Category Archives: Hebrew Apocalypse of Enoch or the Book of the Palaces

The Third Book of Enoch Chapter Notes (Part 2 of 2)

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 27.

(1) Bom.
(2) E: ‘Dāryō’el’ D marks, through vowel points, the
pronunciation ‘Radweriel’, which is adopted above.
(3) E om.
(4) D om.
(5) D om.
(6)so E. A corr: ‘gives’
(7) so DE. A (seemingly): ‘before the Holy One, blessed be He,
the Great One’
(8) E: ‘Dāryō’el’
(9) E: ‘they utter’
(10) E: ‘him’

Ch. xxvii, although belonging to the same angelological
section as the preceding chapters, leaves the subject of the
angels of the Merkaba and the princes appointed over them
and approaches the subject of the Judgement, already alluded
to by the last verse of the aforegoing chapter. It treats of
RADWERIEL, the heavenly registrar, the keeper of the Case of
Writings, of which the most important is ‘the Book of Records’.
On ‘the Book of Records’ the Judgement is to be based.
(1) Radweriel H’. The name is, so far as is known to the
present writer, an áπαξ-λεγóμενον. So is also the reading
of E: ‘Daryoel’. But it seems very probable that there exists a
connection as well with regard to name as function between
RADWERIEL here and the ‘VRETIL’ of 2 En. xxii. n, 12 (and
xxiii): “And the Lord called one of his archangels, by name
Vretil, who was more wise than the other archangels and wrote
down all the doings of the Lord. And the Lord said to Vretil,
‘Bring forth the books from my store-places, and give a reed to
Enoch and interpret to him the books’ etc.”

The affinities between this and the features represented in the
present chapter are obvious. 2 En.: VRETIL, an archangel,
more wise than the other archangels here: RADWERIEL, above
the Seraphim, the highest of the Merkaba-angels, exalted
above all the Princes etc.; 2 En.: VRETIL brings forth the books
from God’s store-places here: RADWERIEL is appointed over
the treasuries of the books and fetches forth the ‘ Case of
Writings with the Book of Records’.
The derivation of the words ‘RADWERIEL’ or ‘VRETIL’ is
uncertain: from the ευρρειτης (thus signifying ‘fluent
speech, fluent reading’?). Cf. vs. 3. He may originally have
had the function, here assigned to the scribes, of ‘reading the
books before the Great Beth Din in heaven’.
(2) Case of Writings. The Hebrew word, here translated ‘Case’,
is used in this sense in TB. Sofa, 22 d, Meg. 26 b et al., also
Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, letter Qoph.

Book of Records (or ‘of remembrance’). On the three main
lines of conceptions of the ‘books’ at the Judgement cf. note
on ch. xviii. 24. The ‘book of records’ evidently is conceived
of as recording all the deeds of the inhabitants of the world
relevant to the issues at the Judgement. The Book of Records
is the basis of the Judgement also acc. to the liturgical prayer ‘
ונתנה תקץ ‘ (“and thou wilt remember all that is forgotten, and
wilt open the Book of Records”).
takes out the books. The plural might either refer to other
books besides and inclusive of the Book of Records or be due
to a confusion between two traditions, one knowing one ‘Book’
only, the other speaking of ‘the books’. The second tradition is
represented, e.g. in 4 Ez. vi. 20, Ap. Bar. xxiv. i, Rev. xx.
12, not to mention Dan. vii. 10.

gives them… to the scribes, that they may read them. A
similar situation, with the same expressions, is pictured in the
Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, letter Qoph, only with the difference that it
there takes place at the court of the Pharaoh. The illustrative
features are borrowed from the writer’s ideas of the
proceedings at a royal court.
The Great Beth Din or Sanhedrin or Court of Justice. Cf. chh.
xxviii. 9 and xxx. i. The Sanhedrin on earth had its
counterpart in heaven, the Beth Din Shelma’ala under the
presidency of the Most High himself. The members of the Beth
Din on high were the highest angels, according to ch. xxx
evidently the seventy-two princes of kingdoms together with
the Prince of the World, acc. to ch. xxviii. 9, presumably, the
‘Irin and Qaddishin (cf. notes, ad loco). See also Hek. R. v. 3,
BH. iii. 87.

Concerning the conception of ‘Scribes’ cf. on ch. xxxiii. 2.
acc. to some passages, there is only one ‘Scribe’ as such : e.g.
ch. xxxiii. 2 (in the reading of E) and Hek. R. v. i. acc. to
chh. xviii. 23-25 and xxxiii. 2 (in the adopted reading) the
Scribes are two in number. They record the deeds of the
inhabitants of the world in the ‘books’, and also write down the
divine decrees (Hek. R. v. i). Here they are even more
represented as reading what is written in the books before the
Beth Din (cf. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, letter Qoph, referred to above).
The last function was perhaps, as already suggested, originally
assigned to VRETIL-RADWERIEL: in 2 En. xxii. 12, VRETIL is
asked to “interpret to him (Enoch) the books”.

(3) Why is he called Radweriel? Because out of every word
that goes forth from his mouth an angel is created. This
explanation of the name presupposes the form ‘DIBBURIEL’ or
‘DABARIEL’. The form ‘DABAR YAH’ is found in a MS. acc. to
Schwab, VA. The derivation is perhaps a mere construction on
the part of the writer. Exchanging ‘ W’ for ‘B’ he reads ‘Ra-
Dabariel’ or ‘Radibbnriel’, regarding the ‘Ra’ as an epenthesis.
The ascribing to an angel-prince of the faculty of creating an
angel by the ‘word of his mouth’ is rather singular. Such a
statement is otherwise made of God, e.g. ch. xl. 4, Chag. 14
a, Gen. R. Par. Ixxviii, Lam. R. on iii. 23. It would seen that
the present passage could be made to refer to ‘RADWERIEL’
only on the assumption that it is one of the different names of
the Godhead, and not the name of an angel. The whole of vs.
3 might have been adduced from a treatise on the Divine
Names. The instances where the same name at one time or in
one writing is represented as the name of an angel,

and in
another as one of the names of the Godhead, are frequent in
the cabbalistic literature. Cf. the case of ‘TAG’AS’, note on ch.
xviii. 5; the ‘Pardes’ (quoted YR. i. 90 a) discusses the
“Akatriel’ of Ber. 7 a, rejecting the view that it is the name of
the Most High, and maintains that “Akatriel’ is “a Prince on
high”. he stands etc. The ‘he’ probably refers to the created
angel. in the songs. The Hebrew here might be translated ‘in
the service’ instead of ‘in the songs, i.e. in the singing
company’ of the ministering angels. But the latter is
presumably the correct interpretation. The exact meaning is:
‘he stands and sings the songs (shiroth as a technical term)
which the ministering angels sing’. Cf. Gen. R. Ixxviii: “God
creates every day a new order of angels who utter a song,
etc.” See note on ch. xl. 4. On RADWERIEL vide Introd. sect.
13 A (6).

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 28.

(1) E om.
(2) so D, A uncertain, corr.; perhaps:’is the place of the Throne
(Beth ha-kKisse)’
(3) so DE. A: ‘like unto, similar to’
(4) E: ‘Shekina’
(5) here the parallel of D breaks off.
(6) A om.
(7) E ins. ‘as judge’
(8) E: ‘Presence’
(9) E om.
(10) so E. A corr.: ‘and he is wholly lifted up’
(11) so with E. A has a lacuna.
(12) E om., thus reading ‘others execute the sentences etc.’
(13) A lacuna.
(14) A lacuna.
(15) .Eom.

(1) ‘Irin and Qaddishin, i.e. the Watchers and the Holy Ones.
The ‘Irin and the Qaddishin are acc. to the present
angelological system at the summit of the hierarchy of angels.
They form the council of the Most High (vs. 4), have executive
power over the terrestrials (vs. 6) and, acc. to the latter part
of the chapter, they assist at the forensic as well as retributive
judgement, being both ‘court-officers’ and executors of the
Divine decrees. The ‘Irin are mentioned in i En. (as
‘Watchers’), alone or together with the Qaddishin (= ‘Holy
Ones’) in chh. vi-xvi, xix, Ixxxvi et al. In 2 En. they appear as
the ‘Grigori’, ib. xviii. The expression ‘Holy Ones’ occurs
frequently in i En. (chh. ix. 3, xii. 2, xiv. 23, xxxix. 5, xlvii.
2, Ivii. 2, Ix. 4, Ixi. 8, 10, 12, Ixv. 12, Ixix. 13, Ixxi. 8, Ixxxi.
5, cvi. 19. Vide CHARLES, i En. Index n,

“Angels, the holy
ones”). In ch. ix. 3 it refers to the four archangels or
‘Presences’, in ch. Ixxxi. 5 to the seven archangels, in ch.
xlvii. 2 possibly to the Chayyoth, in chh. xxxix. 5, Ix. 4, Ixi.
8, Ixv. 12 to the angels or ‘children of heaven’ in general, the
distinction from other classes of angels or as a definite class
being uncertain, as is the case also with chh. Ivii. 2 and Ixxi.
8. Of special interest here are ch. xii. 2 (“watchers and the holy ones”), ch. xiv. 23 (“the most holy ones who were nigh to

him did not leave by night [= watchers] nor depart from him”).
These passages indicate a conception of the ‘Irin and
Qaddishin as a special class of angels, intimately connected
with each other, and hence show affinity with the
presentations of our chapter. Cf. also ch. Ixix. 13.
As regards the ‘Watchers’ we meet with two different traditions
in i En. One, the more prominent, is embodied in chh. vi-xvi,
xix, Ixxxvi, represents the watchers as fallen angels,
identifying them with “the sons of God” (Gen. vi). The other
view agrees with that of the present chapter in placing the
Watchers near the Divine Presence and is represented in chh.
xii. 2, xiv. 23, Ixi. 12 (“those who sleep not above in heaven”
= ‘the Watchers’) and, possibly, ch. cvi. 19. (Cf. however,
CHARLES’S distinction in Pseudepigrapha (A and P. 11), p.
188, note 5.)

Notice the expression, i En. xx. i: “the holy angels who
watch”, with reference to the seven archangels. The names
and conception are, of course, deduced from Dan. iv. 14 (10).
See vss. 4, 8 and 9 here. The present interpretation of the
said passage in Daniel is, however, by no means the general
one. Cf. the commentaries.
(2) their dwelling is over against the Throne of Glory… over
against the Holy One… the brilliance of their dwelling is a
reflection of… the Throne etc. This is best paralleled by what
is said with regard to Metatron, chh. vii, x. i seq., xlviii 04, 5,7.
These expressions will presumably convey the exclusive
position of the ‘Irin and Qaddishin. They are depicted as
having their abode at the very top of the hierarchical structure:
face to face with the Throne of Glory and the Shekina. For ‘the
splendour of Shekina’ see note on ch. v. 4. Ch. xxii. 7 and
13, the splendour of Shekina is said to be on the face of
KERUBI’EL, resp. the Kerubim. But there the splendour of
Shekina is received from above; ‘the Shekina is resting upon
them’, ib. 13.

(3) they are glorified by the glory of the Divine Majesty and
praised by the praise of Shekina. The glorification and praise
directed towards the Shekina are reflected also on the ‘Irin and
the Qaddishin, owing to their near association with the
Godhead.

(4) the Holy One, blessed be He, does nothing… without first
consulting them. Cf. TB. Sanh. 38 b: “the Holy One, blessed
be He, doeth nothing without consulting the heavenly
household, as it is written (Dan. iv. 17): ‘The sentence is by
the decree of the watchers etc.’ What in Talmud is applied to
the angels in general (‘the heavenly household’) is here
referred to the definite class of angels called ‘Irin and
Qaddishin. The idea of God consulting the angels is common
in Rabbinic: “when God wished to create the first Adam, he
took counsel with the ministering angels” (e.g. Gen. R. viii.
4). The important feature here is that the function of Divine
counsellors is limited to a specified class of angels; and this is
evidently due to the attempt to systematize, characteristic to
the present section. Of necessity the advising function could
be ascribed to none but the highest class of angelic beings.

(5) The ‘Irin are two and the Qaddishin are two. The ‘Irin and
Qaddishin are acc. to this verse only four in number. In vs. 9
they must be conceived of as being a larger number. The
‘Holy Ones’, i En. ix. 3, are four, being identified with ‘the four
Presences, MIKAEL, URIEL, RAPHAEL and GABRIEL’. Otherwise
the “Watchers (and Holy Ones)” of i En. are numerous: acc. to
ch. vi. 6 they are 200. There might possibly be some
connection between the passage i En. ix. 3 and the present
vs. (traces of the same tradition?). Cf. note on ch. xxviii. 9.
(6) And ever do they exalt the humble. A seems to read: ‘And
they make high the world’, abase… those that are proud and…
exalt… those that are humble. This idea is deduced from Dan.
iv. 17: “the most High ruleth in the kingdom of men, and
giveth it to whomsoever he will, and setteth up over it the
basest of men”, which follows after the words cited in support
of the conception of the ‘Inn and Qaddishin. What there is said
with reference to God has been transferred to the ‘Irin and
Qaddishin, the counsellors and executors of the Divine
decrees. Cf. ch. xlviii c 9.

CHAPTER 28-33. 2.

The Divine Judgement and the Heavenly Tribunal.

With vss. 7-10 of the present chapter (xxviii) a certain change
in character is noticeable. The main difference is that the
systematic exposition of the aforegoing part, with its specific
manner of expression seems to be ended. The theme which
already from ch. xxvi. 12 has begun to verge into the
conceptions of the Judgement is henceforth (till ch. xxxiii. 3)
altogether absorbed in the different aspects of the Divine
Judgement, the heavenly assize and the execution of the
Divine decrees.

But, in contrast to the preceding angelological
section, this section reveals no clearprogressive structure in
the treatment of its subject, but leaves rather the impression
of a complex of culled fragments from the different traditions
of the proceedings at the Divine Court of Justice. A divergence
in the present vss. of ch. xxviii from the preceding has
already been referred to: the ‘Irin and Qaddishin are in vs. 5
said to be four in number, vs. 9 presupposes a considerably
larger number. Chh. xxix and xxx furthermore maintain the
identity of the ‘Irin and Qaddishin with the seventy-two princes
of kingdoms. (Ace. to the angelological section the 72 princes
of kingdoms probably occupy a comparatively low place in the
angelic hierarchy, see note on ch. xvii. 8.)

For divergences within the section notice e.g. (i) ch. xxviii. 7,
the books on which the judgement is to be based are ‘the
Books of the Living and the Books of the Dead;’ ch. xxx. 2
speaks only of ‘the book in which all the doings of the world
are recorded’ ; and ch. xxxii. i of ‘the book’: (2) chh. xxxi. i
and xxxiii. i, two different representations of the same idea:
the relation between the agencies of Justice and Mercy at the
Judgement (esp. from the point of view of mediation between
them). For the different conceptions of the Judgement cf. also
the Introduction, sect. 16.

(7) every day as the Holy one… is sitting upon the Throne of
Judgement, i.e. every day, at the time when. The judgement
here is daily. Cf. the dictum of R. Yose, Tosephta Rosh ha
Shana, i, “man is judged every day”. It is both forensic and
retributive. The cases (vss. 8, 9) refer to the continual
happenings in the daily life of man (and the world in general),
and the decrees are executed immediately.
the Books of the Living and the Books of the Dead. Cf. ch.
xviii. 23 seq. In view of the character of the Judgement as
daily, the Books of the Dead are here probably of the same
significance as in ch. xviii. 24; they record the time destined
for every man’s death. The Books of the Living may be the records of the time destined for a man’s entering life on earth,

but are perhaps also conceived of as recording the deeds
(merits and transgressions) of the living (= the Book of
Records, chh. xxx. 2, xxvii. 2). Throne of Judgement…
garment is white as snow etc. This is deduced from Dan. vii.
9. The Throne of Judgement as a conception plays a prominent
part in i En. xc. 20, xlv. 3, Iv. 4, Ixi. 8, Ixix. 27 (only in the
first of these instances, however, called “the Throne of
Judgement”, in the others “the Throne of Glory”), also 4 Ez. vii.
33 (“And the Most High shall be revealed upon the throne
ofjudgement”). See BOX, Ezra-Apocalypse, p. 118.
(8) And those ‘Irin and Qaddishin are standing before him like
court officers before the judge. acc. to Mass. Hek. “seven
court-officers are sitting on seven thrones ” before the Holy
One. A quotation, YR. L 7 a, from the writings of Eleazar of
Worms treats of the “seven court officers (shoterim) in heaven
by whose demand every decree is executed, whether for good
or for evil, abundance or privation, war or peace”.
they raise and argue… and close the case.

The cases include
all different issues arising from the course of the daily life of
the inhabitants on earth. acc. to Ex. R. xxxi, angels act as
defensors and accusers of man at the judgement: “when a
man has committed a transgression and stands before God to
receive judgement, then some angels plead in his defence,
others accuse him guilty”.
(9) Some of them argue and others pass the sentence… some
of them make the requests… some close the cases… others
finish by… executing the sentences. Cf. Sa’adya’s
commentary on Dan. iv. 17: “The ‘Irin are the Holy Angels of
anger and fury who pass the sentence”. (Notice, by the way,
how Sa’adya represents the angels in question as one class
only, called ‘Irin, regarding the ‘Qaddishin = Holy Ones’ as an
attribute further, how he identifies them with “the angels of
anger and fury” usually but another name for the ‘angels of
destruction’, cf. note on ch. xxxi. 2.) Cf. also Hilkoth
Mal’akim, Add. 27199, fol. 124 a: “the angel who passes the
sentence and who issues the demands is called ‘Ir and
Qaddish”.

