuscript.

Codex Vaticanus, also known as “B,” was found in the Vatican library. It is comprised of 759 leaves and has almost all of the Old and New Testaments. It is not known when it arrived at the Vatican, but it was included in a catalog listing in 1475, and it is dated to the middle of the 4th century. Vaticanus was first used as a source document by Erasmus in his work on the “Textus Receptus.” Because he viewed the text of Vaticanus to be erratic, he seldom followed it when it differed from other Greek texts.

There are varying theories on how these ancient texts should be viewed by modern scholars. On one hand, some believe that the most ancient reading should be followed, as it is closest in time to the original. On the other hand, some believe that the majority should rule. Since there are thousands of ancient manuscripts, they believe we should give precedence to the reading that is represented by the most documents. One issue that is sometimes raised against the majority viewpoint is that many of those documents were written very late (9th-15th century). The answer to this is that many of the early papyrus fragments support the majority reading. Additionally, the question has been raised, “If Vaticanus and Sinaiticus represent the original reading of the text, why are there so few manuscripts that follow their lead?” If they were valued by the early church, you would expect to find many copies made from them, covering a wide period of history. What we actually find is a few early manuscripts which agree with them, but then a disappearance of that text type as we progress through history.

There is much to be learned from examining these and other ancient texts, and they should continue to be highly valued by scholars. While there may be differences in opinion as to how they are to be used, one thing is certain even with their textual variations, they show us that God has preserved His Word through the ages. We may debate the particular wording in a few passages, but the fact remains that over 90 percent of the New Testament text is unanimously supported by all the ancient manuscripts. In those passages where the proper reading is disputed, there is no major doctrinal change, and we can rest assured that we have the accurate, revealed words of God passed down to us. Many may argue this point and when they do, I ask them whether God is Almighty and can preserve His word or is He incapable of preserving His word. As for me I Know He is more that capable of preserving His own Word and thus remains the Word of God! Can I get an Amen?

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What is in the Bible?

What is in the Bible?

Welcome Church,
I continue the series of messages on Authorship of the Bible. Today I will discuss, What is in the Bible?

It is no secret that American culture is becoming increasingly post-Christian.
Recent research reveals that only 23% of Millennials believe that Scripture is truly the Word of God. Another 26% have adopted a liberal interpretation of Scripture by believing that it may contain some of the Word of God but should not be taken literally. In short, less than half of the next generation have any respect for the text of Scripture, and only a small minority of that group believe that it is authoritative.
Consider this data in light of William Edgar’s observation that “…Christians have grown so used to their own language, terms, and culture that they have become isolated from those who surround them” (Reasons of the Heart, 12).
There is a two-fold problem at hand:
1. In our proclamation, we have assumed a Christian worldview on the part of our listeners, and this is a false assumption.
2. As we are communicating poorly, our audience isn’t even listening.

For instance, when speaking of the gospel picture housed in the relationship between a husband and his wife, we must preach (even briefly) an apologetic for God’s definition of marriage. The marriage covenant is one of the clearest pictures of the gospel, and it has practical applications for Christian living. However, it is under assault. So, when preaching on marriage or the picture of the gospel it provides, we must include apologetic elements.

A skeptic in London, in speaking of the Bible, said that it was quite impossible in these days to believe in any book whose authorship is unknown. A Christian asked if the compiler of the multiplication table was known. “No!” he answered. “Then, of course, you do not believe in it.” “Oh yes,” was the skeptic’s reply “I believe in it because it works well.” “So does the Bible,” was the rejoinder. The skeptic had no answer to that.

The late Dr. R. G. Lee, former pastor of the Bellevue Baptist Church in Memphis TN expressed the value of God’s Word in this way:

“The Bible is a book beyond all books as a river is above and beyond a rivulet. The Bible is a book beyond all books as the sun is above and beyond a candle in brightness. The Bible is a book beyond all books as the wings of an eagle is above and beyond the wings of a sparrow. It is supernatural in origin, eternal in duration, inexpressible in value, immeasurable in influence, infinite in scope, divine in authorship, human in penmanship, regenerative in power, infallible in authority, universal in interest, personal in application, and inspired in totality. This is the Book that has walked more paths, travelled more highways, knocked at more doors and spoken to more people in their mother tongue than in other book this world has ever known or will know.”

2 Peter 1:20-21
“Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the Scripture is of any private interpretation, for the prophecy never came by the will of man, but holy men of God spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit.” Before we look closer to this passage, we must first make sure that we fully understand what “prophecy of the Scripture” means. The reason I say this is because the word prophecy is used today almost always for speaking about things of the future. However, this is not the only Biblical usage of this word. Biblically speaking, “to prophesy” means to speak things that come directly from the spiritual ground . Whether what is spoken is about the future or not is not relevant.

Having clarified what prophecy means, we can easily understand what “prophecy of the Scripture” means: it simply means the Bible as a whole, as the sum of the separate prophecies that compose it. Thus, what 2 Peter tells us is that no part of the Bible (“no prophecy of the Scripture”), came by the will of man. This means that it wasn’t Paul for example, who one day decided to sit down and write a letter to Ephesians. If it happened like this, Ephesians would be written by the will of man which the Bible rules out. To find how Paul and the others made their contributions to the Bible we do not have but to continue reading in the same passage. The answer is in the latter part of verse 21 where we are told that the prophecy of the Scripture i.e. the Bible was written by holy men of God who spoke as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. Therefore, who wrote the Bible? Holy men of God. How did they write it? As they were moved by God, Who is the Holy Spirit. So yes Paul, John and the others were the writers of the Bible. But they were not the authors. The author of the Bible is God, who moved people, like Paul, Peter and John to write down what He wanted, what He authored. And if you ask how did God move them, Galatians gives us the answer for the case of Paul which is also the same for all the others: Galatians 1:11-12 “I want you to know, brothers, that the gospel I preached is not something that man made up. I did not receive it from any man, nor was I taught it; rather I RECEIVED IT BY REVELATION…”

The way that God moved those people was not by possession, for God never possesses anybody (I Corinthians 14:32-33). Instead, it was by revelation. In other words, God told Paul what to write and Paul sat down and wrote it. Who therefore wrote Galatians? Paul. Whose ideas, signature and authorship Galatians bears? God’s. Hence, who is the author? God is the author. What were men like Paul and the others that contributed to the Bible? They were the writers that wrote down what the author, God, told them. That’s why the Bible, though it was written by many, has one and the same author: GOD. It is like the director and the secretary. The secretary writes down what the director tells her. Who does the writing? The secretary. Whose ideas it contains? The director’s who thus is the author. And as a director can have many writers, so also God had many writers to write down what He wanted.

All the Bible or Scripture is God-breathed, has God as the author, and it was written by people as they were moved by God i.e. by revelation.