It is evident from the way in which the various functions are
depicted as divided between the ‘Irin and Qaddishin, that they
are in this verse regarded as comprising a comparatively large
number. One might, with some certainty, venture the conjecture that the underlying idea here is the representation
of the ‘Irin and the Qaddishin as the Heavenly Beth Din. The
‘Irin and Qaddishin would then be conceived of as 70 or 72.
This is confirmed by the confusion in the two chapters
following next, between these angels and the 72 princes of
kingdoms who acc. to ch. xxx constitute the heavenly Beth
Din. Also, in Zohar, e.g. ii. 6 a, the ‘Irin and Qaddishin of Dan.
iv. 14 are explicitly interpreted as “the 72 members of
Sanhedrin who consider the judgements of the world”.
That the ‘Irin (and Qaddishin) in i En., according to the
prevalent representation there, are counted as a large number
(e.g. ch. vi. 6: 200) is already recalled above. On the other
hand, in later cabbalistic writings, they are likewise often
pictured as a numerous class of angels, e.g. YR. i. 162 b .
(quotation from Sode Razd), they are referred to with the
formula “the troops of ‘Irin and Qaddishin”.

(10) they sanctify the body and the spirit with lashes of fire.
The expression ‘the body and the spirit’ may be taken in two
different senses, viz. as referring either to the angels in
question (the ‘Irin and Qaddishin) or to the body and spirit of a
man who has undergone judgement ; the judgement of man,
referred to here, would in this case be the so-called Din haqQeber,
the judgement on man immediately after his death.
The interpretation of the present sentence in the sense of
‘sanctify the body and spirit of the judged man’ is probably the
correct one, esp. in view of the difficulty, that otherwise
arises, of explaining the meaning of the words immediately
following: ‘on the third day of judgement’. ‘The third day’
cannot very well be meant ‘absolute’, since the judgement
here is daily and continual. But with the assumed
interpretation it will naturally take on the meaning ‘the third of
the three days that man is judged’, the third day being also the
final one, on which the sentence passed on man is
consummated through his purification in fire (‘by lashes of
fire’). Cf. ch. xliv.

The result thus arrived at accords with Masseket Chibbut haqQeber,
BH. i. 151: “The ministering angels (corresponding to
the ‘Irin and Qaddishin of the present verse) receive man, after
his death, from the hands of the angel of death; they judge
him on the first two days on account of his character as
developed during his life, through his observance or neglect of
the statutes of Tora; on the third day they judge him, spirit, soul and body, by strokes with lashes of fire”. This is a

description of the Din ha-qQeber, referred to above.
The bath of sanctification or purification in fire is depicted as
forming the conclusion of judgement also with regard to the
ministering angels, in Revelation of Moses (tr. Gaster, rec. B,
in Royal Asiatic Society’s Journal, 1893): “the Almighty sits and
judges the ministering angels, and after the judgement they
bathe in that river of fire and are renewed”. Cf. ch. xxxvi.
It is true that in other connections the Qaddishin are
represented as ‘sanctifying themselves in fire’. Thus in
Shemoth shel Metatron, Bodl. MICH. 356, fol. 40 b, we read:
“Metatron admonishes the angels every third day to bathe and
purify themselves in the fiery river (Nehar di-Nur)”.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 29.

(1) E om.
(2) A adds: ‘of iron’
(3) E: ‘Understanding (Binā)’
Ch. xxix contains a short description of angels, the names or
class of which are not defined in the chapter. As the context
now stands, the description is, by the opening words ‘each one
of them’, made to refer to the ‘Inn and Qaddishin of the
aforegoing chapter. On the other hand, the following chapter,
xxx, in defining ‘the great princes who are called H’ by the
name of the Holy One’ as the 72 Princes of Kingdoms, seems to
have in view no others than the angels of the present chapter,
of which it is stated here that their names are ‘based upon the
Name of the Holy One’.
Thus, in the present arrangement of the context, the ‘Irin and
Qaddishin are, by inference, identical with the Princes of
Kingdoms. The identification is justifiable, since the functions
of both categories, as represented in chh. xxviii. y-xxx, are practically congruent: they are both depicted as constituting

the Celestial Beth Din, the Divine Council or Court of Justice.
It is scarcely probable, however, that ch. xxix is the original
continuation of ch. xxviii. 7-10. It gives the impression of
being a fragment from an angelological description from some
other source. When considered by itself, it can best be
understood as treating of the Princes of Kingdoms, for the
reason that the expression ‘seventy names corresponding to
the seventy tongues of the world’ naturally and usually
connects the angels or angel of which it is used, with the
conception of the seventy nations and their representative
body in the heavens.

Still it seems to be a necessary conclusion that to the
Redactor, responsible for the present arrangement of chh.
xxviii-xxx seqq., the identity of the ‘Irin and Qaddishin with the
Princes of Kingdoms, did not, at least, present any difficulty.
Some tradition to this effect might have obtained. As a trace
of such & tradition, although from a late source, may perhaps
be regarded the passage on the Princes of Kingdoms in
Menahem Reqanati’s Commentary on the Pentateuch, Gen. x.
5 (EJ): “70 princes are set over the 70 nations… they are the 70
princes who surround the Throne of Glory and they are the
same that are called in the Song of Solomon (Cant. iii. 3) ‘the
Watchmen (Shomerim) that go about the city’, for by their
hands the decrees from on high are issued (cf. ch. xxviii. 8
seq.)”.

Convergences between the conceptions of the Watchers and of
the Representatives of the Nations (the Princes of Kingdoms)
may have occurred at an early period, although then
perchance in another aspect. The Watchers (i En.) as well as
the Princes of Kingdoms, acc. to a different trend of traditions,
were regarded as evil agencies in the world (cf. i En. Ixxxix.
59-65 and note on ch. xxviii. i). The Watchers become the
leaders of corrupt mankind on earth and the Princes of
Kingdoms are the rulers of the Gentile nations: occasionally the
leader of the Watchers is mentioned as SATANIEL or SAMMAEL,
and the Princes of Kingdoms, as evil agencies, are later
regularly represented as headed by SAMMAEL. Cf. on this TB.
Sota, 9 a, Sha’are ‘Ord, 65 a, ‘Emeq ha-mMelek, 121 b et al.
(1) seventy names corresponding to the seventy tongues…
(based) upon the name of the Holy One. Exactly the same, is
said with regard to Metatron, chh. iii. i and xlviii c 9. [The expression ‘seventy names corresponding to the seventy
tongues ‘is a formula, conveying the connection of the angels
in question with the seventy nations. So ch. xlviii c 9 the
ascribing to Metatron of seventy names is clearly connected
with his character of chief of the seventy princes of the
seventy nations. The phrase ‘based upon the Name of the
Most High’ with regard to a name, means that it contains the
elements of the Tetragrammaton. Cf. note on ch. x. 3 and
the angelic names ch. xviii. 9-24. written with a flaming style.
Cf. chh. xiii. i, xxxix. i, xli. 4. upon the Fearful Crown… on
the head of the… King. The Fearful Crown ‘Keiher Nora’ is the
technical term for the crown on the head of the Most High as
seated on the Throne of Glory. In magical writings the ‘Fearful
Crown’ plays a prominent role, being, together with ‘the Great
Seal’, the most effectual of magical formulas. Cf. Hek. Zot.
(Bodl. MICH. 9, fol. 66 a): “the Fearful Crown… (follow some
mystical letters)… this is the crown with which one conjures all
the Princes of Wisdom”. Cf. also Mass. Hek. vii: “the crown
on the forehead of the Holy One, blessed be He, on which the
Explicit Name is graven”.

(2) And from each one of them there go forth sparks and
lightnings etc. This verse repeats the phraseology of the
angelological section. For ‘horns of splendour’ cf. ch. xxii. 6.
For ‘tents of brilliance’, ch. xxv. 6. “not even the Seraphim
and the Chayyoth etc.’ cf. ch. xxvi. n. Does the present
fragment know only the Seraphim and the Chayyoth as
Merkaba-angels? Or does it regard the Seraphim and the
Chayyoth as the two highest classes of superior angels by the
Merkaba? (Cf. Zohar, ii. 252 b.

תחות האי חיותא ארבעה שרפין….מאלין ארבע
בד נטלי נפקי שביבין דאשא ומאלין שביבין אתעבידו
שבעין ותרין גלגלין מלהטן באשא׃

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 30.

(1) E om. corr.
Another representation of the daily judgement in the Celestial
Beth Din. The function of court-officers (ch. xxviii. 8) is here
attributed to the Princes of Kingdoms with their leader, the
Prince of the World. In contrast with ch. xxviii. 8, 9, this
function is here seen exclusively from the aspect of defence or
plea in favour of the world (vs. 2). The accusing part is hereby
implicitly reserved for the Most High himself.

(1) Whenever (lit. every fixed time that) the Great Beth Din is
seated. Every day, at a fixed time, the Great Sanhedrin
assembles in the highest of the heavens, the ‘ArabSth, under
the presidency of the Holy One. This is explicit from vs. 2:
‘every day at the hour that’, and ‘pleads… before the Holy One,
blessed be He’. The sittings of the Beth Din are here for
judgement, although the judgement may include all the
various decisions with regard to the affairs of the world. But
the Celestial Beth Din has even a wider scope. So, e.g. in Gen.
R. xlix. 6, it is said that God introduces new Halakas daily in
His Celestial Beth Din. For the Beth Din Shelma’ala as giving
daily decisions with regard to the happenings of the world cf.
Hek. R. i-iii seqq.

there is no opening of the mouth for anyone in the world etc.
For the expression in this sense cf. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii.
57. Cf. also the phrase ‘opening of the mouth for the Minim
(heretics, Christians)’ = scriptural points of support for
heretical beliefs. Here it apparently means that no one is
allowed to speak either as accuser or defender except the
Great Princes called H’.
great princes… called H’ by the name of the Holy One. Ch. x.
3 speaks of ‘8 great princes called H’ by the name of their
King’, to whom also is assigned an exceptional status. Cf.
note, ib., and Hek. R. xxi. -called H’ etc. In most cases simply
means that the Tetragrammaton forms the latter part of the
name.

It seems to have been a general assumption, that the highest
circle of angels were marked out from the other angels by the
common distinction of the Tetragrammaton as part of their
name, whereby their names were ‘based upon the Name of the
Holy One’. But the traditions are at variance as to the further
character, number and function of these highest angels. Thus,
in the present book, ch. x. 3 (already referred to), ‘the 8 Great
Princes, called H’ etc.’ occupy so high a position as to be above
the jurisdiction of Metatron (the Lesser YHWH), which includes
all the other angels and princes; in the angelological
classification of ch. xviii each one of the sixteen highest
princes have the ‘ H’ at the end of their names; in the
angelological section, chh. xix-xxii, xxv-xxvii (xxviii), the six
princes there named have likewise all the Tetragrammaton as
part of their names. (It is in fact altogether in harmony with
that angelological section, when ch. xxix, the ‘Irin and
Qaddishm, the highest of the princes acc. to ch. xxvii. 1-6, are
in ch. xxix represented, or made to be represented,

as having
their names ‘based upon the name of the Holy One’.) acc. to
Hek. R. xxii. i, the highest angels who are there the doorkeepers
of the Seventh Hall and seven in number, have all
names of the form X-H’; in the preceding chapter of Hek. R.
one meets with the statement that the awe-inspiring power of
these guardians of the seventh Hall and of their names lies just
in the fact that “each one of them, his name is called (based)
upon the name of the King of the Universe”.
In the present chapter again, the Princes H’ are denned as the:
(2) Seventy-two princes of the kingdoms, and this evidently
because, acc. to the view contended here, the seventy-two
princes of kingdoms, inclusive of the Prince of the world, form
the highest angelic order in their capacity of constituting the
Celestial Beth Din.

For the different conceptions of the Princes of Kingdoms, cf.
note on ch. xvii. 8. Here they are decidedly conceived of as
the REPRESENTATIVES OF THE NATIONS OF THE WORLD. The
conception of representatives in heaven of the various
kingdoms on earth is a well-known, early idea attested in the
O.T., Dan. x. 20, 21; it occurs in Sir. xvii. 17 (“for every
nation He appointed a ruler. But Israel is the Lord’s part”).
Since the nations were counted as seventy, the number of
these representatives was at first usually given as seventy (cf.
ch. xlviii c 9); so in i En. Ixxxix. 59 (seventy shepherds).
Apposite for the resemblance to vs. 2 of the present chapter is
Targ. Yer. to Gen. xi. 7, 8 (“every nation has its own
guardian angel -who pleads the cause of the nation under his
protection”). In Talmud the conception occurs, e.g. TB. Yoma,
77 a (MIKAEL, the prince of Israel, DUBBIEL, the prince of
Persia etc.), Sukka, 29 a (the Gods of the nations suffer
punishment with them). Cf. further Gen. R. Ixviii, Ixxvii, Ex.
R. xxi, Lev. R. xxix, Pesikta R. xxiii, xxvii, P. R. ‘El. xxiv.

Notice, how in Mass. Hek. the conception of seventy princes is
replaced by that of “70 thrones of the Holy One, blessed be He,
corresponding to the nations of the world”.
For discussion of the origin of the number 72 as ascribed to
these princes, see note on ch. xvii. 8. In the present
connection the seventy-two princes of kingdoms constituting
the Great Sanhedrin of heaven one is reminded of the fact that
the Great Sanhedrin proper, of which the Beth Din shelma’ala
is a counterpart, is in a few Mishna passages represented as
consisting ofseventy-two members: M. Zebachim, i. 3, Yad.
iii. 5, iv. 2.

For the princes of kingdoms as the Celestial Beth Din cf. also
Bachya’s Commentary on the Pentateuch, Par. Beha’aloteka
(162 b): “The Holy One, blessed be He, said to the 70 angels
who surround the Throne of Glory… and they are the Beth Din
of the Holy One”. Cf. Zohar, i. 173 b, and Mass. Hek. v. 70,
thrones always surrounding the Shekina. The ‘thrones’ in
Zohar are angelic beings when termed כרכוון , and similarly
their ‘thrones’ are termed .קתדראי
the Prince of the World who speaks in favour of the world. The
Prince of the World is here, then, the leader of the princes of
kingdoms. He combines the functions of the rulers of the
nations: they plead each one the cause of his nation, the
Prince of the World pleads the cause of all the nations
together, of the world in its entirety. There is no reference
here to any contrast between the Gentile Nations, the
idolaters, and Israel. On the contrary, the representation is
strikingly universal in its character. The Accuser is God
himself, whereas acc. to other views, the Prince of Israel and
the princes of the nations, especially the prince of Rome (or of
Persia) are represented as accusing each other before the Most
High. Cf. the Introduction.

For the conception of the nations (or their representatives)
appearing before God in judgement or pleading before God, cf.
inter alia 4 Ezra vii. 37, and the reference in BOX, Ezra-
Apocalypse, p. 124, note ad loc., to the passage in TB. ‘Aboda
Zara, 2 a b = “the nations appear before God in the future age
to receive their reward. They are summoned up singly, are
asked what they have done in the world, and each is
condemned (Rome, Persia and other nations)”.

On the Prince of the World see note on ch. xxxviii. 2, and cf.
notes on chh. iii. 2, ix. 2-3, x. 3, xlviii 09. In the Enoch-
Metatron pieces, chh. iii-xv and xlviii c, Metatron occupies the
same position as the Prince of the World here, i.e. leader of
the princes of kingdoms and, notably, Metatron and the Prince
of the World are. acc. to one trend of traditions, identical.
Here, in so far as Metatron is represented as the speaker, this
is not the case.
at the hour when the book is opened etc. This is the same
view of the book, forming the base of the judgement, that we
meet with in ch. xxvii. 2, ‘the Book of Records’. Cf. note, ib.
The ‘records’ are here perhaps conceived of more from the
point of view of the nations or the world at large than of the
individual.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 31.

(1) so E. A: ‘in Truth’ (cf. Is. xvi. 5, quoted vs. 2).
(2) E: ‘a wicked man’
(3) E prob. corr. ‘the Mercy goes out from judgement towards
him’
(4) E: ‘on his right’
Another short, independent, piece on the Judgement,
characterized by the representation of the hypostasized
attributes of Justice, Mercy and Truth as agencies at the Divine
Judgement.
Justice and Mercy as attributes of God is a subject of
speculation from the earlier periods: “Palestinian as well as
Alexandrian theology recognized the two attributes of God,
‘middath ha din’ and ‘middath ha rahamim’ (Sifre Deut. 27,
Philo, De Opific. Mundi, 60) and the contrast between justice
and mercy is a fundamental doctrine of the Cabala” (JE, article
‘Justice’). Among the Tannaites the doctrine of Justice and
Mercy as the two main attributes of God was connected

particularly with the name of R. Meir. Cf. Bacher, Agada der
Tannaiten, vol. ii. p. 60, and TB. Ber. 48 b, Gen. R. xxvi,
Ab. R. Natan, xxxii, R. ‘Aqiba, TB. Sank. 67 b.
(1) At the time (or: in the hour) when the Holy One… is sitting
on the Throne of Judgement. Although not clearly indicated,
the judgement is probably here, as in the preceding chapters,
the daily judgement, for which is appointed a fixed time, cf.
ch. xxx. 2 and note.

Justice is standing on His right hand, Mercy on His left and
Truth before His face. Since Mercy in vs. 2 is represented as
supporting man, Justice probably stands for the accusing
function at the judgement. Justice and Mercy as agencies at
the judgement or of attributes of God as Judge are perhaps
indicated in the Talmudic dictum as to the two Thrones, one of
Justice, the other of Mercy (Sedaqa}, TB. Chag. 14 a, Sanh.
38 b (attributed to R. ‘Aqiba from R. Jose the Galilean).
For the hypostasized attribute of Justice as accusing cf. Alph.
R. ‘Aqiba, znd rec., BH. iii. 50 : “In that hour the attribute of
Justice said before the Holy One, blessed be He, ‘Lord of the
Universe, even the righteous are designated for death (i.e.
have sinned according to Law no man shall be justified)’.
For a later representation of the roles of Justice and Mercy cf.
Sha’are ‘Ora, quoted YR. 7 b, vol iii: “The attribute of Justice
gives to the supplicant… riches and all good things, but the
attribute of Justice prevents (interrupts, annuls) the decision
and says, Let us consider whether this supplicant is worthy
that his supplication be granted him, and if not, let him be
judged in the Great Sanhedrin etc.” Notice the combination
here of the two conceptions of Justice-Mercy and of the Great
Sanhedrin.

The distinctive feature of the present chapter, vs. i, is the
introduction of the third attribute, the Truth, as mediating
between Justice and Mercy. The combination of truth with
judgement is deduced from or, rather, occurs already in the
O.T. Reference is in vs. 2 explicitly made to Is. xvi. 5. Then
in 4 Ezra, vii. 34 (“But judgement alone shall remain and truth
shall stand”). For references to parallels in Rabbinic see BOX,
Ez. Apoc. p. 122, note ad loc. Cf. further Alph. R. ‘Aqiba,
beg. (“The Holy One… is called Truth, and He sits on His
Throne… in Truth… all’ his judgements are judgements of
truth, and all his ways are Mercy and Truth”), and ch. xxvi.

12. The mediating character of the attribute of Truth is here
symbolically indicated by the place assigned to it ‘before the
face of the Most High’ between ‘Justice’ to the right and ‘Mercy’
to the left. Another expression of the mediation at the
judgement is found, ch. xxxiii. i (‘Angels of mercy, of peace,
and of destruction’).
The distinction involved in the expressions ‘to the right’, ‘to the
left’, does not carry the extreme symbolical significance of
certain gnostic systems and esp. the later Qabbala : there the
accusing role is always assigned to the left side, the
favourpleading to the right. In the system of Ten Sefiroth
Justice is on the left, Mercy on the right (contrast here).

(2) when man enters before Him to (receive) judgement, i.e.
immediately after death, cf. note on ch. xxviii. 10. there
comes forth from the splendour of the Mercy towards him as (it
were) a staff and stands in front of him. This evidently means
that the attribute of Mercy wields a protecting, supporting
influence over man against forces working for the strict
application of the principles of justice. And this influence is
represented as prevailing over the latter, at least such seems
to be the import of the words following: all the angels of
destruction fear and tremble before him. The angels of
destruction represent the execution of the decrees of justice
(cf. ch. xxxii. i), i.e. the punishment of man’s sin. Here it
appears that ‘the staff’ from the ‘splendour of the Mercy’
protects man from the rage of the angels of destruction.

For the conception of the angels of destruction cf. i En. liii. 3
(“I saw all the angels of punishment abiding and preparing all
the instruments of Satan [for the sinners]”), Ivi. i, Ixiii. i (“In
those days shall the mighty and the kings… implore God to
grant them a little respite from His angels of punishment”). 2
En. x. 3 ; Ap. Petri, 6, 8. TB. Shab. 55 a, presents an
instance of the connection between the angels of destruction
and the attribute of Justice (as accusing and desiring the strict
enforcement of the Law): “God said to Gabriel (with reference
to the situation, Ezek. ix. 4 seqq.), ‘Go and write on the
forehead of the righteous a mark of ink, that the angels of
destruction may not get power over them, but on the forehead
of the wicked a mark of blood, that the angels of destruction
may have power over them’. Then said the attribute of Justice
before the Holy One…’… In what respect are those better than
these?'” Cf. ib. 152 b, 89 a; Yer. Shebu’oth, vi. 37 a; Rev. vii.
2, xii. 7; Test. Abr. xii, xiii; Gedullath Moshe, section
Gehinnom; Masseketh Gehinnom, BH. i. 142; Alph. R. ‘Aqiba,
BH. iii. 62. See also ch. xliv. 2 and note. In these instances
they appear mainly in two aspects: one is that of executors of
punishment and of the divine decrees in general in the world,
the other that of officials of Gehenna appointed over the
wicked (and intermediate).

On their number and names the different sources are at
variance, from those speaking of two angels of destruction,
usually called ‘APH and CHEMA (i.e. anger and fury), cf.
SIMKIEL and ZA’APHIEL, ch. xliv. 2, to those counting them in
thousands and myriads. Rev. of Moses (tr. Gaster, RAS’s
Journal, 1893, p. 589) represents the angel-prince QEMU’EL as
the chieftain of 12,000 angels of destruction.
The ‘man’ who acc. to the present chapter, obtains the support
of the attribute of Mercy is apparently man in general, the vast
majority, perhaps those who elsewhere (e.g. ch. xliv) are
referred to as the class of intermediate, ‘benoniyyim’.
Instances of the attribute of Mercy pleading for man in
opposition to the prosecuting activity of the attribute of Justice
are numerous in later Qabbala. YR. i. 94 a, quotes from
‘Asara Ma’amaroth the following passage: “The attribute of
Mercy occupies itself with the merit of every creature… if a
man commits a transgression, then the attribute of Justice
comes to punish the man on account of the transgression but
the attribute of Mercy says: ‘Even if the man’s hand has
sinned, lo, yet his eye has not sinned… if thou wilt punish his
body on account of the sin of the hand, lo, even the eye will
suffer, and so it will be punished unjustly’, and continues the
passage: “in this way the Mercy prevents tribulations and
plagues from visiting the world (as punishments for the sins of
mankind)”.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 32.

(1) E: ‘when they open before the Holy One, blessed be He’
(2) E: ‘and His sword is’
(3) E omits from ‘as it is written etc.’ vs. i till ‘and sparks etc.’
vs. 2.
(4) E om.
(5) E om.

This chapter treats of the aspect of the judgement consisting in
the execution of judgement on the wicked. The execution of
the Divine decrees is referred to in ch. xxviii. 9, the executors
there being the ‘Irin and Qaddishin. The identity of the
executors of judgement is in the present chapter not revealed.
Regarded as immediate continuation of ch. xxxi. i of this
chapter would imply that they are ‘the angels of destruction’.
That is, however, the natural conclusion presenting itself at a
slight examination of the chapter, since the execution of
judgement is here that on the wicked only, not of the Divine
decrees in general.

The plurality of angelic beings indicated by the words ‘they go
out from before Him in every moment’ can in this connection
scarcely be interpreted as any others than the angels of
destruction, whose essential function is the punishment of the
wicked.

(1) When the Holy One… opens the Book etc. One book as the
basis of judgement here as chh. xxx and xxvii. 2 (i.e. the
Book of Records). Cf. notes, ib. they go out from before Him
in every moment. ‘They’ is best understood as ‘the angels of
destruction’; cf. above and note on ch. xxxi. 2. For the
angels of destruction as executing punishment on the wicked
in the world, cf. Hek. R. v: “R. Ishmael said: ‘What did the
Beth Din on high do? In that hour they commanded the angels
of destruction and they went down (to earth) and made a
“consumption even determined” upon Caesar Lupinus”.

Further Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 50, 51 (with reference to the
destruction of Jerusalem): “In that hour six angels of
destruction were sent down on Jerusalem, and they destroyed
the people in it… and these they were: ‘Aph, Chema (cf. note,
ch. xxxi. 2}, Qeseph (= ‘wrath’), Mashchith (= ‘destroyer’, Ex.
xii. 23), Mashmid (also = ‘destroyer’), Mekalle (=
‘consumer’)… And each one of them had a two-edged sword in
his hand”; ib. BH. iii. 62 (in a context, treating of the idolaters
of the world), “Forthwith ‘Aph and Chema, two angels of destruction,… drew their sword… in order to destroy the
world”. Cf. further the references adduced in the note on ch.
xxxi. 2. The expression every moment prompts the
conclusion that the execution of the punishment is one that
takes place in this world continually (as well as through periods
of great crises); this is confirmed by pointing to the parallel
passages just referred to. We are even in this chapter
concerned with the daily judgement. Against this conclusion
does not speak what follows:

by His sword (that is) drawn forth out of its sheath. In the two
passages from R. ‘Aqiba cited above, the angels of destruction
are represented as armed with swords. Here the sword by
means of which the punishment is executed is ‘the sword of
God’, a conception, acc. to the statements in the present
chapter itself, deduced from Is. Ixvi. 16 and Deut. xxxii. 41.
The sword of God is a well-known, eschatological, symbol of
the O.T. Cf. Is. xxvii. i, xxxiv. 5, xlvi. 10, xlvii. 6, Ixvi. 16,
Ezek. xxi. 3 seqq. Later we meet with the same symbol of
punishment and vengeance in i En. e.g. xc. 17, 19
(connected with the opening of the ‘book’), “opened the book…
and a sword was given to the sheep”; ib. xci. 12, “and a sword
shall be given to it, that a righteous judgement may be
executed”. Add ib. xc. 34, Ixxxviii. 2. Other instances of the
same symbolic use of ‘the sword’ are Rev. i. 16, ii. 12, 16, vi.
3, 4, xix. 15. It may be noted that ‘the sword’ in this chapter
again, as in the O.T., is God’s sword, although wielded by the
angels of destruction.

(3) And all the inhabitants of the world fear and tremble…
when they behold His… sword… from one end of the world to
the other. This is more in the style of a description of the Last
Judgement. Perhaps the writer unconsciously falls in with the
eschatological phraseology. Or, more probably, the situation
in the writer’s mind may be that of a great general Divine
visitation, such as a war. Passages representing the Divine
sword as visible to an assembly or large number of people
simultaneously, occur in Rabbinic: e.g. Sifre on Deut. xi. 12
(cf. Lev. R. xxxv, Deut. R. iv): “(At Sinai) A book and a sword
came down from heaven… and the Voice was heard, saying: ‘If
you practise the doctrine of this book, you shall be saved from
the sword, but if not, you shall be punished by it’. It should be
noted that the ‘sword’ in this passage is said to be identical
with the sword of Gen. iii. 24, which is another of the
fundamental references on which the conception of the ‘sword’
is based. See Gen. R. xxi. 14 (the sword personified).
3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 33.

(1) E adds: ‘of truth’
(2) so E. A: above Him’
(3) so E. A: ‘a Kerub’
(4) E om.
(5) A repeats: ‘each one with three fingers’
(6) E: ‘6000’
(7) E: ‘length’ 8-8 E om.
Ch. xxxiii. 12. Vss. i and 2 of the present chapter constitute
the last fragment of the context treating of the Judgement.
The representation of vs. i is but another version of the
conception of the principal agencies at the Judgement, already
met with in ch. xxxi. The hypostasized attributes of Justice,
Mercy and Truth of ch. xxxi. i are here replaced by the angels
of mercy, peace and destruction. It is safe to assume that the
angels of mercy here more or less exactly correspond with the
attribute of Mercy there as to significance and function, i.e.
represent the activity of plea in favour of man. As regards the
angels of peace their character of mediating forces is
confirmed by the frequent usage of the term ‘peace’ for the
mediation between two opposites, see ch. xlii. 7. The
correspondence between the angels of destruction and the
attribute of Justice was attested, note on ch. xxxi. 2, esp. in
the passage quoted from TB. Shab. 55 a. The attribute of
Justice perhaps more emphasizes the accusing part, the angels
of destruction, again, the punishment, the strict carrying out of
the principles of justice.

(1) the angels of Mercy are standing on His right. In contrast
with ch. xxxi. i, the defending agencies, the ‘melammedim
zakuth’ are assigned the place to the right side, cf. note, ib.
The strict system of the later Qabbala is however not applied
even here, since the opposing agency of the ‘melammedim
choba’ on the left is missing.
For the angels of mercy pleading in favour, cf. Hilkot ha-kKisse
(Add. 27199, fol. 139 a): “211 myriads of angels of mercy are
standing there (by the Throne) and they plead in favour of
Israel”. Ib. fol. 125 a (Hilkot Mal’akim): the ‘angels of mercy’
are the performers of the Thrice-Holy part of the Qedushsha,
perhaps a symbolic expression of the meritorious properties of
the performance of the Qedushsha (ch. xl. i). The angels of
mercy have their attentions and efforts fixed on the ‘merits’:
cf. end of note on ch. xxxi. 2.
The expression ‘angels of peace’ is perhaps derived from Is.
xxxiii. 7. The ‘angel of peace’ is Enoch’s guide acc. to i En. xl.
8, lii. 5, liii. 4, Ivi. 2 et al. Cf. also Test. Dan. vi. 5, Asher,
vi. 6.

On the angels of destruction see notes on chh. xxx. 2 and
xxxii. i (xliv. 2).

(2) one scribe is standing beneath Him, and another scribe
above Him (acc. to the reading of E adopted above). The
scribes record all the facts that have regard to the Divine
Judgement, the fixed times appointed for man’s entering and
leaving this world (ch. xviii. 23, 24), his observance or nonobservance
of the Divine statutes, all ‘ the doings of the world’,
not only as to individuals but with reference to nations and the
world at large (chh. xxvii. 2, xxviii. 7, xxx. 2). Besides such
‘facts’ the scribes also write down the decisions of judgement,
the Divine decrees with regard to man after death as well as to
the living.

For instances related to the ideas here presented cf. Chibbut
ha-qQeber, BH. i. 150: “a scribe and one appointed with him
(function at man’s death)… counting the number of his days
and years”; Sefer Chasidim (EJ. ii. 333): “two scribes record
the place assigned for every man, whether in Paradise or Hell”;
Hek. R. v. i (in the Legend of the Ten Martyrs): “in that hour,
the Holy One, blessed be He, ordered the Scribe incessantly to
write down dire decrees and terrible plagues…. for the wicked
Rome”. Note also Hek. R. xx, where GABRIEL, the scribe, is
represented as writing down the merits and deeds of a man,
desiring to behold the vision of the Merkaba, and also his
application for the grant of this privilege.

Ch. xxxiii. 3-5. With vss. 3 seqq. of the present chapter
the theme of the Divine Judgement is abandoned. What
follows in this chapter is a short representation of the Throne
of Glory, the Merkaba-angels surrounding it and the seven fiery
rivers flowing through all the seven heavens down to Gehenna,
thus forming a concise summary of the Merkabah-picture: the
heavenly glories with the Throne at their centre. Since the
emphasis here is neither on the Judgement-Throne as in the
section on the Judgement, just concluded nor on the angelic
classes of the heavenly hierarchy as in the angelological
section it may be convenient to include these verses in the
section comprising chh. xxiii, xxiv, xxxiv, xxxvii, which deals
with various wonders of the heavens (the Throne of Glory, the
‘Araboth and the seven heavens in general), esp. from the
quasi-physical aspect. This section is of the same
fragmentary, unsystematical character as the section on the
Judgement.

As regards the relation between vss. i, 2 on one hand and vss.
3-5 on the other, it is quite probable that they belong together
even originally, the compiler having put this chapter in its
present place merely because the two opening verses referred
to the subject of the preceding chapters, the Judgement.
Considered as a unity the present chapter forms another
instance of the Merkabah picture revealing the Throne in its
highest aspect as a Judgement-Throne. This tendency is
noticeable in both the angelological expositions : ch. xviii and
chh. xixxxviii. Cf. note on ch. xxvi. 12.

(3) This verse presents three classes of Merkaba-angels: acc.
to A, Kerub, Seraphim and Chayyoth’, acc. to E (probably the
correct reading), Seraphim, ‘Ophannim and Chayyoth; thus in
both readings omitting one of the classes of the angelological
section (besides the wheels of Merkaba). Apart from this, the
adopted reading presents the same order as that of the
angelological section: Seraphim, ‘Ophannim, (Kerubim),
Chayyoth.

For the ‘clouds of fire and clouds of flames’ cf. the ‘four
clouds’, ch. xix. 4 and chh. xxxix and xxxvii.

the Holy Chayyoth carry the Throne of Glory. -This is a
frequent statement. Cf. Gen. R. Ixxviii, Lam. R. to iii. 23.

each one with three fingers. Cf. ch. xvii. 6. The measures of
the fingers present some difficulty. Originally the passage
might have contained some reference to the different
measures ascribed to each of the three fingers, e.g. the first
one 80,000, the second 70,000, the third 66,000, in a
gradation intended to convey a correspondence in proportions
to the second, third and fourth fingers of a human hand,
respectively. For measures of the Chayyoth cf. ch. xxi. 1-3
and note, Chag. 13 a.

(4) seven fiery rivers running and flowing underneath the feet
of the Chayyoth. Cf. ch. xix. 4 (under the wheels of the
Merkaba, upon which the feet of the Chayyoth are resting, four
fiery rivers are continually running) and note, ib., ch. xviii. 19
and note (the four heads of the fiery river), the fiery river of ch.
xxxvi, the fiery rivers between the camps of Shekina in ch.
xxxvii. Note also ‘the rivers of fire’, flowing in the midst of
rivers of water’, ch. xlii. 7. In i En. cf. ch. xiv. 19: “from
underneath the throne came streams of naming fire so that I
could not look thereon” (seven rivers, ib. Ixxvii. 5-7). 365
number of positive, 248 of negative statutes.