The way that the “stories” of the Bible are different from the stories in your average bookstore. Though the stories are entertaining, they are not given for our entertainment. It might surprise you that I would speak of the Bible as entertaining. Whatever type of literature that you like to read, you will find some of it in the Bible. If you like romance, check out Ruth and the Song of Solomon. If you like stories of war, go into 1 & 2 Kings. If you like intrigue and treachery, examine the book of Judges. If you like adventure, look at Acts, Genesis, Exodus and many other books. If you like philosophy, study the Gospel of John, Ecclesiastes and the letters to the New Testament churches. You will find some entertainment from these books. But they have a different purpose. (1 Cor 10:11 NIV) These things happened to them as examples and were written down as warnings for us, on whom the fulfillment of the ages has come. The purpose for the recording of these events was so that we might learn from the successes and failures of those who have gone before us. They were recorded so that we might get a picture of God and His goodness, and that we might get a picture of ourselves and our sinfulness. They were written that we might understand through the lives and experiences of others that every time man refuses to do things God’s way, man makes a mess of His world. And they were written that we might see that God can be trusted, and that He loves us in spite of ourselves.

The Bible is not a history book. It does not attempt to give us every detail of human history. (John 21:25 NIV) Jesus did many other things as well. If every one of them were written down, I suppose that even the whole world would not have room for the books that would be written. If John had written everything that Jesus said and did, we would have a hard time carrying our Bibles with us to church every Sunday. But what John and the other biblical writers did record is historically accurate and given for one single purpose. (1 John 5:13 NIV) I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life. Every story of the Bible can be summed up in this one statement: God loves you and wants to have a relationship with you. That may be the hardest thing of all to believe. But God said it, and so I believe it. You can expect the promises in the Bible to be fulfilled.

One of the first promises that God ever made was to a man named Abraham. In Gen. 12, God promised him that He would give him descendants as numerous as the stars in the sky and the sand on the seashore. He promised him that He would make him into a great nation. He promised him that He would make his name great. He promised him that in him, all the nations of the earth would be blessed. Abraham believed God’s promise, but he had to wait a long time before that promise was fulfilled. Not until Abraham was 100 years old, and his wife Sarah was 99 years old did they hold a son in their arms. Abraham’s descendants through that son became the nation of Israel. Simeon too was an old man. God had made a promise to him that he would see the Savior of Israel and all mankind before he died. Simeon was one of the first to hold Jesus in his arms. God made a promise to Mary. He promised her that even though she was a virgin, she would give birth to God’s own Son. Mary gave birth to Jesus in a stable. When God says that He is going to do something, you can be sure that it will happen.

What are some of the promises that God has made to you?

You can be a child of God (John 1:12 NIV) Yet to all who received him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God.

You will never be alone (Heb. 13:8) . . . God has said, “Never will I leave you; never will I forsake you.”

You will be forgiven (1 John 1:9 NIV) If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness.

You can have peace (Phil 4:7 NIV) And the peace of God, which transcends all understanding, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus.

You have a home (John 14:2 NIV) In my Father’s house are many rooms; if it were not so, I would have told you. I am going there to prepare a place for you.

You will have success (Josh 1:8 NIV) Do not let this Book of the Law depart from your mouth; meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it. Then you will be prosperous and successful.

Everything will work out for good (Rom 8:28 NIV) And we know that in all things God works for the good of those who love him, who have been called according to his purpose.
This is just a small sampling of the promises that God has made. I hope that you noticed something about these promises as I listed them off for you. Some of the promises that God makes will happen regardless of what we do. But most of them have a requirement that we have to fulfill before we can take advantage of the promise. In order to have forgiveness of sins, we must confess our sins. In order to have peace, we must think about the things that God tells us to think about. In order to be a child of God, we must believe on Jesus and accept Him as the Lord of our lives.

Some of you may be sitting there thinking that God let you down on some promise that He made to you at some point in your life. And because of that supposed failure, you have turned your back on God, or you have refused to trust Him with your life. When you are evaluating God’s performance record on how well He fulfills His promises, you need to ask yourself three questions. One, where did I get the idea that God promised that thing to me? Is it specifically recorded in the Bible? Or is it a feeling that I have – a wish that God would do something special for me?

Second, have I fulfilled the requirements that must happen before this promise can be realized in my life? Have I done what is required of me? If not, then I have no right to expect God to do what He said that He would do. Third, am I giving God the right to fulfill His promise in His own timing? God makes promises, and He will fulfill them, but He will do so when He is ready. Abraham experienced that, and we are experiencing it today. One promise that God made is that His son Jesus is coming back to earth one day. (Acts 1:11 NIV) “Men of Galilee,” they said, “why do you stand here looking into the sky? This same Jesus, who has been taken from you into heaven, will come back in the same way you have seen him go into heaven.” This is one promise that will happen regardless of what we do or fail to do, but it will happen in God’s own timing. (2 Pet 3:4,8-10 NIV) They will say, “Where is this ’coming’ he promised? Ever since our fathers died, everything goes on as it has since the beginning of creation.” But do not forget this one thing, dear friends: With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day. The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise, as some understand slowness. He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance. But the day of the Lord will come . . .

God has filled the Bible with promises to us, but the only way for us to know what those promises are, take advantage of them in our own lives, and receive the peace that they provide is by getting into the Bible and discovering them for ourselves.

Bill was a young man from a wealthy family, and he was getting ready to graduate from high school. Bill lived on the nice side of town where the custom was that graduating seniors received a new car for their graduation gift. Bill and his father had spent months looking at cars trying to pick just the right one. Then, the week before graduation, they found it – the perfect car. Bill could hardly sit still during the graduation ceremonies. He knew what would be waiting for him when he got home. His dad had promised. When Bill got home, he was a little surprised to see that there was no new car in the driveway. But he figured that maybe they had it parked at a neighbor’s house – you know, to make the surprise a little better. You can imagine Bill’s disappointment when his dad handed him a new Bible and told him that was his graduation gift. In anger, Bill threw the Bible down, walked out the door and never again saw his dad alive. Not until his dad’s death did he come back home. After the funeral, Bill was going through his dad’s stuff when he found the Bible that his dad had tried to give him so many years ago. Something was sticking out of it, so he opened it. To his amazement, he discovered a cashier’s check dated on the night of his graduation and made out for the exact amount that he would have needed to purchase that brand new car. Because he refused the Bible, Bill lost out on the promised car and on the relationship that he had with his Dad.

The Bible records all the promises that God has ever made to you. But if you never open the book, you will never be able to take advantage of the promises. What’s worse is that you will never get to enjoy a relationship with the one who made those promises. Especially if you let your intelect get in the way, and try to have the Bible conform to your reasoning! You can expect the promises in the Bible to be fulfilled because God is the one who made the promises.