The conception of ‘rivers of fire’ from underneath the Throne of
Glory or the Chayyoth is an amplification of that of the fiery
river, derived from Dan. vii. 10, “a fiery stream issued and
came forth from before him”, and after this passage frequently
called Nehar di-Nur and sometimes Rigyon (e.g. Rev. of
Moses, BH. i. 59). acc. to Gen. R. Ixxviii, Lam. R. iii. 21
(with reference to Lam. iii. 23); the Nehar di-Nur goes forth
from the perspiration of the Chayyoth who are perspiring under
the burden of the Throne(s). acc., to Mass. Geh. simply “from
under the Throne of Glory”. The amplification of the
conception of one fiery river into that of several rivers of fire,
beginning with the assumption of four heads of the Nehar di-
Nur (ch. xviii) is at variance as to the number of these rivers,
one tendency being to make them into four (corresponding to
the number of the Chayyoth and the ‘winds’), another to count
them as seven (so here).

(5) And each river turns round in a bow in the four directions of
‘Araboth Raqia’. Cf. ch. xxiii. 17, 18. and (from there)… to
Ma’on and is stayed(?), etc. The heavens are enumerated with
the omission of Makon and the substitution of the Hebrew
name Shamayim for the Latin Wilon (velum or Greek (βηλον).
In ch. xvii. 3 both these names are given for the first heaven.
In Seder Rabba di Ber. Rabba the Wilon and Shamayim appear
as two different heavens, viz. the first and second
respectively.

A parallel to the present conception of the fiery river(s) going
through all the heavens and eventually falling down upon the
heads of the wicked in Gehenna is found in Mass. Geh. iv (BH.
i. 149): “the fiery river goes down upon them (the wicked in
Gehenna) and it runs from one end of the universe to the
other”. Similarly in the fragment, translated by Gaster, RAS’s
Journal, 1893, pp. 599-605, called Description of Hell: “the
river Di-nur floweth from beneath the Throne of Glory and
falleth over the heads of the sinners”. Cf. 2 En. x. 2: “in
Gehenna there is a fiery river coming forth and it floweth from
one end of the world to the other”. In TB. Chag. 13 b, the
fiery river from the perspiration of the Chayyoth is said to “fall
down upon the heads of the wicked in Gehenna” with
reference to Jer. xxiii. 19,

the scriptural passage adduced also
by our verse. Cf. further Apoc. Petri, 8, Apoc. Fault, 57. Hek.
R. xiii (Rigyon surrounds His Throne… and covers all the
chambers of the Hall of ‘Araboth Raqia’ with fire-smoke).
In the vss. 4 and 5 of the present chapter we meet with a
conception of fiery rivers that is brought about through an
amalgamation of various views concerning the Nehar di-Nur.

(1) Founding upon Dan. vii. 10 the Nehar di-Nur became a
constituent part of the picture of the splendours by the Throne.
Flowing from underneath the Throne its origin was explained
from the perspiration of the Chayyoth, heavily burdened by the
weight of the Throne. In this aspect it serves no definite
purpose other than to add to the glory of ‘the Holy One,
blessed be He, who sitteth on the Throne of Glory’.

(2) Brought into connection with the ‘thousand thousands and
ten thousand times ten thousand’ angels ministering before
the Throne acc. to the same passage, Dan. vii. i0,from which
the conception of the Nehar di-Nur was deduced especially in
their function of performers of the Qedushsha or ‘the Song’ the
fiery river became the bath of purification, by which the songuttering
angels were thought to prepare themselves for the
saying of the Thrice Holy : see ch. xxxvi.
(3) Once connected with the ministering angels even other
functions than the last named were assigned to the Nehar di-
Nur. In the fiery river the angels were “renewed every
morning” (in accordance with Lam. iii. 23). To the tradition
holding the view that the song-uttering angels live only so long
as to perform the QSdushsha and then perish, the fiery river
was the substance from which they were formed and whither
they were sent back again: TB. Chag. 143, Gen. R. Ixxviii,
Lam. R. iii. 21. From this conception there is only a short
step to that of the fiery river as the place of punishment for
those of the ministering angels who uttered the Song untimely
or improperly: ch. xlvii. 2.

(4) Lastly the Nehar di-Nur, as derived from Dan. vii. 10, is
brought to bear upon the “judgement and the books”
mentioned ib. Already serving the purpose of sanctification,
purification and punishment of the ministering angels, it was
easily made an integral part of the Divine Judgement. On one
hand it served to purify man in general from sin after death (on
the third day of judgement : cf. the purification with lashes of
fire, ch. xxviii. 10, Chibbut ha-qQeber, BH. i. 151), the means
of purification and preparation of the Intermediate (the
‘benoniyyim’, cf. ch. xliv. 5), on the other hand it became the
means of punishment of the wicked (in Gehenna), a conception
which is attestedly old and related to that of the punishment of
the wicked in a sea of fire etc. Cf. Rev. xix. 20, compared
with 2 En. x. 2, CHARLES’S notes on both passages, and
Boeklen, Die Verwandtschaft der jűd.- christlichen mil der
persischen Eschatologie, pp. 119 seqq.

In the present vss. it is primarily the conceptions indicated in
the points (1) and (4) that have been foisted together. As the
place of the wicked was conceived of as Gehenna, Gehenna
being situated below the heavens, it was necessary, in order to
reconcile the different views (Nehar di-Nur in ‘Araboth and as
means of punishment) to present the Nehar di-Nur or the fiery
rivers as flowing from the Throne of Glory in the ‘Araboth
through the heavens down to Gehenna. In Ma’yan Chokma
(Rev. Mosis), BH. i. 58-64, the points (3) and (4) are
combined: “after having undergone the judgement the
ministering angels bathe in the fiery river and are renewed.
And then the fiery river … falls down upon the heads of the
wicked in Gehenna, as it is written (Jer. xxiii. 19): ‘Behold a
whirlwind of the Lord… it shall burst upon the head of the
wicked’. Cf. vs. 5 above.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 34.

(1) E om.
(2) E: ‘walls of fire and water’
This chapter, in common with the latter part of the aforegoing
chapter, treats of the glories of heaven with emphasis laid on
the celestio-physical parts of these. The centre is the Throne
of Glory, the feet of the Chayyoth carrying the Throne, and out
from this centre the heavenly splendours are represented as
evolving in concentric circles. This tendency towards a view
arranging the heavenly objects concentrically round the
Throne of Glory is noticeable in a number of earlier and later
cabbalistic writings, and is, moreover, extended to the
cosmological theories of the structure of heavens and earths
and their foundations. Cf. especially Midrash Konen.
A parallel to the present chapter is ch. xxxvii. For parallels in
other writings reference can be made to Midrash Konen, BH. ii.
33, Seder Rabba di Bereshit Rabba (in Werthheimer’s Batte
Midrashot) and Helak Merkaba, Add. 27199, fol. 126 a.
In Midrash Konen, ib.,

where the ‘concentricism’ is already
extended so as to include the whole cosmos the lowest of the
seven earths, the ‘Eres ha-tTachtona’, and the highest of the
heavens, the ‘Araboth with the Throne of Glory, being on the
same circle the passage runs: “the outside of the ‘Eres hatTachtona
is surrounded by fire and water, the water by
earthquake and trembling, these by lightning and thunder, the
lightning and thunder by sparks and commotion, the sparks
and commotion by the likeness of the Chayyoth (Ezek. i. 5),
the likeness of the Chayyoth by ‘Raso wa-Shob’ (Ezek. i. 14),
the Raso wa-Shob by (those who utter) the Voice of Speech
(Ezek. i. 24)… (these by) the still small Voice (i Kings xix.
12)… (this by) those who utter the ‘Holy’,… (these by) those
who utter the ‘Blessed be the Glory of H from His place’…
(these by) those who say ‘Blessed be the Glory of H for ever
and ever’…

“Seder R. di Bereshith R., repeating this, adds
(after” those who utter the Holy”): “and behind all these are
the Holy Chayyoth, and the ‘Ophannim and the Throne of Glory
(cf. here ch. xxxiii. 3 and beginning of this chapter) and the
feet of Shekina are resting upon their heads… and thousand
thousands and ten thousand times ten thousand ministering
angels are standing round the feet of Shekina (cf. ‘thousand
camps of fire etc.’, vs. 2. here)”. Helak Merkaba, referred to
above, has the following representation: “Behind the Throne is
the Wind, that surrounds the Throne, and Light surrounds the
Wind, and splendour surrounds the light, fire surrounds the
splendour etc… . and the colour of chashmal (Ezek. i. 4)
surrounds the flames, and clouds surround the chashmal etc.”
are surrounded on the outside by, lit. ‘in front of or ‘before…
are placed in a circle, are surrounded’.

hailstones stones of
hail stones of the wings of the tempest. These are used as
mystical terms, and it is difficult to determine to what extent
the writer when using them has a definite or clearly conceived
idea in his mind as to what they represent. The ”el-gabish’
seems, like ‘chashmal”, to have been a difficult and hence
mysterious word which, especially as it occurs only in Ezekiel,
was thought to have a deeper mystical connotation. It is then
natural that it came to be regarded as denoting a celestial
substance or object. ‘Wings of the tempest’ as a technical
term occurs also e.g. in ch. xviii. 25. In Midrash Konen,
beginning of the Ma’ase Bereshith, the “wings of the tempest”
appears as a definite part of the cosmological structure (after
‘the mountains’ and ‘the wind’ and next to “Eres hatTachtona’).
As an illustration of the use of expressions like
those of the present chapter in a mystical-technical sense,
attention may be drawn to the passage preceding the one just
referred to, Midrash Konen (BH. ii. 32 seqq.):

in a long
enumeration of the foundations of the universe (the one
resting upon or in the other) we meet with the statement: “the
‘Eres hatTachtona is stretched out upon (over) the waters, the
waters upon pillars of chashmal, the pillars of chasmal rest
upon mountains of hailstones, the mountains of hailstones
upon the mountains of hail, the mountain of hail upon the
treasuries of snow etc.” See also ch. xix. 3, 4.
For the walls of flames, walls of fire, flames of fire etc. (fire
being the celestial substance, κατ’ εξοχηυ), cf. Mass. Hek.
iv, according to which four walls surround the splendours in
‘Araboth Raqia’, “one of lappid (firebrands), another of flames,
the third of burning fire, the fourth of lightnings”. And ib. “the
seven Halls (of ‘Araboth) are all of them full of coal, firebrands,
sparks, lightnings, pillars of coal, pillars of burning fire, pillars
of lightnings, pillars of fires, pillars of flames”.
fire and water. Cf. ch. xlii. 7.

The counterbalance of the two
polar opposites of fire and water is a well-established part of
the cosmological speculations as well as of those of the
mysteries of the heavens.
(2) Round about… are those who utter the “Holy”… those who
utter the “Blessed,” i.e. the angels whose function is the
performance of the responses of the Qedushsha. This in the
present context forms the transition to the section, beginning
with the following chapter, a section which has the
performance of the Qedushsha in the heavens as main theme.
Cf. Introduction, section 17.
thousand camps of fire and ten thousand hosts of flame(s).
Referring to the angels arranged in camps (ch. xxxv. i), hosts
and armies. Cf. ch. xix. 6. The angels are made of fire, cf.
note on ch. xxii. 4.
between every several camp… there is a cloud lest they be
burnt by fire. For ‘clouds’ as protecting the angels cf. Mass.
Hek. iii: “and clouds (are set) to protect the ministering angels
from the splendour of the Throne of Glory”.

Section 5. The Celestial Qedushsha.
(Chh. xxxv, xxxvi, xxxviii, xl.)

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 35.

(1) E puts as heading: ‘the Order of the Camps’
(2) E: 496
(3) E om.
(4a) E corr. from ‘at that moment, etc.’ to ‘until they take upon
themselves, etc.’
(4b) E corr. (mistaking the abbreviation ‘ אאמ ”נ ‘ thousand
thousands of them are made into for: saying Amen)
(5) ins. with E. A’, lacuna
With this chapter begins a new section centering round the
conception of the heavenly Qedushsha, the counterpart of the
Qedushsha on earth. Vss. 1-4 form an introduction, treating of
the numerous camps in which the song-uttering angels are
arranged. The different fragments all begin with an explicit
reference to the performance of the ‘(Thrice) Holy’ (“When the
time for the saying of the ‘Holy’ draws nigh” or “when the
ministering angels utter the Song”) and are contained in chh.
xxxv. 5, 6, xxxvi, xxxviii, xxxix, xl.
On the conception of the celestial Qedushsha see Introduction,
section 17.

(1) The number of camps: 506 thousand myriads of camps has
the Holy One… each camp… 496 thousand angels. For
parallels cf. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 21, and Hilkoth hamMal’akim
{Add. 27199), fol. 125 a.
The passage of Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, placing the camps in
Shechaqim (the third heaven) instead of, as here, in the
‘Araboth (the highest of the heavens) by reason of the
assigning of the celestial Sanctuary to the Shechaqim runs: “In
Shechaqim 1018 camps are standing before the Shekina in the
Sanctuary which is the Shechaqim, saying before Him the
‘Holy’ every day, and each camp is (composed of) 1008
myriads of ministering angels. For ‘Shechaqim’ is by Gematria
1018… . From the morning until the evening they say before
Him: ‘Holy, Holy, Holy’, and from the evening until the morning
they say ‘Blessed be the glory of H from His place’.
Hilkoth Mal’akim, ib., presents both conceptions, that of the
present chapter and that of Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, in a developed
form:”

(Of) the angels 906,000 myriads (the number 906 is developed
from ‘506’ of vs. i here through the addition of a ‘ ת’ to the
numerical letters: ‘ תתקו ‘ instead of ‘ תקו ‘) are standing to the
right of the Throne and as many are standing to the left of the
Throne, together with a troop without number and a host
without reckoning. They teach song(s) and hymn(s). And in
Shechaqim there are 1018 camps of angels (cf. the passage in
Alph. R. ‘Aqiba above) who say ‘Holy’ and ‘Blessed’ from
morning until evening. Before Him there are 496,000 angels

who utter the ‘Holy’ by day and the ‘Blessed’ by night. And all
the angels and all the camps bathe in fiery rivers seven times
and restore themselves by fire 365 times (cf. ch. xxxvi. 2).”
Vss. i and 4 seem to indicate that the ‘camps’ here represent
all the ministering angels. But the emphasis is clearly on the
song-uttering angels and in the two parallel passages just
referred to as well as in ch. xl. 3 the ‘camps’ refer only to the
angels as performing the Qedushsha.

There was, moreover, a
definite tradition current, to the effect that the number of
ministering angels in general was countless, infinite (basing
upon Job xxv. 3: “Is there any number of his armies?”). Cf.
Hilkoth Mal’akim above (“a troop without number etc.”) and
esp. TB. Chag. 13 b, where it is said expressly, that the
passage Dan. vii. 10, which vs. 4 here uses as scriptural
support, is to be interpreted as referring to the number of one
troop only, “for the troops are without reckoning”. The
‘camps’, then, are understood as the armies of angels which
have the performance of the Qedushsha for their special
object. Apart from this, of course, the view obtains that all the
higher (and lower) classes of angels utter the ‘Thrice Holy’ or
the ‘Blessed’. Cf. chh. xx. 2, xxv. 5, xxvi. 8.

The numbers ‘506’ and ‘496’ are arrived at by means of
gemametrical calculations, as it is expressly stated to be the
case with the number ‘1018’ of the camps of Shechaqim in
Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, referred to above. (506 = kingdoms, 496 =
kingdom. See Introduction, section 17 E.)
(2) From ‘the appearance of their countenance’ the description
of the angels in this verse is in the literal terms of Dan. x. 6.
The speculations concerning the song-uttering angels and the
judgement are to a large extent drawn from interpretations of
different passages of Daniel. Cf. vs. 4.

(3) they are all standing before the Throne of Glory in four
rows. Cf. ch. xxxvi. 2. The four rows here represent the
same idea as ‘the four camps of Shekina’, chh. xviii. 4, xxxvii.
i (see note on ch. xviii. 4) and as “the four camps of angels”
glorifying the Most High, P. R. ‘El. iv. the princes of the army
at the head of the rows (the meaning is probably “one prince
at the head of each row”) are, consequently, a parallel
representation to that of ‘the four great princes… over the four
camps of Shekina’, ch. xviii. 4, and identical with the “four
angels at the head of the four camps of angels etc.”, P. R. ‘El.,
ib., whose names are MIKAEL, URIEL, GABRIEL and RAPHAEL.

On these grounds it is possible to point to a connection
between the tradition preserved in the present chapter and i
En. The four ‘Presences’ of i En. xl, uttering praises before
‘the Lord of Glory’, MIKAEL, RAPHAEL, GABRIEL and PHANUEL,
are there introduced in the close company of “the thousands of
thousands and ten thousand times ten thousand etc.”, xl. i,
and of “those who stand before Thy glory and bless, praise and
extol, saying, ‘Holy, Holy, Holy’, and, ‘Blessed be Thou and
blessed be the name of the Lord for ever and ever'”, ch. xxxix.
12 f. Cf. ib. ch. ix. i and Ixxi and 2 En. xviii. 9 (“the Grigori
are standing in four orders, while singing [the Praise of the
Holy One] with one voice”). Cf. Zohar, iii. 50 a: “four
משריין “. (Vide Introduction, section 17 A.)

(4) Some of them utter the “Holy” etc. some of them run as
messengers etc. Cf. note above on vs. i. Thousand
thousands ministered unto him etc. Dan. vii. 10. This verse
seems to have been used as an epitome of mystical gnoseis: it
was the starting-point for the computation of the number of
the angels, was used as support for the conception of the
Nehar di-Nur, the fiery river(s), the ministration of the
Qedushsha by hosts of angels, the Celestial Beth Din, the
Judgement and the Book(s) of judgement.
Some say the ‘Holy’, some the ‘Blessed’, i.e. the Qedushsha,
consisting of the Thrice Holy and the response ‘Blessed’, of
which latter there are at least two forms within the present
book: (1) ‘Blessed be the glory of H’ from His place (ch. i. 13),
and (2) ‘Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever
and ever’ (ch. xxxix. 2). The Qedushsha responsorium, as
performed by the angels, is attested in i En. xxxix. 12 f.,
referred to above note on vs. 3. (Notice the form of the
‘Blessed’ there.)

(5) when the time draws nigh for the recital of the Holy… there
goes forth a whirlwind. The moment before the Qedushsha
was one of commotion and shudder through all the heavens, of
a ‘momentous’ significance. Cf. chh. xviii. 7, xix. 6, xxxviii.
i.

(6) thousand thousands of them are changed into sparks…
flames… males… females… light etc. The angels are thus
represented as changeable into various forms from their
original state of angels with bodily form. This is stated Gen. R.
xxi. 13, with reference to Ps. civ. 4:

“‘(who maketh his angels spirits), his ministers a flaming fire’,
which changes, for they change, appearing at one time as
males, at another as females, now as winds (or, spirits), now as
angels”. This dictum (attributed to Rab?) is quoted and
commented upon by Maimonides in his More Nebukim, vol. I,
ch. xlix. The expression ‘are made into males… made into
females’ is somewhat suspect in its present connection, where
the changing of the angels into all sorts of fiery, lifeless
substances, is apparently conceived of as a punishment ad
premonitum, till they acquiesce in performing their duty, the
performance of the Qedushsha.

until they take upon themselves the yoke of the kingdom of
heaven, the high and lifted up, of the Creator. By the
recitation of the Qedushsha, the angels take upon themselves
the yoke of heaven. In the Qedushsha they recognize the Holy
One, blessed be He, as the king of the heavens cf. the
response in the Qedushsha of the Liturgy: “H’ shall reign for
ever etc.” Ps. cxlvi. 10. So the Israelites every day, when
they recite the ‘Shema’ ‘take upon themselves the yoke of the
kingdom of heaven, M. Ber. ii. 2, and when praying in
general, TB. Ber. 10 b.

The Qedushsha is in itself the
religious duty of the song-uttering angels. In the performance
of the Qedushsha they put themselves as a harmonious unity
in the heavenly kingdom, hence they are changed again into
their former shape, described in vs. 2 as individual,
manifested angelic beings, in which existence they remain only
as long as they continue in the performance of the duty that is
their only raison d’etre. Cf. chh. xl. 3, xlvii. I f.
On the meaning of the expression ‘take upon oneself the yoke
of the kingdom of heaven’ see article “Kingdom of heaven” in
JE and Abelson, Jewish Mysticism, p. 84.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 36.

(1) in acc. with the reading of E. ‘bekamma’ A; ‘bamma
(2) so E. A:’camp:
(3) E ins.: ‘in Nehar di-Nur’
The ministering angels, before singing the ‘Song’, i.e. in this
connection presumably the Qedushsha, purify their bodies, in
particular their tongue and mouth, in the Nehar di-Nur, the
fiery river, see note on ch. xxxiii. 5.

(1) Nehar di-Nur rises etc. The beginning of the verse is a
covert interpretation of Dan. vii. 10. The fiery river is
represented as bringing with it the “thousand thousands etc.”
of Dan. vii. 10, all of which are fire “in strength and might”. of
power and strength of fire. The present writer is unable to
translate this into intelligible English: it means that the fiery
substance of the angels is on this occasion intensely radiant
and sparkling.
The camps probably stand for the song-uttering angels, the
troops for the rest: ‘the host without reckoning’. Cf. i En. xl. i
and note, ch. xxxv. i.

(2) the angels… go down into Nehar di-Nur. Cf. May’an
Chokma, BH. i. 58-64: “in the fiery river the ministering
angels bathe themselves and are renewed every morning”.
their tongue… seven times, the special organ for the recital of
the Thrice Holy needs special purification. Cf. the passage
from Hilkoth Mal’akim, quoted above, note on ch. xxxv. i.
Machaqe Samal. No reasonable translation of this term seems
possible. See Jellinek, E, ad loc. chashmal. Derived from
Ezek. i. 4. four rows. Cf. ch. xxxv. 3.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 37.

(1) E: ‘riding’
(2), (3) E om.
(4) E om.
(5) E: ‘and behind the sparks there are earthquakes’
This chapter belongs to the same category as ch. xxxiv. Cf.
notes, ib, The reason why it was placed in its present context is
probably the mention in vs. I of ‘the four camps of Shekina’
since the ‘camps’ are understood of the song uttering angels.

(1) seven Halls, in ‘Araboth, the highest of the heavens. Cf.
note on ch. xviii. 3. The camps are conceived of as filling all
the Halls, radiating from the centre of the Throne of Glory. The
chariots of Shekina are here four, corresponding to the four
Chayyoth of the Divine Chariot, an amplification of the One
Chariot similar to that of one fiery river into four or seven. four
camps of Shekina. See note on chh. xviii. 4, xxxv. 3. E
misreads ‘seven’, probably by false analogy to the seven Halls.

(2) The text has probably suffered a confusion. Instead of
‘between… and’ read throughout ‘behind’ as in the latter part
of the verse and as in the parallels of Midrash Konen and Seder
Rabba di Bereshith Rabba referred to note on ch. xxxiv,
Introduction. The reading ‘between… and’ was presumably
caused by the use of this expression with reference to the
rivers as flowing between the camps of ministering angels. Cf.
how in ch. xxxiii it is said about the fiery rivers: “each river
turns round in a bow in… ‘Araboth Raqia'”. The original intent
of the chapter was to picture the concentric circles of flames,
treasuries of lightnings, chambers of the tempest etc.
surrounding the Throne of Glory and the camps. The confusion
is, even after the suggested emendation, too great as to allow
any clear reconstruction of the intended picture.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 38.

(1) E: ‘the gates of the Halls and ‘Araboth Raqia”
(2) E: ‘chambers’
(3)E: ‘Halls’
(4) E: ‘secrets’
(5) so E. A corr.
(6) E ins.: ‘back(ward)’
The importance of the Celestial Qedushsha is illustrated by a
description of the commotion that seizes the whole Universe at
the time appointed for its recital by the ministering angels.
(1) all the pillars of the heavens… tremble etc. This
description is supplemented by the description of the fear of all
the angelic hosts and different classes of angels at the time of
the ‘Song’ in ch. xix. 6. A parallel in similar terms as those of
the present verse and of ch. xix. 6 and of the same import is
found in Ma’yan Chokma, BH. i. 59 seqq.: “all the heavenly
hosts shake and tremble, and the Holy Chayyoth are struck
dumb, the Holy Seraphim roar like lions… the Galgallim of the
Throne… are moved, the thresholds of brilliancy quake and all
the heavens are seized with terror”. A similar expression in
Assumption of Moses, x. 5: “and the circuit of the stars shall
be disordered”. Of the various heavens are here named:
‘Araboth, the 7th, Shechaqim, the 3rd, Ma’on, Makon, Raqia’,
the 5th, 6th, 2nd resp. foundations of Shechaqim and…
(Tebel), may be a hint of the connection of each of the seven
earths with the corresponding heaven (elaborated in Midrash
Konen and often repeated in cosmological Oabbala), only that
usually Shechaqim is represented as connected with the earth
called ‘Arqa, whereas the earth called Tebel is combined with
the Raqia’ -heaven.

the orders of Raqia’ and the constellations and planets… and…
the sun and the moon. The heavenly bodies are situated in the
Raqia’, the second heaven (cf. Chag. 12 b).
(3) until the Prince of the World calls them. The Prince of the
World is here the ruler or prince of the heavenly bodies, the
constellations, planets, sun and moon. Ch. xxx. 2, he is the
leader of the 72 princes of kingdoms and pleads the cause of
the world (i.e. all the inhabitants of the world) before the Most
High when seated on the judgement-throne. These two
functions, leader of the planets-constellations and of the
princes of kingdoms are naturally combined, when, according
to the development of the conception of the princes of
kingdoms, they are represented as the rulers of the planets
and constellations (so even in this book, ch. xvii. 8, in its
present redaction).

The Prince of the World has been identified with Metatron by
one party of cabbalistic traditionists. Within the present book
functions are attributed to Metatron that are essential to the
Prince of the World. Metatron is indicated as the ruler over the
princes of kingdoms, chh. x. 3, xlviii C 9 et al., and he has
authority over the planets (and constellations) acc. to ch. xlvi.
2, and over the princes of kingdoms and the rulers of the
world, ch. xiv. 1, 3.
The Prince of the World was present at the Creation and in the
days of Creation he uttered the words of Ps. civ. 31 (“The
glory of the Lord shall endure for ever: the Lord shall rejoice in
his works”). TB. Chullin, 60 a, hence to him refers the
passage, Ps. xxxvii. 25, “I have been young and now am old”:
TB. Yebam. 13 a. Cf. further, note on ch. iii. 2.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 39.

(1) so E. A: ‘(the place of the) Glory of His Shekina’
(2) A ins.: ‘the troops of flame’
(3) emendated. AE both omit ‘fire’
(4) emendated. A: ‘fall upon three times ‘E: ‘fall upon their
faces’
This chapter continues the picture of the preceding chapter
(the commotion of all the heavens with the inclusion of the
constellations and the planets at the sound of the Thrice
Holy) : the Explicit Names on the very Throne of Glory and the
highest classes of angels are all moved into expressions of
glorification of the Most High at the time of the Qedushsha.
(1) all the explicit names that are graven with a flaming style
on the Throne of Glory. The explicit names are represented as
a plurality; hence we are here on the ground of mystical
speculations concerning the different Divine Names consisting
of various permutations of the Tetragrammaton and of the
other names of God and expressions representing the Godhead
occurring in the O.T. For the various meanings attached to the
term ‘Shem Mephorash’ see JE (e.g. vol. i. 622); Gaster, The Sword of Moses, intr. ; Bousset, RJ. pp. 344 et al.

The
meaning that suggests itself in the present connection is that
of “names that are explicit, have an individual, fixed form or
appearance”. Cf. ch. xlviii B i, acc. to the reading of FGH:
“The Holy One, blessed be He, has 70 names that are explicit,
the rest that are not explicit are innumerable and
unsearchable”. The Explicit Names are here distinguished as
being graven on the Throne of Glory (with a flaming style; cf.
chh. xiii. i, xxix. i, xli. 4). Cf. the enumeration of the
different categories of Names in Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, EH. iii. 26.
The Explicit Names are there in a separate class from those on
the Throne, if the reading is correct: “The Holy One, blessed be
He, revealed to Moses all the Names : both the Explicit Names,
the Names that are graven on the royal crown on his head, the
names that are graven on the Throne of Glory, the names that
are graven on the ring of his hand, the names that are
standing as pillars of fire round his chariots, the names that
surround the Shekina like eagles of the Merkaba, and the
names by which heaven and earth are sealed…”. The intent of
the passage is probably to denote all these names as Explicit
Names.

fly off like eagles. Cf. above, ‘the names that surround the
Shekina like eagles’. For the names flying off, cf. TB. ‘Ab.
Zar. 18 a (the letters fly off from a scroll of the Tora, when
burning), Pesachim, 87 b (when the tables of the testimony
were broken by Moses, acc. to Ex. xxxii. 19, the letters graven
on them, flew off). Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 53’ “The letter
Kaph went down from its place on the Fearful Crown and stood
before the Throne of Glory”. Similarly, ch. xlviii B i, the Names
of the Holy One are represented as going forth ‘from before
the Throne of Glory’. The names are thus represented as selfexistent
and capable of taking on the form of living beings.
The object of the names flying off as eagles (angels of the form
of eagles) is their participation in the responses of the
Qedushsha. This is explicitly stated with regard to the letters
(the letters and the Names being vastly interchangeable
terms) in the quotation from “the book of Enoch” in Mishkan
ha-‘Edut by Moses de Leon (BH. ii. p. xxxi): “the letters in the
four different quarters round the Throne (cf. here: on the four
sides of the place of His Shekina (fly off… and when flying off
say: ‘Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and
ever'”.

(2) And the angels of the host, and the flaming Servants etc.
The Explicit Names surrounding the Holy One are accompanied
by great armies of princes of fire and mighty regiments of
troops (gedudim) of fire, says Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 25. For
the present enumeration of various angelic classes cf. chh. vi.
2, vii, xiv. i. xix. 6. No doubt the present verse is to be
regarded as presenting a tradition of the orders of the highest
angel-classes. This is indicated by the mention of the four
classes of ‘Merkaba-angels’ (‘Ophannim, Kerubim, Chayyoth
and Seraphim).

angels of the host. Cf. the expression ‘prince of the host’
applied to the princes of the seven heavens, ch. xvii. 2 f. In
each heaven there is one ‘host’. The term ‘host’ need not
necessarily refer to the whole multitude of angels, it might also
mean one special class of angels. ‘The angels of the host’
would then, here, mean.
‘the angels of the host of the highest of the heavens ‘. Cf. ch.
xiv. i.

the flaming Servants. This expression occurs also ch. vii. Cf.
note, ib. the mighty ‘Ophannim and the Kerubim of the
Shekina, the holy Chayyoth and the Seraphim. The mighty
‘Ophannim or ‘the ‘Ophannim of Gebura’: Gebura also means
the Divine Majesty. The ‘Ophannim, Kerubim, Chayyoth and
Seraphim are the four classes of Merkaba-angels, described in
the angelological section, chh. xx-xxii, xxv, xxvi. Cf. also ch.
vi. 2. The ‘Galgallim’ or ‘Wheels of the Merkaba’ are missing
here.

‘Er’ellim and Taphsarim occur also ch. xiv. i ; cf. note, ib.
the troops of consuming fire. The term used is ‘(‘Esh) ‘Okela’,
used ch. xlii. 3 as a Divine Name. the fiery armies and the
flaming hosts. The attributes probably only convey the fiery
substance of the angels. Cf. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 25.
the holy princes. This might refer to the ‘princes of Kingdoms’,
ch. xiv. 2 (mentioned after the ‘Erellim and Taphsarim), ch.
xvii. 8 (‘crowned with royal crowns, clad in royal garments
etc.’, cf. here: ‘adorned with crowns, clad in kingly majesty’, in
the present connection of course referring to all the
enumerated angels and princes), chh. xxix and xxx (identical
with the Watchers and Holy Ones, cf. note on ch. xxix, intr.).
Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and
ever. This is then the form of the response to the ‘Holy, Holy, Holy…’ according to the present chapter. Ch. i. 13 has the
regular response: ‘Blessed be the glory of H’ from His place’.
The present response is a glorification of God as King, of the
Kingdom of Heaven, a form implied by ch. xxxv. 6.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 40.

(1) E om.
(2) so E. A:’ every two of them carry between them’
(3) E: ‘796′
The ministering angels receive crowns as reward when uttering
the ‘Thrice Holy’ in the proper manner. Hereby the
performance of the Qedushsha is indicated as a meritorious
act, an observance of a religious duty. As such it is already
characterized, ch. xxxv. 6 (the angels when singing the ‘Holy’
take upon themselves the yoke of the Kingdom of heaven). It
signifies the sustainment of the whole order of the heavens by
the recognition of God’s sovereignty (the whole earth is
sustained by the Qedushsha, TB. Sofa, 49 a). The reward of
the ministering angels performing the Qedushsha is hence
exactly paralleled by the rewarding of the Israelites with
crowns at the time when they said, “We will do and hear (Ex.
xxiv. 7)”, related in TB. Shabb. 88 a (“60 myriads of
ministering angels put crowns on every single one of the
Israelites etc.”)

but for the acceptance of the Tora implied in
those words the whole world could not have subsisted. The
importance of the Qedushsha in the present section always
refers to the Celestial QSdushsha, at any rate in the first place.
The importance of the earthly Qedushsha is the subject of
Sota, 49 a, and Hek. R. ix et al.; to the latter at times the
greater importance is assigned (the angels must be silent
while the Israelites say the ‘Holy’ on earth).

(1) the servants. of His Throne… go forth… from under the
Throne. The servants of His Throne are the angels entrusted
with the care of the treasuries of the crowns which are under
the Throne of Glory and hence also over the other treasuries
that are conceived of as having their place under the Throne.
From under the Throne was brought forth the fire of deafness
for the Chayyoth acc. to ch. xv B, and go forth the ‘horns’ acc.
to Hek. R. xii. In the secret chamber under the Throne God
hid Moses away from the fury of the ministering angels acc. to
Ex. R. xxii.

(2) they all carry in their hands… crowns… and put them on
the ministering angels. The crowns are made of stars, in
appearance like unto the splendour of the planet Venus. The
‘planet Venus’, ‘the shining star’, is a frequent term of
comparison, cf. ch. xxvi. 6 et al. one crown, because they
say ‘Holy’ etc. One would have expected ‘one crown for each
“Holy”‘ or similar. The same division of the Thrice Holy is
found in the Siddur of R. ‘Amram Ga’on, Morning Prayer, p. 4
(ed. Warsch), closely connected with the present chapter by
reason of its being attributed to R. Ishmael: “R. Ishmael said:
There are three companies of ministering angels who say the
‘Holy’ every day. One company says ‘Holy’, the other says
‘Holy, Holy’, and the third company says ‘Holy, Holy, Holy, is
the Lord of Hosts. The whole earth is full of His glory'”. The
same is repeated in a different version, ib., Evening Prayer, fol.
18, and also, with slightly corrupt readings, in Seder Rabba di
Bereshith Rabba (ed. Werthheimer, Batte Midrashot). Vide
Introduction, section 17 D.