You can trust the wisdom of the Bible to give you direction. There’s something about being a man that causes us to refuse to ask for directions when there is any possibility that we might be lost. One commercial that I’ve seen recently on TV is of a young guy who is in the car with his girlfriend. They are obviously lost. For the love of the girl, the guy finally agrees to stop at a gas station to ask for directions. He walks into the station and slowly makes his way up to another guy at the counter where he, in a soft, timid voice says, “Can you give me directions? I’m lost.” The guy behind the counter stares at him for a second, dumbfounded that he would admit being lost, and then snickers. When the guy gets back to the car, he’s holding a map and says, “Supposedly these things are supposed to show you where to go.”

God has already given us wisdom in His Word to give us direction. But it’s not direction about how to put a train set together or how to get around town. It’s direction about how to live our lives in such a way that we will receive the most satisfaction and fulfillment from them. (Psa 119:105 NIV) Your word is a lamp to my feet and a light for my path. (Psa 119:130 NIV) The unfolding of your words gives light; it gives understanding to the simple. (Prov 6:23 NIV) For these commands are a lamp, this teaching is a light, and the corrections of discipline are the way to life, (2 Pet 1:19 NIV) And we have the word of the prophets made more certain, and you will do well to pay attention to it, as to a light shining in a dark place, until the day dawns and the morning star rises in your hearts. God’s Word is a lamp to my feet and a light for my path. It tells me where I need to go and what I need to do when I get there.

For several weeks this summer and early fall, we spent time going through the book of Proverbs in the Old Testament. Proverbs is a book recorded by the wisest man who ever lived – Solomon. Solomon observed life and people, and then he took his observations and drew conclusions about what people are like, how foolishly they behave sometimes, and what the proper way for them to deal with the situations they face in life is. Solomon recorded wisdom about the proper way to deal with finances, how to make friends and keep them, how to achieve success, what the real meaning of beauty is, the importance of telling the truth, and the significance of having God as the center of your life.

Sometimes, the reason that we do not follow wise directions is because those directions are not clear. A man called his neighbor to help him move a couch that had become stuck in the doorway. They pushed and pulled until they were exhausted, but the couch wouldn’t budge. “Forget it,” the man finally said. “We’ll never get this in.” The neighbor looked at him quizzically and said, “In?” God’s wisdom is not like that. The directions that He gives are very clear. When he says in Eph 5, “Husbands love your wives as Christ loved the church and sacrificed Himself for her”, that’s pretty clear. And when He says in that same passage, “Wives, submit to your husbands as unto the Lord” & “Children, obey your parents”, that’s pretty clear. But you may say, “There’s a lot in the Bible that I do not understand. There’s a lot of it that is not clear to me.” Join the club. There’s a lot of the Bible that is not clear to me either. But as Mark Twain said, “It’s not the parts of the Bible I don’t understand that trouble me; it’s the parts of the Bible that I do understand.” I have a suspicion that if we spent all of our time doing our best to be obedient to the parts of the Bible that we do understand, that at the end of our lives when we stand before God, we would find that we had done a pretty good job of obeying the parts that we didn’t understand too.

Our problem is not a lack of understanding; it is a lack of obedience. A man and his wife were traveling through town to get to some friends’ house for dinner. They had never been to this particular city, so they had gone to the internet where they found street-by-street directions. Everything went well until they got into the city. [begin to give excuses of why they chose not to turn down certain streets “bad part of town”, “steep hill and it’s starting to snow”, “dirty street – just had the car cleaned”, “saw a billboard ahead that I wanted to get a look at”] The problem was not in the one who gave the directions. The directions were good. The failure was in the ones who had received the directions. They didn’t like what the directions said, so they picked out their own pathway. Those people who refuse to follow the directions that they are given wind up getting very, very lost and are never able to enjoy the relationship with the friends who were waiting for them at the end of their journey.
You can trust the wisdom of the Bible to give you direction because the wisdom comes from God.

You must obey the commands of the Bible to receive God’s blessing.
– Noah and the ark
– Peter and the great catch of fish Luke 5:5 “Master, we’ve worked hard all night and

What is in the Bible?

What is in the Bible?

haven’t caught anything. But because you say so, I will let down the nets.” The result: “When they had done so, they caught such a large number of fish that their nets began to break.”
– Us – “Forsake not the assembling of yourselves together.” “Love your enemies, & pray for those who persecute you” (Mt. 5:44) “You shall have no other gods before me.” (Ex. 20:2)
You must obey the commands recorded in the Bible for you. They come from God.

You must heed the warnings of the Bible to escape God’s wrath.
– Adam and Eve
– Achan and the Israelites
– Unsaved church members (Mt. 7:21-23) “Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but only he who does the will of my Father who is in heaven. Many will say to me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophecy in your name, and in your name drive out demons and perform many miracles?’ Then I will tell them plainly, ‘I never knew you. Away from me, you evildoers.’”
– Revelation is a warning

One day, a little girl picked up a book of poems. They were dry as dust. They meant nothing to her, so she put the book down. Later, she was introduced to a man. She began to become quite interested in him. She learned that he was a poet. Furthermore, she learned that he had written the book of poetry that she had looked at. She went back and picked up that same book of poems, only now she found them very interesting. The difference was that now she knew the author.
Do you know the Author of this Book?

Let’s pray.

Search me O God and know my heart
Test me and know my anxious thoughts
See if there is any offensive way in me and lead me in the way everlasting.

Forgive us for not making you real.
Forgive us for not studying your word as we ought so we mat find you.

Make us real. With a Circumsized and a heart after you!
In Jesus Precious name, Amen.

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Who were the authors of the books of the Bible?

Welcome Church,
I continue the series of messages on Authorship of the Bible. Today I will discuss, Who were the authors of the books of the Bible?

Authorship of the Bible

“Who were the authors of the books of the Bible?”

Ultimately, above the human authors, the Bible was written by God. Second Timothy 3:16 tells us that the Bible was “breathed out” by God. God superintended the human authors of the Bible so that, while using their own writing styles and personalities, they still recorded exactly what God intended. The Bible was not dictated by God, but it was perfectly guided and entirely inspired by Him.

2 Timothy 3:16
“All Scripture is given by inspiration of God….”

The word “Scripture” in the above passage is another name for the book that today we call the Bible. What the above verse tells us is that all the Bible (“all Scripture”), was given by inspiration of God. The phrase “by inspiration of God” is actually one word in the Greek text, the word “theopneustos”. This word is composed by the word “theos” that means God and the word “pneustos” that means breathed. Therefore, when the Bible says that it is “theopneustos” what it means is that it is “God-breathed”, it is God’s conception, God’s idea, God’s inspiration. Hence: Author of the Bible is God who breathed it, inspired it, conceived it, authored it.

The Bible is unique inasmuch as it maintains consistency, harmony, and continuity from cover to cover. It has one message from Genesis to Revelation. Nothing outstanding about that you say… After all most books have one ‘theme’, story line or subject. True! But perhaps the Bible’s uniformity is more than a little curious considering that …

Forty independent writers were used in its compilation.

They wrote over a 1,500 year time span.

They lived in three different continents.. Asia, Africa and Europe. Moses wrote in the desert of Sinai, Paul wrote in a prison in Rome, Daniel from exile in Babylon, and Ezra in the ruined city of Jerusalem.

They spoke and wrote in three different languages

They had twenty different occupations, which included a couple of kings, a general, at least two fishermen, a musician, a priest, a tax collector, a physician etc.

It has a cast of 2,930 characters in 1,551 places.

It covers a huge number of different subjects. Isaiah wrote to warn Israel of God’s coming judgment on their sin, Matthew wrote to prove to the Jews that Jesus is the Messiah, Zechariah wrote to encourage a disheartened Israel who had returned from Babylonian exile, and Paul wrote addressing problems in different Asian and European churches.

It was written under many different circumstances. David wrote during a time of war, Jeremiah wrote at the sorrowful time of Israel’s downfall, Peter wrote while Israel was under Roman domination, and Joshua wrote while invading the land of Canaan.

Its message is expressed in all literary forms (poetry, prose, etc.).

Without possible concert or collusion, they produced a book which, in all its parts, is pervaded by one spirit, one doctrine, one design, and by an air of sublime authority which is its peculiar characteristic. It is amazing that with such diversity, there is such unity in the Bible. That unity is organized around one theme: God’s redemption of man and all of creation. Hundreds of controversial subjects are addressed and yet the writers do not contradict each other.

Such a Book is a Literary Miracle. It is Impossible to Account for its Existence Upon Ordinary Principles.

No other book in history can make the same claim!

Could You Write The Bible?

Say you were going to write a book, and this was how you had to write it: For a start find 40 different writers – totally different writers. Get some who are highly educated, even doctors – then get some farmers. Go dig a guy off a ranch somewhere and say, “I’d like you to help me write a book.” Then find some fishermen. Go down to the wharf and find a couple of guys from San Francisco and say, “Hey! listen help me write a book.” And they say, “Sure, fine… we’ll help you.” And then you get all of them to write on the following things: religion, poetry, ethics, science, philosophy, the creation of the universe and where it’s going – and ask them to throw in a few things about where they think it will all end.

Next, you need to collect all that information, and then… oh, by the way, you have to separate these people so they can’t communicate by phone or telegraph… only possibly word of mouth, passed down over the years. Ah yes, years… you collect all this stuff over about one and a half thousand years, and compile the whole thing in one book. What would you have? I know what you’d have – you’d have the most motley junk you’ve ever seen in your life, with people totally contradicting each other! I suggest you take a biology textbook from 60 years ago, and compare it with one today. And that’s just 60 years! But that’s not what you have when you read your Bible. The more you read this book, the more you see the incredible unity of it. Because the more you get into it, the more incredibly detailed it is, and you find there are not 40 people who wrote it, but One Person.

The Christian’s Charter

This book reveals the mind of God, the state of man, the way of salvation, the doom of sinners, and the happiness of believers. Its doctrines are holy, its precepts are binding, its histories are true, and its decisions are immutable.

Read it to be wise, believe it to be safe, and practice it to be holy.

It contains light to direct you, food to support you, and comfort to cheer you.

It is the traveler’s map, the pilgrim’s staff, the pilot’s compass, the soldier’s sword, and the Christian’s charter.

Here, too, heaven is opened and the gates of hell disclosed.

Christ is its grand subject, our good its design, and the glory of God its end.

It should fill the memory, rule the heart, and guide the feet.

Read it slowly, frequently, prayerfully.

It is a mine of wealth, a paradise of glory, and a river of pleasure.

It is given you in life, will be opened at the judgment, and be remembered forever.

It involves the highest responsibility, will regard the greatest labor, and condemn all who trifle with its sacred contents.

Owned it is riches; studied it is wisdom; trusted it is salvation; loved it is character; and obeyed it is power.

Humanly speaking, the Bible was written by approximately 40 men of diverse backgrounds over the course of 1500 years. Isaiah was a prophet, Ezra was a priest, Matthew was a tax-collector and of the tribe of Levi, John was a fisherman, Paul was a tentmaker, Moses was a shepherd, Luke was a physician. Despite being penned by different authors over 15 centuries, the Bible does not contradict itself and does not contain any errors. The authors all present different perspectives, but they all proclaim the same one true God, and the same one way of salvation—Jesus Christ (John 14:6; Acts 4:12). Few of the books of the Bible specifically name their author. Here are the books of the Bible along with the name of who is most assumed by biblical scholars to be the author, along with the approximate date of authorship:

Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy = Moses – 1400 B.C.
Joshua = Joshua – 1350 B.C.
Judges, Ruth, 1 Samuel, 2 Samuel = Samuel/Nathan/Gad – 1000 – 900 B.C.
1 Kings, 2 Kings = Jeremiah – 600 B.C.
1 Chronicles, 2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah = Ezra – 450 B.C.
Esther = Mordecai – 400 B.C.
Job = Moses – 1400 B.C.
Psalms = several different authors, mostly David – 1000 – 400 B.C.
Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon = Solomon – 900 B.C.
Isaiah = Isaiah – 700 B.C.
Jeremiah, Lamentations = Jeremiah – 600 B.C.
Ezekiel = Ezekiel – 550 B.C.
Daniel = Daniel – 550 B.C.
Hosea = Hosea – 750 B.C.
Joel = Joel – 850 B.C.
Amos = Amos – 750 B.C.
Obadiah = Obadiah – 600 B.C.
Jonah = Jonah – 700 B.C.
Micah = Micah – 700 B.C.
Nahum = Nahum – 650 B.C.
Habakkuk = Habakkuk – 600 B.C.
Zephaniah = Zephaniah – 650 B.C.
Haggai = Haggai – 520 B.C.
Zechariah = Zechariah – 500 B.C.
Malachi = Malachi – 430 B.C.
Matthew = Matthew – A.D. 55
Mark = John Mark – A.D. 50
Luke = Luke – A.D. 60
John = John – A.D. 90
Acts = Luke – A.D. 65
Romans, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 Thessalonians, 2 Thessalonians, 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon = Paul – A.D. 50-70
Hebrews = unknown, mostly likely Paul, Luke, Barnabas, or Apollos – A.D. 65
James = James – A.D. 45
1 Peter, 2 Peter = Peter – A.D. 60
1 John, 2 John, 3 John = John – A.D. 90
Jude = Jude – A.D. 60
Revelation = John – A.D. 90

This article may seem a bit heavy but I believe that we must lay a proper foundation and begin with the basics in order to be based upon the same “rock.”