(3) And in the moment that they do not utter the Holy in the
right order or in the right time a consuming fire… consumes
them in one moment. The same punishment of the ministering
angels that utter the song out of order is set forth in ch. xlvii.
2. The fire is here not the fiery river, the regular means of
punishment, but a fire sent out for the purpose from the little
finger of the Holy One. In ch. xlvii. 2 the two ideas of the fire
from the Most High and the fiery river are combined: the
immediate extinction of the angels is effected by the fire ‘from
their Creator’, but their continued punishment takes place in
the fiery river.

The idea of the punishment by extinction in fire of the angels
who utter the ‘Holy’ in the wrong way is echoed in Hilkoth
Mal’akim, Add. 27199, fol. 123 a: “Every angel who begins
earlier or later than his fellow-angels when singing the Song, is
immediately burnt by lashes of fire through CHAYYLIEL, the
Prince who attends the Chayyoth” (cf. ch. xx. 2).

Rekanati quotes from Sepher Hekaloth (one of the names of
the present book), cited BH, ii. p. xvii: “All the ministering
angels… who are standing before Him… none of them begins
(the Song) too early or too late: anyone who tarries with his
voice after his neighbour as much as a hair’s breadth is
instantly pushed into fire and flames”. The singing the ‘Song’
in the wrong order is acc. to both these passages understood
of the time. Cf. ch. xlvii. 2.
is divided into 496 thousand parts corresponding to the four
camps of the ministering angels etc. This is apparently a
confusion of the two conceptions of the four camps of Shekina
(consisting of song-uttering angels) and the 496 (or 506)
thousand myriads of camps each composed of 496 thousand
angels. It seems to imply that the whole multitude of camps of
song-uttering angels are destroyed. They are treated as a
whole, a unity. (Contrast the quoted passages, Hilkoth
Mal’akim and Recanati.)

a fire goeth before Him and burneth up his adversaries. The
angels who do not utter the Song in the right way are identified
with the ‘adversaries of God’ of Ps. xcvii. 3; this is altogether
in accordance with the view of the performance of the
Qedushsha as an all-important religious duty attested in the
present chapter. The neglect of or unwillingness to perform
the Qedushsha is an act of enmity against the Kingdom of the
Most High. The punishment in fire here should be compared
with the changing of the angels into all kinds of lifeless fiery
substances until their acquiescence in the performance of their
duty, depicted ch. xxxv. 5, 6.

(4) After that the Holy One, blessed be He, opens His mouth
and speaks one word and creates… new ones. Hence,
according to the view of the present chapter (and section) the
angels who continue their existence as individual, corporeal
beings as long as they rightly perform their duty: the uttering
of the Trisagion, are consumed by fire only as punishment for
their non-observance of this duty after which new ones are
created by a word of God. This view is a harmonization of the
different views concerning the origin and fate of the songuttering
angels recorded TB. Chag. 14 a, Gen. R. Ixxviii,
Lam. R. iii. 21: (i) the angels are created out of the fiery river
and thither they are sent back again after they have uttered a
Song; (2) the angels are created from the ‘dibbur (word)’ of
God.

Cf. ch. xxvii. 3 and note on ch. xlvii. 2 (the angels after
being consumed in the fire, viz. as corporeal beings, subsist in
soul and spirit).
They are new every morning; great is thy faithfulness: Lam. iii.
23. This was the fundamental starting point and basis of the
speculations on the creation and duration of the angels. It is
used, TB. Chag. 14 a, as support of view (i) above, and the
review of the various traditions in Lam. R., ib., is attached to
this passage.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 41.

(1) E: ‘I will show thee ‘Cf. the opening words of the following
chapters.
(2) E om.
(3) E ins.: ‘the letters by which were created the ministering
angels; the letters by which were created the Seraphim and
the Chayyoth’
(4) E: ‘World’
(5) so E. A corr. ‘the ‘Ophan of the letters, all of them’
In ch. xlvi. 4 this passage is used with reference to the
renewal of the planets (stars) in the time to come.
This chapter marks the beginning of a new section
distinguished from the rest of the book by the setting in which
the revelations of the heavenly mysteries are here framed.
Whereas according to the preceding chapters the various
celestial facts are represented as orally transmitted to R.
Ishmael by Metatron, the various wonders of heaven are acc.
to this section actually shown to R. Ishmael.
The contents of the revelations thus presented in this section
are greatly varied and can scarcely be comprised under one

heading. Three main themes are, however, discernible. One is
the physical-cosmological aspect of the heavenly mysteries; to
this may be reckoned the letters engraved on the Throne of
Glory (in the present chapter), the various polar opposites (ch.
xlii) in which the cosmological interest is apparent the Curtain
spread before the Holy One (ch. xlv), and the stars and
planets (ch. xlvi).

The second theme is that of the conditions of the souls and
spirits, comprising not only the spirits and souls of the
departed (righteous, wicked and intermediate chh. xliii, xliv),
but also those of the unborn, and, even more, those of the
punished angels (chh. xliii, xlvii).
The third theme, connected with and partly interwoven in the
others is of eschatological character: chh. xliv. 7-10, xlv. 5,
xlviii A. Ch. xlviii A forms the conclusion of the section.

(1) This verse is an almost literal copy of ch. xiii. i, on which
see note, ib.
(2) by which were created the Throne of Glory and the Wheels
of the Merkaba. The letters are thus prior even to the Throne
of Glory, the vehicle of God’s manifestation in the heavens.
The Throne of Glory (pre-existent before the creation of the
world) created, cf. Gen. R. i. 5.
(3) the letters by which were created wisdom etc. by which
the whole world is sustained. By ten things the world was
created (wisdom, knowledge, etc.), TB. Chag. 12 a, ‘Aboth R.
Natan, xxvii; upon three things the world is based, Pirqe Ab. i;
by “knowledge, wisdom, understanding and faculty of speech
the whole world, is sustained”, Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 43.-
The conceptions of creative agencies and of sustaining ideal
forces are here recognizable together with an initial tendency
towards the speculations emerging in the ideas of the
Sephiroth.

(4) graven with a flaming style etc. Said of the Divine Names,
ch. xxxix. i. The mystical letters are the constituents of the
Divine Names. A reads: “showed me the Ophan (i.e. circle,
circuit) of the letters”. The expression “Ophan of the letters”
occurs in Berith Menucha, 3 b (ed. Amsterdam, 1648).

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 42.

(1) so E. A om.
(2) E om.
(3) E: ‘(the) voice makes itself heard’
(4) E om.
(5) E om.
(6) E: ‘flames of fire’
(7) E ins.: ‘YHWH’
(8) E om. from’ ‘EL-SHADDAI RABBA’ vs. 5. to ‘YAD ‘AL KES
YAH’ vs. 6.
(9) E om.
(10) E adds: ‘and rivers of water running in the midst of rivers
of fire’
(11) E adds: ‘BIMEROMAW (in his high places)’
(12) E om.
(13) E om.
(For this chapter cf. notes on ch. xiii and i En. Ixix. 14-25.)
The central idea of the present chapter is the
COUNTERBALANCE OF POLAR OPPOSITES, effected by one of
the Divine Names in each case. The instances refer to the
physical aspect of the highest of the heavens, where R.
Ishmael is represented as shown the various wonders by
Metatron. They are, however, certainly of cosmological
significance, since the heavens, esp. the ‘Araboth, are the
realm of causes and the correspondence between the ‘upper
world’ and the ‘lower world’ is a fundamental presumption of
the present book in general. Hence what R. Ishmael beholds in
the ‘Araboth is the fountain of cosmical realities, which

although they are the basis of the terrestrial world, are hidden
from the eyes of man on earth.
(2) I beheld the waters suspended on high in ‘Araboth Raqia’.
The waters suspended on high are in all probability the ‘Upper
Waters’, divided from the ‘Lower Waters’ by the Divine
command, Gen. i. 6, 7. The cosmological speculations
concerning these form a prominent part of Midrash Konen and
the tractate called Ma’ase Bereshith (e.g. in S.Rasiel and
Seder Rabba di Bereshith, 9 a). The polar opposition is here
not apparent, but is implied in the relation of the ‘suspended
waters’ to the lower waters. The upper waters are referred to
in a similar form in Test. Levi, ii. (6), 7: “I saw there (in the
first heaven) a great sea hanging”.

The upper waters are also conceived of as male, the lower as
female (an ancient idea of cosmology), a clear polar
opposition. This is attested in i En. liv. 8: “(And all the waters
shall be joined with the waters): that which is above the
heavens is the masculine, and the water which is beneath the
earth is the feminine”; and in Gen. R. xiii. 14, where the
fructifying, engendering function of the upper waters is
connected with their nature of ‘zekarim, males’ (with reference
to Isa. xlv. 8). Of this idea the expression in the present
verse, ‘their fruits going down from heaven’, is a trace.
by the name YAH ‘EHYE ‘ASHER ‘EHYE. The expression
‘beshem, in the name…’ is in this chapter to be understood
literally, as referring to a Divine Name. The names are here all
such as are derived from the O.T. YAH: Ex. xv. 2, xvii. 16,
Isa. xxvi. 4, Ps. Ixviii. 5. ‘EHYE ‘ASHER ‘EHYE: Ex. iii. 14.
The names here in general represent the mediating, sustaining
force, and this is probably conceived of as depending upon
their character as expressing the creative and ever-sustaining
activity of the Most High himself. Their function is hence to be
understood in a similar way as that conveyed by the frequent
expression “the Holy One created… and sealed with the
Name…”.

What significance is to be assigned to the YAH ‘EHYE ‘ASHER
‘EHYE here is not evident. Perhaps simply the permanence,
inalterability of the suspension of the waters. The important
role played by the name ‘EHYE ‘asher ‘EHYE in cabbalistic
speculations is well known. It is invariably repeated in the
different enumerations of the Divine Names set forth in Shi’ur
Qoma and Hek. Zot.

Seder R. di-Bereshith speaks of ‘ טבעת אהיה אשר אהיה ‘. In
Zohar this name (‘EHYE ‘asher ‘EHYE as distinguished from the
‘EHYE alone) represents the Godhead as -containing and
contained in the first pair of Sephiroth, the Wisdom and
Intelligence, which are of course polar opposites, distinguished
as masculine and feminine respectively (Zohar, iii. 65 b).

(3) Fire and snowand hailstone… mingled together… by (force
of) the name ‘ESH ‘OKELA (consuming fire). Here the name
seems to be chosen simply with regard to the fire, which is
represented as unquenched in spite of its surroundings of snow
and ice. For the idea of fire and its opposites kept in balance
see vs. 7. ‘Esh ‘Okela as attribute of God, see Alph. R.
‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 37. In fact ‘ESH ‘OKELA, in later Oabbala, very
often follows immediately on ‘EHYE ‘asher ‘EHYE in
enumerations of the Divine Names, a fact that drew the special
attention of Reuchlin who comments upon it in his De Verbo
Mirifico, chh. xvii, xviii.

(4) lightnings… out of mountains of snow… by (force of) the
name YAH SUR ‘OLAMIM. This is only another instance of
the contraries of fire ice (snow, water). The connection
between instance and name seems to be, that the word ‘SUR:
Rock’ suggests a relation to the ‘mountains (of snow)’. Else
this verse, Is. xxvi. 4, is the regular point of support for the
statement : God created the worlds by the letters Yod He (of
YaH). In that case the ‘ Sur’ is interpreted from the root ‘SUR’:
to form, to create. Cf. note on ch. xiii. i.
(5) thunders and voices… roaring in the midst of flames of
fire… by force of the name ‘EL SHADDAI RABBA. The voice
of God was thought to go forth in the midst of fire. The
connection of the Voice with the name ‘EL SHADDAI is
established by Ezek. x. 5:” as the voice of the Almighty God
when he speaketh”. Cf. 2 En. x. 2.

(7) And I beheld rivers of fire in the midst of rivers of water…
Cf. 2 En. xxix. 2: “And fire is in the water and water in the fire
and neither is the one quenched nor the other dried up”. The
juxtaposition of fire and water is a frequent cosmological
simile. TB. Pes. 3 a, Yer. Rosh. ha-shShana, 583, Cant. R.
to iii. 11: “the sky is made of water, the stars of fire and yet
they do not damage each other”. Gen. R. iv. 9: “The Holy
One, blessed be He, took fire and water, mixed them together
and out of them the heavens were created”. Gen. R. x. 3:
“The Holy One, blessed be He, took fire and snow, mixed them
and so out of them the universe was created”. In the last two
passages the cosmology is apparent.

Emphasis is laid on the mediating function of the Divine Name,
in this verse most significantly ‘OSE SHALOM, i.e. ‘maker of
peace’. ‘Peace’ is the technical term for the mediation, the
synthetical agency or Divine activity. Cf. the ‘angels of
peace’, ch. xxxiii. i. Midrash ‘Aseret Ma’amaroth, BH. i. 66:
“the angels are made of fire and water, and there is peace
between : neither does the water extinguish the fire nor the
fire lick up the water”. As denoting mediation and synthesis
the ‘OSE SHALOM, ‘maker of peace’, was understood and used
in Qabbala. Cf. e.g. the quotation from the ‘Pelt’a’, YR. i. 7 b
: “Why is it called heaven (Shamayirri)? Because water
(shemmayim) is to the right and fire to the left and it is in the
middle and receives from both, and to this is to be referred the
‘OSE SHALOM and the (saying) ‘he mixed fire and water and
made out of them the heavens’, and it is called ‘truth’ (the
mediating agency, ch. xxxi. i) and ‘mercy’ and receives from
(i.e. stands in the middle between) the Mercy and the Fear (=
the second pair of opposites in the Sephirotic system, also
called ‘ Mercy and Justice’, cf. ch. xxxi. i)”.

for he makes peace between the fire and the water, between
the ice and the fire, between the wind and the cloud. This,
referring to God, denotes that the names set forth in the
present chapter represent God himself in his different aspects
as sustainer and mediator between the dual forces, the
syzygies. The Names are part of God’s being and essence.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 43.

(1) E om.
(2) E: ‘conducted’
(3) E om.
(4) E om.
This chapter enters upon the subject of the condition of the
‘spirits’, one of the traditional subjects of mystical literature in
general and of the Enochliterature in particular acc. to 2 En.
xxiii: among the secret instructions given to Enoch were those
of “the souls of men, those of them which are not yet born and
the places prepared for them for ever”, further represented in
Apocalyptic (Ap. Bar., i En.).

(1) Come and I will show thee the spirits of the righteous that
have been created… the spirits of the righteous that have not
yet been created… .
(2) lifted me near by the Throne… revealed the Throne of
Glory… showed me the spirits that have been created and had
returned. The spirits of the righteous dead are here
represented as having their abode by the Throne of Glory. Cf.
TB. Chag. 12 a: “the ‘Araboth Raqia’, the highest of the
heavens, contains the Throne of Glory and the spirits and souls
of the righteous”; ib. 12 b: “the spirits of the righteous dead
under the Throne of Glory”; TB. Shab. 152 b: “the spirits of
the righteous are hidden under the Throne of Glory”; contrast
here ‘flying above’ the Throne. The idea of the spirits of the
righteous dead being hidden or stored (genuzoth) under
theThrone is clearly connected with the conception of” the
chambers of the righteous”, 4 Ezra iv. 35, 41, vii. 32, 80, 95
etc., 2 Bar. xxi. 23. xxx. 2, i En. xxii. 3 ff.

On this
conception see BOX, Ezra-Apocalypse, pp. 33, 34 (note on ch.
iv. 35), 37 (note on ch. iv. 41), 119-21 (note on ch. vii. 32).
Cf. also CHARLES, Comm. Revel, note on Rev. xx. 13. Vs. i
here refers to the spirits of those not yet born as well as to
those of the righteous dead. Besides, the expression ‘that
have returned’ of the righteous dead presupposes the preexistence
of the spirits. acc. to vs. 2, however, R. Ishmael is
only shown the spirits of the righteous dead that have returned
and have their place by or above the Throne of Glory, but to

the unborn spirits there is no reference. There is thus no
explicit statement as to the place of the pre-existent souls. As
the intent of vs. i is to reveal the abode of both the ‘returned’
and the ‘unborn’ spirits and acc. to vs. 2 R. Ishmael for that
purpose is taken to the Throne of Glory, it is possible that the
unborn souls were conceived of as having their place by the
Throne in common with those of the righteous dead. How far
one can press the expression ‘have returned’ (whether as
referring to a fixed place in heaven in such a case the Throne
or to the heavens in general) is uncertain. The other possibility
is that the unborn spirits are conceived of as having a different

abode from that of the righteous dead, e.g. in special
chambers under the Throne of Glory. On this assumption it
would be necessary to conclude that a piece describing the
place of the ‘spirits of the righteous that have not yet been
created’ has fallen out. For the possibility of this place having
been the traditional ‘ GUPH’ see below, note on vs. 3.
The place of the spirits yet unborn is acc. to 2 Bar. xxiii. 5 et
al. ‘the chambers’ referred to above (which acc. to 4 Ez. iv.
35, are the abode of the righteous dead). acc. to TB. Chag.
12 b, “the souls and spirits that are to be created together with
the spirits of the righteous (soil, dead) are in ‘Araboth, the
highest of the heavens”. acc. to Ber. R. viii. 6, the souls of
the righteous” dwell with their King (in accordance with i
Chron. iv. 23)” already before the Creation of the world: with
them God took counsel before creating man. acc. to a dictum
of R. Assi (repeated TB. Nidda, 133, ‘Aboda Zara, 5 a,
Yebamoth, 62 a) the unborn spirits await creation in the GUPH,
the storehouse of souls. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 26

(apparently dependent upon the same tradition as that of
Chag..12 b) mentions in the ‘Araboth: “the Throne of Glory, the
stores of life, the treasuries of blessings, of dew… and the
treasuries (contrast Chag., ib.) of the spirits of the living and of
the dead”, the “treasuries of the spirits of the living” being a
rather singular expression, probably meaning the treasuries of
the unborn spirits (cf. Sifre, 143 b). acc. to Tub ha-‘Ares, i. 50
a, the spirits “go out to the world from the Libnat ha-sSappir
(one of the seven Halls of ‘Araboth).”
Hence one might conclude that the unborn spirits here referred
to have their place in the proximity of the Throne of Glory,
whether in special chambers or not.