Jesus is the chief cornerstone. “… built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the chief cornerstone. In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple in the Lord.” Eph. 2:20-21

Romans 10:9 says: “…if you confess with your mouth, Jesus is Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.”

First, I want to make it very clear that The House of the Nazarene is a believer’s church asking everyone to “confess” that Jesus is Lord.

Second, “All Scripture is inspired by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, for training in righteousness; that the man of God may be adequate, equipped for every good work.” 2 Tim. 3:16-17

I have said that I do not like to refer to the events recorded in the Bible as stories. To me, the word “stories” carries with it the idea of myths, fiction, nursery rhymes, and fables. We even use the word to refer to telling lies – “Johnny told a story.” I much prefer to speak of “events” or “historical accounts” when we talk about the happenings of the Bible. Now, I’m not going to get mad at you if you continue to use the word “stories” when referring to the Bible. There may even be times that you catch me using that word. But just remember that the stories recorded in the Bible are unlike any other story in the libraries of the world. You can be 100% sure that they are true to the smallest detail.

I must admit though that if I did not know that the Bible was God’s Word, I would have a hard time believing some of the events that are recorded in it. The Bible records that the whole universe was created in a period of 6 days, and that it was created with nothing but the words of God. It also says that God got so disgusted with the people in His world that He sent a great world-wide flood to destroy it. It says that the water was so deep that it rose 20 feet higher than the tallest mountain. Floating on top of that water was a boat that contained the last 8 people on the face of earth and at least 2 of every kind of land animal on the planet.
The pastor of another church announced that on the following Sunday, he was going to be speaking on Noah and the ark. A couple of mischievous boys noticed something interesting about the passage and decided to play a prank on their pastor. They glued two pages of the pastor’s Bible together. The next Sunday morning, the pastor got up to read his text, but because two pages were glued together, it read a little bit different than he expected. It went something like this: “And Noah took a wife, and she was” – page turn – “450 long, 75 feet wide, and 45 feet tall.” The old pastor stood there stunned for a minute, and then he said, “I have been reading this Bible for 50 years, and there are still some things that I read that are hard to believe.”

The Bible is full of things that are hard to believe: the 10 plagues on Egypt, the parting of the Red Sea, the fall of the walls of Jericho, the day the sun stood still, the strength of Samson, Jonah and the great fish – all things that would fit well into a science fiction movie except for the fact that God said that they happened and that they happened just the way that they are recorded in the Bible. But the hardest story of all to believe is the story of Jesus because it is the one that is the most ridiculous. To think that Jesus, who is Almighty God, would leave behind the splendor of heaven, be born of a virgin, live as fully God and fully man, heal the sick, raise the dead, walk on water, feed the hungry, teach those who would listen, be rejected by those He created, die on a cross as payment for the sins of people who lived 2000 years later, rise from the dead the third day, and be taken back up into heaven – that’s foolishness! (1 Cor 1:23-25 NIV) but we preach Christ crucified: a stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles, but to those whom God has called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ the power of God and the wisdom of God. For the foolishness of God is wiser than man’s wisdom, and the weakness of God is stronger than man’s strength. Whether the pages of the Bible sound foolish to you or not, they are true. You can believe them. You MUST believe them for they are your only hope.

While I was learning the history of the Covenant, the common question of the early founders of the church was repeated many times. It was the question “Where is it written?” The Covenant was founded on the principle that what we believe about God is based upon the scripture rather than tradition, cultural influences or feelings.

The problem comes in where people will take the same passage of scripture and believe it says seemingly diametrically opposing things. This really isn’t the “big” problem. Often in scriptural interpretation the difference is really over our presuppositions. We can come to the text and try to “use” it to make the point of our belief rather than coming to the text and allow it to speak.

Who were the authors of the books of the Bible?

Who were the authors of the books of the Bible?

In order to avoid the “conflict of interest” between our presuppositions and what the text actually says Biblical teachers develop a list of principles that they use in looking at the Bible. Often the meaning of a Bible passage is plain and obvious. When it is not, a few logical principles can be used to help in understanding the passage.

We call this “exegesis.” The Greek word exegeomai means basically “to lead out of.” When applied to the Biblical text, it carries the sense of “reading out” the meaning. The meaning comes from the text. The noun, therefore, could refer to “interpretation” or “explanation.” So whenever we read a passage of scripture we seek to understand and interpret.

Hermeneutics takes this process to the next level and seeks to apply the text into our lives today. Many people use these terms interchangeably.

What does the passage actually say?

Setting: When and where was the book or passage written?
Purpose: Why was it written?
Context: What is the book as a whole about?
Form: How, or in what form, was it written?
Words: What is the meaning of individual words?

Stage Two: EXPLAIN:
What does the passage mean?
What did the passage mean to its original readers?
What is the main point or teaching of the passage?
How does it compare with other, perhaps clearer, Bible passages?

Stage Three: Apply
What does the passage mean today?
What is an equivalent situation today to that of the original readers?
Does the passage have some specific teaching about God, man, the world, the church…?
Is there any action to be taken in the light of the passage?
Does it lead to prayer or praise?

When common sense makes good sense look for no other sense.

These two points of doctrine (believers’ church and Biblical basis) seems basic because it is. This is what the Covenant is founded upon. The Bible was recorded by man, but it was authored by God. It can be trusted in every word and for every need.

Let’s pray.

Search me O God and know my heart
Test me and know my anxious thoughts
See if there is any offensive way in me and lead me in the way everlasting.

Forgive us for not trusting your word.
Forgive us for not studying your word as we ought..

Make us real. With a Circumsized and a heart after you!
In Jesus Precious name, Amen.

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Filed under Authorship of the Bible: Sermon Series, House of the Nazarene's Posts

Where did the KJV Bible come from?

Welcome Church,
I continue the series of messages on Authorship of the Bible. Today I will discuss, Where did the KJV Bible come from?

The process by which we got our Bible is both complex and amazing. The Word of God is truly a wonderful thing and should be cherished.

“Language shapes the way we think, and determines what we can think about.” –Benjamin Lee Whorf (Hebrew Linguist, 1897-1941)

The written Word:

Hebrews 4:12
The Word of God is truly wonderful and beautiful. It is a life changing/giving force.

Exodus 34:27 records God’s words to Moses, “Write down these words, for in accordance with these words I have made a covenant with you and with Israel.”

Original Language:
The Old Testament was written in Hebrew with the exception of:
Ezra 4:8-6:18; 7:12-26; Daniel 2:4-7:28; Jeremiah 10:11
Which were written in Aramaic.

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (1958 first edition) said Hebrew “ceased to be a spoken language around the fourth century BC”.