The expression ‘the spirits of the righteous, that have not yet
been created’ compels the question whether this implies a
distinction between the righteous, wicked (and intermediate)
even before this life. Such a distinction is met with in Wisdom
of Solomon, viii. 19, 20 (“For I was a witty child, and had a
good spirit. Yea, rather, being good, I came into a body
undefiled…”). This idea in its strictest connotation implies that
the moral character of the spirits is already determined before
their embodiment the different courses of the living on this
earth being merely a consequence of their qualities as
developed in their pre-terrestrial existence; it reappears in
Zohar in contexts treating of the problems of metempsychosis.

The fully righteous spirits are there termed “the spirits from
the side of Shekina”; cf. Zohar, ii. 94 a b. But another
interpretation of the expression ‘spirits of the righteous not yet
born’ is “the spirits that when once having entered earthly life
will turn out righteous. They are foreseen to be righteous”.
Their future perfection reacts upon their pre-existent state.
This seems to be the underlying idea of the passage Ber. R.
viii. 6 referred to above, and is represented in Zohar, ii. 96 b.
(Cf. ib. iii. 168 a and ii. 94 a b, referred to above, et al.)
If chh. xliii and xliv be treated as a whole, it is evident that
here the life on earth is regarded as determining the character
of man, and indeed so that it is the terrestrial life that taints
the previously pure souls. Treated as a whole then, these

chapters convey an interpretation of the words ‘spirits of the
righteous not yet created’ more in line with the latter of the
two connotations just referred to, but rather to the effect that
there are no unrighteous spirits in the pre-existent state. No
other unborn spirits are referred to in these chapters.
Although only available as a demonstratio e silentio, this fact
tends to show that at least the compiler of the present section
moves on the basis of the orthodox conception expressed in
the prayer ‘Elohe Neshdma (given in TB. Ber. 60 b): “O God,
the spirit which thou hast set within me is pure etc.” (BOX,
Ezra-Apocalypse, p. 120). Cf. Eccl. R. xii. 7: “the spirit I
have given thee is pure; if thou give it back to me in the same
state it is good for thee; if not, I will burn it before thee”. (Cf.
ch. xliv. and TB. Nidda, 30 a, Shab. 32 b, Baba Batra, 16 a.)
Also 4 Mace, xviii. 23 (“having received pure and immortal
souls from God”).

Still it is evident that the expression by itself presupposes a
distinction between righteous and not righteous already in the
pre-existent state, in one form or the other. Hence the
impression is left, that this tradition is suppressed in the
present context and the possibility remains, that a fragment
describing the conditions and abodes of the unborn spirits is
missing, which originally would have had its place after vs. 2.
(3) After that I went to interpret etc., lit. ‘after that I went and
studied this scriptural passage and I found according as it is
written etc.’ ‘This scriptural passage’ means the well-known
scriptural passage traditionally used as support for the
doctrines concerning the subject in question. The passage,
Isa. Ivii. 6, adduced here, is the starting point for the
speculations as to the conditions of the unborn spirits both in

TB. Chag. 12 b and Yeb. 62 a, ‘Aboda Zara, 5 a, Nidda, 13 a
(see above). acc. to the J. Targum, ad locum, it is also used
with reference to the doctrine of resurrection. Here the way in
which the passage is used for its present purpose is set forth
thus: the former part of the verse, ‘the spirit was clothed
before me’, is made to refer to the spirits that have been
created, that is to say, apparently, clothed with a body, the
latter part, ‘the souls I have made’, is interpreted as referring
to the spirits that are formed by God but not yet created,
invested with a body.

that have been created in the GUPH of creation of the
righteous, the chamber of creative forms designed for the
righteous. The GUPH (= body) is then here not the chambers
where the spirits dwell until the time appointed for their life on
earth arrives, but evidently the chamber where they are
conducted just at the time when they are to enter terrestrial
bodies. In this chamber they are then first ‘created’, i.e.
invested with a body, a creative form, which presumably
determines the individual, animal or terrestrial body they are
to join. The passage, Zohar, iii. 107, referred to by Abelson,
Jewish Mysticism, p. 166, could be used as a commentary on
the present verse, and one can safely assume that it belongs
to the same line of traditions or development of traditions:
“when the souls are about to quit their heavenly abode each
soul appears before the Holy One, blessed be He, clothed with
an exalted pattern (or image or form) on which are engraven
the features which it will bear here below”. The GUPH is here
rather the chamber containing “the pre-existent forms or types
of bodies” (Abelson’s expression, ib. p. 165) than the abode of
the spirits. The unborn spirits “have not yet been created in
the Guph” of creation.

It should be added that there is a certain indication here of a
beginning differentiation of the ‘world of Creation’ (Beri’a) as a
form of existence different from the higher world of ‘the
Throne’.

Lastly the qualifying addition ‘of the righteous’ (the GUPH of
creation of the righteous) raises again the question of the
distinction between righteous and nonrighteous in the preexistent
state. Is there also a division in the GUPH between
the compartment for the righteous and that or those for the
others? Or did the original tradition maintain the existence of
several GUPHs? In its strict connotation the distinction
between righteous and non-righteous spirits has as a
necessary corollary the distinction between different bodily
forms for these two classes.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 44.

(1) so E. A om.
(2) E om.
(3) E om.
(4) E: ‘intermediate’
(5) so E. A corr.: ‘to heat them for judgement in fire to
Gehenna’ (confusion of two variant readings?).
(6) E: ‘the multitude of their wicked deeds ‘
(7) E: ‘when wilt thou’
(8) E: ‘When wilt thou have’
(9) E: ‘And’
(10) E ins.: ‘and didst span’
(11) E reads: ‘(my great Right Hand) that has fallen down in
the downfall at their hands’
(12) so acc. to E. A corr.
(13) E: ’36’
(14) E adds: ‘to themselves’
(15) E: ‘I cannot now’
The preceding chapter, in so far as it dealt with the abode of
the righteous dead, is in this chapter continued by a
description of the two remaining classes of spirits who have
left earthly life, i.e. the intermediate and the wicked. The intermediate undergo a purgatorial process in fire in She’ol,
assisted and supported in their purification by an angel,
SIMKIEL, whereas the wholly wicked are delivered to the wrath
of the angel ZA’APHIEL who punishes them in Gehenna with
staves of fire.

(1) the spirits of the wicked and the… intermediate where they
are standing, i.e. probably at or immediately after the
judgement which is daily acc. to the section on the judgement,
chh. xxviii. y-xxxiii. 2. the spirits of the intermediate whither
they go down and the spirits of the wicked whither they go
down, i.e. acc. to the following verses, Sheol.

(2) The spirits of the wicked (supply here, in accordance with
the following verse: ‘and the spirits of the intermediate) go
down to She’ol through two angels of destruction. They are
sent down from the Throne of Glory, before which they have
undergone judgement. For the angels of destruction see notes
on chh. xxxi. 2 and xxxii. i. The angels of destruction carry
out the judgement on the wicked, and are appointed over the
different compartments of Gehenna according to numerous
descriptions of the punishments assigned for the wicked in
Gehenna. (Cf. ‘Descriptions of Hell’ and other translations by
Gaster, RAS’s Journal (1893), further Masseket Chibbut haqQeber,
BH. i. 150, Masseket Gehinnom, ib., i. 147-149, Gan
‘Eden we-Gehinnom, ib.,v. 49 seqq., Test. R.Eliezer, Seder
Yesirat ha-wWalad, ib., i. 151158.) They are then usually
represented as numerous and as being assigned to a leader,
‘the Prince of Gehenna’ (Gedullat Moshe, Gehenna) (cf.
QEMU’EL, note on ch. xxxi, 2).

Here only two angels of
destruction are mentioned. The older traditions speak of two
angels of destruction as executioners of the divine decrees,
‘APH and CHEMA. The angels of destruction function at the
judgement, acc. to chh. xxxi-xxxiii, but represent there
altogether the severe execution ofjudgement. Here one
represents the attribute of Mercy, SIMKIEL (support of God),
who is appointed over the intermediate to ‘support and purify
them’ (cf. the staff of Mercy, ch. xxxi. 2).
The idea of the ‘benoniyyim’, the intermediate class, the large
majority of those who are neither wholly righteous nor wholly
wicked, belongs to “the orthodox Rabbinic theology” of
Palestine. See BOX, Ezra-Apocalypse, p. 155. The classical
passages are TB. Rash ha-shSHana, 16 b, 17 a, Tos.
Sanhedrin, xiii. 3, Aboth R. Natan, xli, TB. Shab. 33 b. In
Rosh ha-shSHana, ib., it is the second dictum introduced there

that is particularly apposite in this connection (“there are three
divisions [companies] for the day of judgement: one that of the
fully righteous, another that of the fully wicked, the third that
of the intermediate. The fully righteous are immediately
written down and sealed for eternal life, the fully wicked… for
Gehenna, the intermediate go down into Gehenna, but when
they scream in prayer [transl. of BOX] they are permitted to
come up again” (acc. to Zech. xiii. 9: “And I will bring the third
part through the fire…. they shall call on my name and I will
hear them…”) “and of them said Hanna (i Sam. ii. 6): the Lord
Idlleth and maketh alive (cf. ch. xviii. 24)”.
because of the great mercy of the Prince of the Place. The
Place, the Maqom, is the Divine Majesty. The Prince of the
Place is an unusual expression. It may be a synonym for
‘Prince of the Presence’. A better reading would perhaps be
obtained by substituting ‘shel’ (of) for ‘sar’ (Prince) and transl.
simply: ‘because of the great mercy of the Place, i.e. the
Divine Majesty’.

ZA’APHIEL, ‘the wrath of God’. In contrast to the supporting
and helping attitude shown the intermediate from the Divine
Mercy, expressed by the name SIMKIEL, “support of God”,
stands the attitude of merciless wrath with regard to the
wicked, symbolically expressed by the name ZA’APHIEL.
to be punished in the fire of Gehenna with staves of burning
coal, probably pictured similarly to the passage BH. ii. 51 (of
the angels punishing the wicked in Gehenna): “angels. stand
close by and with their staves drive them back into the fire and
burn them”. Cf. the punishment with lashes of fire, chh. xvi.
5, xx. 2 (the word translated ‘lashes’ Rashi interprets ‘staves’).
(5) the appearance of their faces as the appearance of children
of men etc. The spirits have bodily form and actual bodies like
eagles, i.e. winged.

These bodies are of course different from
those they were invested with in the GUPH. The spirits of the
righteous, that are ‘flying above the Throne’ are probably
pictured in bodies of similar form. For the souls or spirits as
having bodily form cf. i En. xxii. 9-14 (“these hollow places
have been made that the spirits of the dead might be
separated… their spirits shall be set apart in this great pain…
scourgings and torments of the accursed for ever”), 4 Ez. vii.
78 seqq. (see BOX, Ezra-Apocalypse, note p. 121: “it seems
clear that they (the souls qf the unrighteous) are already
endowed with bodies suitable to their altered condition… This conception apparently characterizes also 2 Enoch”). Cf. also
how acc. to ch. xlvii. 4 the spirits and souls of the punished
angels whose ‘manifested’ bodies have been consumed with
fire, are represented as having bodily form, ‘their countenance
like that of angels and their wings like those of birds’.
the colour of the countenance of the intermediate was like pale
grey… .

(6) And the colour of the wicked was like the bottom of a pot.
The sins are depicted as having tainted the spirits originally
white and pure the intermediate being merely stained so that
their original nature is still recognizable, but the wicked black
‘like the bottom of a pot’: their original character is totally
blotted out. This simile presupposes the conception of the
absolute purity of the pre-existent spirits, cf. note on ch. xliii.
1-2 (end). like the bottom of a pot is used of the wicked also in
Masseket Gehinnom, BH. i. 149, and Pirqe Mashiach, BH. iii.
75 (“their faces were black like the bottom of a pot”). As to the
special sins that caused such an entire corruption there is no
explicit reference here. The traditions were different on this
point. TB. Baba Mesia’, 58 b, mentions three sins that consign
for ever to Gehenna (cf. the fate of the wicked as compared
with that of the intermediate), and the same is repeated in the
‘Treatise on Hell’ which appeared in translation by Gaster,
RAS’s Journal, 1893, p. 602: “(three sins cause those who
commit them to go down to Gehenna and never return:)
blaming one’s neighbour in public, slandering him and
adultery”.

Masseket Gehinnom, i. BH. i. 147, apparently
follows another tradition as to the distinction between wicked
and intermediate: there the full punishment in the class of the
wicked is designed for those who cannot point to one single act
of fulfilment of the Tora, “who have not one single statute in
their hands”. This corresponds with the statement, TB. ‘Aboda
Zara, 5 a: “the fully righteous are those who have fulfilled the
Tora from the beginning to the end, from ‘Aleph to Taw”. The
benoniyyim acc. to this view are those who have endeavoured
to fulfil the Law but have failed to keep all the statutes. A third
view identifies the benoniyyim with those who have kept the
negative statutes only, the fully righteous with those who have
kept all the positive statutes as well as the negative ones.
As to the length of the period of purification assigned for the
intermediate it is probably here conceived of as proportionate
to the degree in which the sins have tainted them: they are
kept in the purgatory until ‘they have become cleaned from
their iniquity’. Cf. the passage Rosh ha-shSHana etc. above
note on vs. 2 and the transl. in BOX, Ezra Apocalypse, p. 155,
where it is pointed out that the benoniyyim were thought to go
up after screaming in prayer for one hour, acc. to Yalqut on
Zech. xiii. 9. Rashi likewise (ad loc. Rosh ha-shSHand) puts
as an explanatory remark on the difficult word ‘mesafsefim’: “it
means: they cry and weep in their agony for one hour and then
(are permitted to) come up again”. Cf. Se’uddath Gan ‘Eden,
BH. v. 45, OM. i. 89 b: “the wicked of Israel tormented in
Gehenna are brought up from Gehenna to partake in the Feast
of the Righteous”.

CH. XLIV. 7-10.

Vss. 7-10 contain an apocalyptic-eschatological fragment with
the motto: “Israel’s deliverance is prevented by the sins of the
wicked”. The fragment does not fit in here. The theme of the
chapter, acc. to vs. i, is the conditions of the spirits of the
intermediate and the wicked after death. If it had originally
belonged to the exposition of the conditions of the spirits it
would have had its place in ch. xliii which treats of the spirits
of the righteous. But the interest of the present fragment is
not focussed on the various conditions of the spirits of the
dead but on the deliverance of Israel from the oppression
under the ‘nations of the world’, the establishment of God’s
Kingdom on earth and the ‘wicked’ to which it refers are not
the spirits of the wicked but the living evil-doers within Israel
who through their transgressions prevent the establishment of
the heavenly kingdom. It is, moreover, probable, that this
fragment represents a different outlook upon the fate of man
after death from that of the preceding context (vide below).
The frame is that of the rest of the section: R. Ishmael beholds
various wonders in heaven under the guidance of Metatron. It
is in this respect closely related to the Apocalyptic Fragment
(e.g. BH. v. 167-169): “R. Ishmael said: the Prince of the
Presence said to me: sit here in my bosom and I will tell thee
what shall befall Israel etc…”. An apocalyptic fragment of
similar character with Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, as
informant of R. Ishmael is contained inBodl. MICH. 175, foil.
25 b, 26 a (part of the Pirqe R. Ishm.).

(7) And I saw the spirits of the Patriarchs… and the rest of the
righteous who they have brought up out of their graves etc.
This evidently marks the beginning of a new fragment. R.
Ishmael is already shown the spirits of the righteous, acc. to
ch. xliii. The expression ‘have been brought out of their
graves and have ascended to Raqia” is also suspect in this
connection: it sounds as if we were here confronted with a
different conception as to the fate of men after death,
according to which the Patriarchs and (some of) the righteous
enjoy the privilege of bodily resurrection before the final
consummation.

How long wilt thou sit… . thy right hand behind thee. The
Right Hand or the Right Arm of the Lord represent the
actualization of the kingdom of God on earth, the deliverance
of Israel. That the Right Hand is laid behind the Lord is a
symbol of cessation in His activity for this purpose. The
deliverance of the Right Hand, hence, becomes synonymous
with the deliverance of Israel. Cf. ch. xlviii A. It was God’s
Right Hand that stretched out the heavens and the earth, and
so it must be His Right Hand that shall bring about the final
establishment of the Kingdom on earth.