Now because of Archaeological Evidence, The Dead Sea Scrolls and Josephus, who was a first century Jewish historian which recorded Jewish life and sentiment during the time of the New Testament; In his work Antiquity of the Jews he writes “I have also taken a great deal of pains to obtain the learning of the Greeks, and understanding the elements of the Greek language although I have so long accustomed myself to speak our own language, that I cannot pronounce Greek with sufficient exactness: for our nation does not encourage those that learn the languages of many nations”. (Josephus, Ant.20.11.2)

The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church (1997 third edition) has been changed to say, Hebrew “continued to be used as a spoken and written language in the New Testament period”.

We also now know that the New Testament was originally written in Hebrew and translated into Greek.

With the exception of the book of Matthew written in Hebrew (Shem Tov) we only have Greek manuscript copies (over 6,000 of them including fragments).

Some of the evidence that the New Testament was originally written in Hebrew are things such as Flavius Josephus quote above.

Archaeological Evidence: such as Shimon Ben Kosiba (Simon Bar Kockba) fragment. Kosiba lead the final revolt against the Romans in 135 CE. This fragment is from a letter he wrote to his leaders began by saying, “From Shimon Ben Kosiba to Yeshua Ben Galgoula and to the men of the fort, peace…” This letter was written in Hebrew.

All the coins minted in Israel during the second Temple period include inscriptions written in Hebrew.

Approximately 90% of all the Dead Sea Scrolls are written in Hebrew.

Ancient writings give evidence to the Book of Matthew being originally written in Hebrew:

Papias (150-170 CE) – Matthew composed the words in the Hebrew dialect, and each translated as he was able. [A quote by Eusebius; Eccl. Hist. 3:39]

Ireneus (170 CE) – Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect. [Against Heresies 3:1]

Origen (210 CE) – The first [Gospel] is written according to Matthew, the same that was once a tax collector, but afterwards an apostle of Jesus Christ who having published it for the Jewish believers, wrote it in Hebrew. [A quote by Eusebius; Eccl. Hist. 6:25]

Eusebius (315 CE) – Matthew also, having first proclaimed the Gospel in Hebrew, when on the point of going also to the other nations, committed it to writing in his native tongue, and thus supplied the want of his presence to them by his writings. [Eccl. Hist. 3:24]

Epiphanius (370 CE) – They [The Nazarenes] have the Gospel according to Matthew quite complete in Hebrew, for this Gospel is certainly still preserved among them as it was first written, in Hebrew letters. [Panarion 29:9:4]

Jerome ( 382 CE) – Matthew, who is also Levi, and from a tax collectore came to be an Apostle first of all evangelists composed a Gospel of Christ in Judea in the Hebrew language and letters, for the benefit of those of the circumcision who had believed, who translated it into Greek is not sufficiently ascertained. Furthermore, the Hebrew itself is preserved to this day in the library at Caesarea, which the martyr Pamphilus so diligently collected. I also was allowed by the Nazarenes who use this volume in the Syrian city of Borea to copy it. In which is to be remarked that, wherever the evangelist…. makes use of the testimonies of the Old Scripture, he does not follow the authority of the seventy translators, but that of the Hebrew. [Lives of Illustrious Men, Book 5]

Isho’dad (850 CE) – His [Matthew’s] book was in existence in Caesarea of Palestine, and everyone acknowledges that he wrote it with his hands in Hebrew. [Isho’dad Commentary on the Gospels]

In the Greek text of the New Testament are many Hebrew words and phrases that have been transliterated from the Hebrew language into the Greek language. For example: Matthew (27:46) is a transliterated phrase.

We have no original manuscripts. To-date they are all copies that go back to the originals.

The oldest manuscript to-date was included in the Dead Sea Scrolls; it dates to 150-100 BC. Making it over 1,000 years older than any we had before.

The oldest New Testament manuscript is The Chester Beatty Papyrus II. It contains most of Paul’s letters and was copied in circa, AD 100.

The Masoretic Text (MT) includes many copies of Old Testament books and works dated between AD 500-1000. The MT also includes the Codex Leningradensis: a complete copy of the Hebrew Old Testament dated at AD 1010 (a codex is a bound volume of cut sheets).

This is the source for the majority of Old Testament Bible translation in use today.

The sources for the New Testament use in Bible translations tend to be divided into 2 major categories:

1) The Byzantine or received text (that is, textus receptus).
2) The Alexandrian (modern critical text).

The Byzantine text is “fuller” than the Alexandrian text in the sense that the Byzantine text adds quite a few words here and there, as well as whole clauses, verses, and even two long passages (Mark 16:9-20; John 7:53-8:11) that are not in the Alexandrian text. The Alexandrian texts are much older copies than the Byzantine text are.

The word “canon” comes from the Greek “κανών” (kanon), meaning “rule” or “measuring stick”.

Some considerations for Canonization are:
1. Is it authoritative? 2. Is it prophetic? 3. Is it authentic?
4. Is it dynamic? 5. Was it received, collected, read and used?

Some of the books that are in our Bible were contested as late as 300 or 400 CE. They were: Ezekiel, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon and Esther.

Many books were rejected for both the Old and New Testament.

For example: The Old Testament Apocrypha [hidden books] (1st and 2nd Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, 1st and 2nd Maccabees, etc.)

There was no New Testament as we know it for the first 300 years of the Church’s history.

There were more than 10 Gospels including Matthew, Mark, Luke and John (For example: Gospel of Peter, Gospel of Hebrews, etc.). Of course they have all been rejected except for the four.

Irenaeus writes in Adversus Haereses: “The Gospels could not possibly be either more or less in number than they are. Since there are four zones of the world in which we live, and four principal winds…”

Books listed as disputed by Eusebius were Hebrews, James, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, Jude, and Revelation.

The earliest exact reference to the `complete’ New Testament, as we now know it, was in the year 367 CE, in the Easter Letter by Athanasius.

Some of the New Testament books such as Jude and Revelation, etc. were still being disputed in the 1500’s by reformers like Luther and Calvin.

Side note: The New Testament never quotes from the Song of Solomon, Ecclesiastes and Esther.

It is interesting to note that the Bible makes reference to several books that are not included in the Bible:

Book of the Covenant
Exodus 24:7 “And he took the book of the covenant, and read in the audience of the people: and they said, All that the LORD hath said will we do, and be obedient.”

Book of the Wars of the Lord
Numbers 21:14 “Wherefore it is said in the book of the wars of the LORD, What he did in the Red sea, and in the brooks of Arnon,”

Book of Jasher
Joshua 10:13 “And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day.”
2 Samuel 1:18 “(Also he bade them teach the children of Judah the use of the bow: behold, it is written in the book of Jasher.)”

The Manner of the Kingdom (Also called the Book of Statutes)
1 Samuel 10:25 “Then Samuel told the people the manner of the kingdom, and wrote it in a book, and laid it up before the LORD. And Samuel sent all the people away, every man to his house.”

Acts of Solomon
1 Kings 11:41 “And the rest of the acts of Solomon, and all that he did, and his wisdom, are they not written in the book of the acts of Solomon?”

The Chronicles of King David
1 Chronicles 27:24 “Joab the son of Zeruiah began to number, but he finished not, because there fell wrath for it against Israel; neither was the number put in the account of the chronicles of king David.”

Book of Samuel the Seer, Nathan the Prophet, Book of Gad the Seer
1 Chronicles 29:29 “Now the acts of David the king, first and last, behold, they are written in the book of Samuel the seer, and in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the book of Gad the seer,”

Prophecy of Abijah, Visions of Iddo the Seer
2 Chronicles 9:29 Now the rest of the acts of Solomon, first and last, are they not written in the book of Nathan the prophet, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of Iddo the seer against Jeroboam the son of Nebat?

Shemaiah the Prophet, Iddo Genealogies
2 Chronicles 12:15 “Now the acts of Rehoboam, first and last, are they not written in the book of Shemaiah the prophet, and of Iddo the seer concerning genealogies? And there were wars between Rehoboam and Jeroboam continually.”

Story of Prophet Iddo
2 Chronicles 13:22 “And the rest of the acts of Abijah, and his ways, and his sayings, are written in the story of the prophet Iddo.”

Book of Jehu
2 Chronicles 20:34 “Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, first and last, behold, they are written in the book of Jehu the son of Hanani, who is mentioned in the book of the kings of Israel.”

Acts of Uziah
2 Chronicles 26:22 “Now the rest of the acts of Uzziah, first and last, did Isaiah the prophet, the son of Amoz, write.”
Sayings of the Seers

Sayings of the Seers
2 Chronicles 33:19 “His prayer also, and how God was intreated of him, and all his sin, and his trespass, and the places wherein he built high places, and set up groves and graven images, before he was humbled: behold, they are written among the sayings of the seers.”

Epistle to Corinth
1 Corinthians 5:9 “I [Paul] wrote unto you in an epistle not to company with fornicators:”

Epistle to the Ephesians
Ephesians 3:3 “How that by revelation he made known unto me the mystery; (as I wrote afore in few words,”

Epistle from Laodicea to the Colossians
Colossians 4:16 “And when this epistle is read among you, cause that it be read also in the church of the Laodiceans; and that ye likewise read the epistle from Laodicea.”

Book of Enoch
Jude 1:14 “And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints,”

It is also interesting to note that there are some quotes in the Bible for which we do not know their extra-Biblical source:

Matthew 2:23 “And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene.”

John 7:38 “He that believeth on me, as the scripture hath said, out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water.”

James 4:5 “Do ye think that the scripture saith in vain, The spirit that dwelleth in us lusteth to envy?”

Then on the other side of that coin we have some extra-Biblical quotes that we know their source:

Hebrews 1:3 – (Wisdom of Solomon 7:25-26)
Hebrews 11:35- ( Refers to 2 Maccabees 6-7)
James 1:19 – (Ecclesiasticus 5:11)

The Apostle Paul liked to quote from extra-Biblical sources:
In Acts 26: 13, he quotes a line from a play by Aeschylus (525-456 BC) called, Agamemnon. He quotes the phrase: “It is hard for you to kick against the pricks [goads]”.

In Acts 17:28 he quotes from the poem Cretica, written by Epimenides in the 6th century BC (the poem is applied to Zeus). He quotes the phrase: “in him we live and move and have our being”. Paul then adds “your own poets have said, For we are also his offspring.” This is a direct quote from the Stoic thinker Aratus [Phainomena], (Aratus ascribes the origin of humanity to Zeus).

In 1 Corinthians 15:33, he quotes a line from Euripedes’ play Aiolos (“evil communications corrupt good manners.”); this line also appears in a play called Thais by Menander.

In Titus 1:12, Paul quotes the poet Epimenides who says “Cretians are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies.” (The lie Epimenides referred to was the claim that Zeus was mortal, which was apparently believed by many of the Cretes of that day).

The English Bible
The History of England at that time:

Between Tyndale’s Bible (1523) and the King James Bible (1611) there were 7 English editions in this 90 year period.

During this time England will shift from Catholicism to a form Protestantism. Also the English language is evolving.

Then from the King James Bible until the 1880’s and then till the 1950’s there are no significant English translations.

The KJV has gone through several editions. Reading the 1611 edition is difficult to say the least.
John 3:16 [1611 edition]: “For God so loued þe world, that he gaue his only begotten Sonne: that whosoeuer beleeueth in him, should not perish, but haue euerlasting life.”

King Henry the 7th was the first Tudor King and Queen Elizabeth the 1st is the last Tudor. The English monarchy of today is of the House of Stuart.

Henry the 7th defeated the previous King Richard the 3rd (They just recently uncovered his remains under a parking lot).

Henry the 8th is Henry the 7th son.

Henry the 8th did not care for the Pope’s, yet he was very Catholic.
He opposed Luther’s attack from Germany on the Catholic Church. In response he wrote a book in 1521 called A Defense of the Seven Sacraments.

Because of this, the Pope gave Henry the 8th the title, “Defender of the Faith”. The Monarchy maintains this title even today.

Henry the 8th marries many times. His first wife was Catherine of Aragon. They hand a child, Mary the first who was married to Philip King of Spain.

Catherine was not able to produce a male heir so he divorced her.
He then marries Ann Bolyen and they have a daughter, Elizabeth the 1st.

He keeps marring and final had a male heir with Jean Seymour, Edward.

In 1534 he passes a law that makes him the head of the Church called, The Act of Supremacy. Making the Monarch leader of the Church of England. In 1535 He passed laws making it illegal to proclaim the Pope has power over the Monarchy.

In 1545 he issues his own Catechism (Henry’s Catechism).

4 of the 7 English Bible are going to come into existence under Henry the 8th reign. (Tyndale 1523, Coverdale 1535, Matthew’s 1537, Great Bible 1539).

After Henry the 8th Edward the 6th born in 1537 and died 1553. Henry died in 1547 and Edward is 10 years old.

During this time Thomas Cranmer Archbishop Canterbury was a major proponent of the Reformation. He created two things: 1) He is the author of the book of Common prayer in 1548. 2) He also wrote the 39 Articles (Doctrinal statements of the Church of England).

Edward the 6h had no heirs, so the next in line for the thorn was his two half-sisters, Mary and Elizabeth. Both of them had been exiled by their father.

Edward appointed Mary Jane Gray to rule in his stead. She was to be married to Edward before he died, but died before that could happen. She ruled for 9 days.

Mary became queen in 1553 and Mary Jane Gray and her supports are put to death. She was known as Bloody Mary. She so hated her Father for the way he treated her Mother and put her to death that she attacked his religion. She appoints Reginald Pole as Archbishop of Canterbury. He was the last Catholic to hold that position.

She was so violent against the Protestants that they either had to leave the country or die. (For example: she called a meeting between a large number of Protestants and herself to discuss. It was a ruse and she put them all to death).

After Mary the 1st, Elizabeth the 1st reigned from 1558 to 1603. She was called the virgin queen (not because she was, rather because she never had any offspring). Two English Bibles come into existence while she is in power: The Geneva Bible (she never had anything to do with, nor did she oppose it) and The Bishop’s Bible 1568 (she never sanctioned it as she saw it was a lesser work than the Geneva Bible). While in power she undid what Mary the 1st had done and restored the Church of England to power.

Mary Queen of Scots was Catholic and as the Reformation was full blaze in Scotland at this time with men like John Knox she had to advocate the thorn in favor of her son James the 6th who had been raised a Protestant. Mary Queen of Scots went to Mary the 1st for help. Instead of helping her, she put her to death.

In 1603 Elizabeth died with no heirs, as a result James the 6th becomes King of England. He then becomes James the 1st… i.e. King James.
The KJV Bible was authorization by James the 1st. It took about 30 or 40 years before the KJV replaced the Geneva Bible as the Bible of choice. The Geneva Bible is the Bible that came over on the Mayflower. It is also the Bible that is quoted by the Founding Fathers of this great country.

Editions of the Bibles:

Coptic Bible. (180 A.D.) Early translations of the New Testament from Greek into Latin, Syriac, and Coptic.

Old Latin Bible. (195 A.D.) The first translation of the Old and New Testaments into Latin. Both Testaments were translated from the Greek.

The Septuagint (LXX). (250 B.C.) The Old Testament Hebrew translated into Greek for the Library of Alexander.

Old Syriac Bible. (300 A.D.) The Old Syriac was a translation of the New Testament from the Greek into Syriac.

The Vulgate Bible. (382 A.D.) The Roman Catholic Church was completely dedicated to the Latin Vulgate Bible. The Vulgate was created by Jerome. He was very anti-Jewish, yet he used Hebrew sources rather than the Septuagint (LXX) for the Old Testament and Greek sources to translate the New Testament.

Wycliffe Bible. (1382/1383) John Wycliffe’s (1310/1320 to 1384) Bible was technically the first English Bible. However it was translated from the Latin Vulgate instead of going back to the Greek. His Bible was composed of just the Gospels. He had poor English because he thought in Latin. He dies in 1384. 30 years later at the Council of Constance in 1414 at the Catholic Church ruled him a hereticfor translating the Bible into English. In-turn they dug up his body and burned his remains on a wooden stake and his ashes were dumped into the ocean.

The Gutenberg Press was invented in 1448 forever changing the world.

Gutenberg Bible. (1456) Gutenberg produced the first printed Bible in Latin.

The Greek New Testament. (1514) The Greek New Testament was printed for the first time by Erasmus. He based his Greek New Testament from only five Greek manuscripts, the oldest of which dated only as far back as the twelfth century. With minor revisions, Erasmus’ Greek New Testament came to be known as the Textus Receptus or the “received texts.”

The Polyglot Bible. (1522) The Polyglot Bibles Old Testament was in Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, and Latin and the New Testament in Latin and Greek. Erasmus used the Polyglot to revise later editions of his New Testament. Tyndale made use of the Polyglot in his translation on the Old Testament into English

Luther’s Bible. (1522) Martin Luther translated the Bible into German from the Hebrew and Greek. This became an inspiration to William Tyndale to engage in his translation into English.

Tyndale New Testament. (1523) William Tyndale lived from 1494 until 1536. He wanted to produce an English Bible. He tries to go through proper channels to get permission. When this failed he decided to break the law and translate from the Hebrew and Greek. He became an outlaw. In his translation he changed the word Church to congregation; Charity as Love; Priest as Elder (first edition he used senior); and the phrase do Penance as Repent. His primary purpose was to put the Word of God into the hands of the common man.

Tyndale also wrote The Practice of Prelates; in which he attacked Henry the 8th marriages and divorces. In the end Henry the 8th order Tyndale to be arrested and brought to him. However, the ones who captured him put him on trial killed him (first by strangling him and then burring him at the stake). His last words were a prayer, “Lord, open the King of England’s eyes.” His execution made Henry angry.

Coverdale Bible. (1535) Miles Coverdale lived from 1488 to 1569. He translated Luther’s German Bible into English. Henry the 8th allowed it to be used until The Great Bible was ready.

Matthews Bible. (1537)Thomas Matthews (his real name was John Rogers). Henry the 8th approved the use of the Matthews Bible in the Church of England until The Great Bible was ready. The Matthews Bible was the completion of Tyndale’s Bible.

The Great Bible. (1539) This was the first authorization Bible. It was authorized by Henry the 8th. The work was over saw by Miles Coverdale. It was also known as the Chained Bible.

Note: Before Henry the 8th died, he decreed that only the Great Bible could be used; so they destroyed many of the other Bibles. That is why there is so few original copies left today of the Tyndale and Coverdale, etc. Bibles.

Geneva Bible. (1560) Created by Reformers, in Geneva; who had fled there for safety from the oppression of Bloody Mary. This was the first Study Bible.

Bishops Bible. (1568) Created because Queen Elizabeth and her Archbishop Matthew Parker did not like the study notes had the Bishop
Bible created. This was the first Bible created by a committee as oppose to it being the work of one person.

Holy Bible: Authorised 1611 Version

Holy Bible: Authorised 1611 Version

King James Bible. (1611) King James authorized the revision of the Bishops Bible. However, the committee soon realized that they could not fix it and would have to re-translate it. The King James translators of the New Testament used the Textus Receptus as the basis for their translations. The KJV dominated the Church world for the next 400 years and still does.

II Timothy 3:16 “All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:”

interpretation. 21- For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.”

Philippians 2:9 “Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him [Jesus], and given him a name which is above every name:”

II Peter 1:20-21 “20- Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. 21- For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.”

Philippians 2:9 “Wherefore God also hath highly exalted him [Jesus], and given him a name which is above every name:”

Psalm 138:2 “…for thou hast magnified thy word above all thy name.”

Now if you were asked, “Where did the KJV Bible come from?” Would you be able to answer? And what would your answer be?

Let’s pray.

Search me O God and know my heart
Test me and know my anxious thoughts
See if there is any offensive way in me and lead me in the way everlasting.

Forgive us for putting on a show.
Forgive us for being concerned with externals when what you really care about it our hearts.

Make us real. With a Circumsized and a heart after you!
In Jesus Precious name, Amen.

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