(8) Since these wicked do sin… how could I deliver my great
Right Hand etc. The delay in the deliverance of Israel is
caused by the wicked in their own ranks. That the downfall of
Israel was caused by the wicked among them is a dictum
attributed to R. Gamaliel II. In particular the idolatry was
made responsible for the delay in the establishment of God’s
Kingdom. The coming of Messiah is suspended for a period
which exactly corresponds to the number of years that Israel
has been worshipping idols, acc. to ‘Echo. R. Proem. 21.
Similarly, in the Apocalyptic Fragment, Bodl. MICH. 175,
referred to above, R. Ishmael is represented as asking for the
reason of the present sufferings of Israel, whereon he is
informed that the deliverance is to be suspended for a time
corresponding to that of their idolatry (700 years). Here
evidently see vs. 9 the ‘sins’ of the wicked comprise all
‘transgressions of the Tora’.

‘These sinners’ was perhaps by the compiler thought to refer to
the wicked of vss. 1-6, this being then one of the reasons why
this fragment was given its present place.
(9) Take the books, and read their evil doings! On the
conception of books recording the deeds of righteous or
unrighteous etc. see note on ch. xviii. 24. The books here
seem to be the records of the deeds of the wicked, cf. i En.
Ixxxi. 4 (book of unrighteousness), ib. xcviii. 7-8 (“every sin is
every day recorded in heaven all your oppression… is written
down every day till the day of your judgement”). Since
Metatron here seems to have the ‘books’ in his charge, there
must be a trace here of Metatron’s function of scribe (Chag.
15 a).

36 transgressions (written down) with regard to each wicked
one… . Both readings (A and E) seem to be corrupt. The
meaning seems to be: for each wicked one were recorded 36
transgressions of the Tora and in addition thereto a great
many transgressions of each single letter of the Tora. from
‘Aleph to Taw. Cf. Lam. R. Proem. 24: “the Holy One,
blessed be He, said to Abraham: ‘thy children have sinned and
have transgressed the whole Tora and the 22 letters of Tora,
as it is written (Dan. ix. 11), all Israel have transgressed thy
Law’ (thus here also the passage, Dan. ib., is used as point of
support)”. The transgressing a letter of the Tora is in Lam. R.
ib., understood as equivalent to the transgressing a
commandment beginning with that letter, or vice versa. But
the expression ‘from ‘Aleph to Taw’ ( א-ת ) represents the
entirety of a thing, in this case the Tora, any part of which is
based upon one or the other of the letters. In an absolute
sense it represents the entirety of things in general, and is to
be compared with the expression ‘Alpha and Omega’, ( א Ω)
Rev. i. 8. (See CHARLES, Comm. on Rev. i. 20, and Riedel in
Theologische Studien und Kritiken, 1901, pp. 297 seqq., both
regarding the ‘Alpha and Omega’ as an imitation of the ‘Aleph
to Taw’.)

(10) Mikael, the Prince of Israel, cried and wept with a loud
voice. This is the only passage in the present book where
Mikael is explicitly referred to as the Prince of Israel. Ch. xvii.
3, Mikael is the prince of the seventh (highest) heaven. The
scarce occurrence of ‘Mikael’ (only twice) is remarkable. His
position seems to have been taken over by Metatron. Ctr. the
frequent reference to Mikael as the prince of Israel in i En. (ix.
i, x. n, xx. 5, xxiv. 6, xl. 9, liv. 6, Ix. 4, 5, Ixvii. 12, Ixviii. 2-
4, Ixix. 14 f., Ixxi. 3, 8, 9, 13).
For Mikael bewailing calamities that have befallen Israel, cf.
Pesik. R. xliv and the parallel trait there: God answers that
the deliverance is dependent upon Israel: “(the apostates of)
Israel must first turn to me, even if it were only as much as the
point of a needle”. Cf. also Midrash Petirath Moshe: when
Sammael is about to take away Moses’ soul, Mikael ” cried and
wept with a loud voice”.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 45.

(1) so E. A: ‘and like a father who teaches his children (he
showed me) each generation’
(2) so E. כורקיהי lit. ‘flayers, hatchellers’; cf. Zohar i. 177 a:
כריקתא דקוכטרי “ ’’: ‘eunuchs, officers’ (?)
(3) E: ‘the helpers of each generation, and their pious men
(Chasidim), their leaders, teachers, sages and heads of the
schools’
(4) E om.
(5) E ins.: ‘Methuselah, his generation, etc.’
(6) E om.
(7) E om.
(8) E ins.: ‘and his generation, their thoughts and their doings’
(9) E adds: ‘and her generation’
(10) Eom.
(11) E om. perhaps rightly
(12) E ins.: ‘Saul etc., David, etc., Salomo, etc.’
(13) E ins.: ‘the rulers of Israel, etc., the nobles of Israel, etc.,
the nobles of the gentiles, etc., the wealthy men of Israel, etc.,
the wealthy men of the nations of the world, etc., the wise men
of Israel, etc.’
(14) E om.

(15) E ins.: ‘the men of reputation in the nations of the world,
etc.’
(16) so E. A corr. from here to ‘the people of Israel’: ‘(that the
nations) of Israel wrought against the people of Israel’
(17) E: ‘and all the deeds of the nations of the world at that
time ‘
(18) A ins.: ‘with Israel’
(19) E: ‘And there were’
(20) E: ‘both what they have done and what they will do in
time to come’
R. Ishmael is shown the Curtain (Pargod) of MAQOM (the Place,
i.e. the Divine Majesty as manifested on the Throne of Glory).
This Curtain is spread before the Holy One. The Curtain of the
Throne of Glory is referred to also, ch. x. i . The Curtain
separates the Throne of Glory and its innermost mysteries
from the other parts of the highest heaven and from the world
of angels in general, just as the curtain veiled off the Holy of
Holies in the sanctuary. (Cf. TB. Yoma, 77 a.)

The Curtain
hence becomes the symbol of the last secrets of heaven and
earth which are kept with the Godhead, hidden even from the
angels. Occasional revelations of these secrets ‘the reasons of
the Creator’ are described either as obtained by ‘hearing from
behind the Curtain’ or expressed by the phrase ‘to know from
behind the Curtain’: this is one line of ideas. Or, according to
another line, the secrets are represented as ‘written down on
the (inside of) Curtain’. As instances of the former line of
conception reference may be made to the tradition concerning
GALLISUR-RAZIEL (see note on ch. xviii. 16),

further to Mekilta
on Ex. xix. 9 (voices from behind the Curtain announce the
answers of prayers), and TB. Ber. 18 b (there is heard ‘from
behind the Curtain, what tribulations are in store for the
world’). It seems, that this tradition also contained the idea of
special high angels being allowed inside or having their place
inside the Curtain, in the immediate Presence of the Holy One,
thus partaking of the Divine secrets: so acc. to ch. x. i in the
reading of BC (cf. note, ib.) the case of GALLISUR, and in Mass.
Hek. vii (“A curtain is spread before the Holy One… and the
seven angels who were created first, minister before Him [i.e. inside the Curtain]”). The second conception is represented
here and also Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 44 where it is as here
called the Pargod of MAQOM. As a parallel in earlier Enochliterature
is to be noted especially I En. xciii. 2 and cvi. 19: “I
Enoch will declare them unto you… acc. to that which
appeared to me in the heavenly vision, and which I have
known through the word of the holy angels and have learnt
from the heavenly tablets” (the heavenly tablets correspond to
the Pargod here).

(1-3) R. Ishmael is shown all generations and their doings, both
past and coming. This implies the idea of pre-determination.
In TB. Sank. 38 b, one finds: “The Holy One, blessed be He,
showed Adam every generation and its learned men
(interpreters of Scripture), every generation and its wise men,
and when he came to the generation of R. ‘Aqiba he (Adam)
rejoiced at his (great understanding of) Tora but was grieved at
his death (as a martyr)”. In Alph. R. ‘Aqiba this has the
following form (BH. iii. 44: “Moses saw on the Curtain of
MAQOM numerous hosts of scribes and hosts of (members of)
Sanhedrin studying the Tora, the Prophets and the writings…
and in the same hour Moses saw the fate (life) of R. Aqiba on
the Curtain of Maqom how he was lecturing on the letters of
Tora, expounding on each of the ornaments of each single
letter 365 different significations of the Tora etc.” The Curtain
is here the repository of all past, present and future events,
and it seems, as if the idea were rather, that the events, the
‘generations, their thoughts and their doings’, are portray on
the curtain the images are imprinted on it than that the various
facts are merely recorded.

(5) And I saw Messiah son of Joseph etc. From here to the end
of the verse there follows a short eschatological piece. R.
Ishmael, through the medium of the Curtain of the Throne,
sees the events of the last times. The end of the course of the
present world is marked by the appearance of Messiah ben
Joseph and Messiah ben David in whose times there will be
wars between Israel and ‘Gog and Magog’; the final
consummation will then, so it seems, be brought about by the
Holy One Himself.

For the conception of the two Messiahs, reference may be
made to the scholarly expositions by Dalman (Der leidende
und sterbende Messias, pp. 1-26), Buttenwieser (in JE. viii.
511 b, 5123), Klausner (Die messianischen Vorstellungen des
jiidischen Volkes, etc., pp. 86-103), Rabinsohn (Le Messianisme dans le Talmud et les Midrachitn).
Vide also
Eisenmenger, Entdecktes Judenihwn, ii. 729, Schoettgen,
Horae Hebraicae et Talmudicae, i. 139, 267, 360-5, Wuensche,
Die Leiden des Messias, pp. 65 seqq., Castelli, II Messia
secondo gli Ebrei, pp. 224-9.

It will perhaps be best to follow Klausner (and Dalman) in
assuming that the origin of a double Messiah was the
realization of the duplicity inherent in the traditional Messianic
picture, e.g. the political and military traits as against the
spiritual and ethical (esp. of Isa. xi and Zech. ix. 9).

“Die
Doppelnatur des Messias muss in einen Doppelmessias
umgesetzt werden” (Klausner). (Cf. Dalman in a somewhat
different vein: “es muss als moglich gelten, dass uberhaupt ein
etwa durch die hadrianischen Verfolgungen neu
hervorgerufenes Interesse an dem Trost der Messiashoffnung
zu erneutem Schriftstudium trieb… Alles was in der heiligen
Schrift darauf zu deuten schien, dass Edom-Rom gestiirtzt und
Jerusalem, wenn auch nur vorlaufig, an Israel zuriickgegeben
wird, musste dad en Forscher anziehen, und das
Unbestimmteste gewann fur das nach Erlosung diirstende
Gemut deutliche Umrisse und konkrete Gestalt. So erstand
Messias ben Joseph, der sterbende Messias des Judentums”.)
As to the designation ‘ben Joseph’ (son of Joseph), Klausner
(op. cit. p. 97) holds that “when once a second Messiah has
become necessary, he cannot be taken from any other tribe
but that of Joseph”

(“Der erste Messias ist ein Davidide, also
ein Judaer. Was sollte nun der zweite Messias anders sein, als
Josephite, bezie-hungsweise Ephraimite” [Messiah ben Ephraim
is sometimes a variant of Messiah ben Joseph, vide below]).
Also should be noted Klausner’s remark that it “is highly
probable that Bar Kochba’s death as hero in the war with the
enemies of Israel, after having for a time been victorious and
even reigned as a king, became the starting-point (Vorbild) for
the conception of a Messiah who at first is victorious but in the
end is overcome by the enemies of Israel”. This is, most
probably, the right explanation of the conception of a
Messianic forerunner of the real Messiah: One had long been
conscious of the duplicity in the Messianic picture; the
Hadrianic persecutions and the Bar Kochba incident forced the
attention on the Messianic ideas and hopes; the circumstances
made one conscious of Israel’s fate of having to go through
many tribulations, temporal victories followed by severe
debacles: from this consciousness grew the picture of a
forerunner-Messiah whose essential characteristic was
described by the words of the Baraitha (TB. Sukka, 52 a):

“he
will be killed”.
Dalman explains the designation ‘ben Joseph’ from Deut.
xxxiii. 17 (“His glory is like the firstling of his bullock and his
horns are like the horns of unicorns : with them he shall push
the people together to the ends of the earth: and they are the
ten thousands of Ephraim, and they are the thousands of
Manasseh”). “The ‘firstling of his (Joseph’s) bullock ‘is nearly as
much the emblem of Messiah ben Joseph: Ren. R. Ixxv. 6, Ex.
R. to xlix. 14 acc. to Pugeo Fidel, Num., R. xiv. 2, Midrash
Tanchuma, ed. Buber, 82 b, as the ‘foal of an ass’ of Zech. ix.
9 is the emblem of Messiah ben David”. “Was dort (Deut.
xxxiii. 17) von Joseph gesagt ist, fiihrt den Gedanken an das
spatere Kdnigtum Ephraims, oder, wenn man das Wort zu der
messianisch verstandenen Weissagung auf Juda in Gen. xlix in
Parallele setzt, an einen in der Endzeit auftretenden machtigen
Kdnig Israels aus Josephs Stamm, einen Messiah ben Joseph.
Die Rabbinen, welche in Deut. xxxiii. 17 wirklich einen
Messias geweissagt glaubten, wurden dann in diesem

Glauben durch ein Wort Jeremias bestarkt (viz. Jer. xlix. 20)”.
[Schoettgen (op. cit.), adducing, apart from earlier sources,
Zohar and Zohar Chadash, arrives at the conclusion that
Messiah ben Joseph and Messiah ben David are identical, and
that the former represents the human nature of Messiah,
destined to suffer death. The designation ‘son of Joseph’
Schoettgen believes to be derived from the Christian
designation of Christ, the Messiah, as ‘the son of Joseph’ and
points out how, in the genealogy of St Matthew (i. i), Christ is
called ‘the son of David’, in that of St Luke, on the other hand,
‘the son of Joseph’.

Wuensche, in his first discourse on the present problem (op.
cit.), also maintained that Messiah ben Joseph and Messiah ben
David really were identical. The identity he found established
already in TB. Sukka, 52 a (where he, however, mistranslates;
vide below and Klausner, op. cit. p. 91, note 2); in common
with Schoettgen he further pointed to the fact that scriptural
passages which receive Messianic interpretation are
promiscuously referred now to Messiah ben Joseph, now to
Messiah ben David although passages interpreted as referring
to the suffering Messiah are, according to Wuensche, more
often applied to the former than to the latter; from the lastnamed
fact he concluded that the figure of Messiah ben Joseph
really symbolized the atoning function of Messiah.

Acc. to Friedmann (Seder Eliyah, Introduction, 20) the
conception of Messiah ben Joseph goes back to the
expectations among remnants of the tribes belonging once to
the Northern Kingdom in Palestine for a Messiah from מלכות
.אפרים

Bertholdt (in Christologia Judaeorum, 157) conjectures that the
origin was from certain Messianic speculations among the
Samaritans.
Castelli (op. cit. pp. 234-6) thinks that Messiah ben Josephwas
the Messiah contrived for the ten tribes exiled in Media
who was to lead them back to Palestine from their distant
abode beyond the river Sambatyon (on the river Sambatyon, a
definite detail of the eschatological scheme, vide BOX, Ezra-
Apocalypse, pp. 296, 298, 300 seq.).
Hamburger (Messianische Bibelstellen, in) and Levy (Worterb.)
think that the Messiah ben Joseph originated from the Bar
Kochba incident. Bar Kochba, who had been proclaimed as
Messiah even by the great R. ‘Aqiba (so Yer. Ta’an, iv. 68 d)
was made to retain his Messianity by the formation of the
doctrine of Messiah ben Joseph as the forerunner of the
victorious Messiah ben David.

Jellinek (BH. iii. xlvi seqq.) expresses the view that the victory
of Joseph Flavius in Galilee (thought as the region of the ten
tribes or as part of the Northern Kingdom) followed by his
defeat through Vespasianus influenced the ‘saga’ of the
Messiah ben Joseph.

Buttenwieser (in JE. loc. at.) says: “it is possible that the idea
of Messiah ben Joseph is connected in some way with the
Alexander-Saga”. He points out how Messiah ben Joseph and
Alexander (in the Koran) both are represented as horned.
Rabinsohn (op. cit.) finds the explanation of the ‘son of Joseph’
in Deut. xxxiii. 17. Cf. above on Dalman’s theory.]
The conception of a Messiah ben Joseph goes back to Tannaitic
times. The most important passages speaking of Messiah ben
Joseph are found in TB. Sukka 52 a, dated by Levy,
Hamburger, Friedmann, Dalman and Klausner as post-
Hadrianic. One of the said passages is a Baraitha (תנו רבכ

running as follows: “Messiah, the son of David, who will shortly
be revealed in our days, to him says the Holy One, blessed be
He: ‘Beg of Me anything and I will give thee’ as it is written (Ps.
ii. 8): ‘Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine
inheritance and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy
possession’. As soon as he (i.e. Messiah ben David) saw
Messiah, the son of Joseph, that he was (or: would be) killed,
he says before Him: ‘Lord of the Universe! I do not ask of Thee
anything but Life’. He says to him: ‘Life! Before thou didst say
it, David, thy father, has already prophesied (this, i.e. life)
concerning thee, as it is written (Ps. xxi. 4) : He asked life of
thee and thou gavest it him, even length of days for ever and
ever”‘.

The other passage (according to Klausner, “eine amoraische
Oberlieferung einer tannaitischen Deutung”) runs: “(Zech. xii.
12): ‘And the land shall mourn, every family apart; the family
of the house of David apart, and their wives apart; the family
of the house of Nathan apart, and their wives apart’; They say:
‘Must not the rule qal wachomer (a minori ad majtus) be
applied here: if with reference to the time to come when they
are occupied with wailing and the evil inclination does not have
power over them, the Scripture says “men apart and women
apart” how much the more (ought this to be the law) now when
they are occupied with pleasure and the evil inclination does
have power over them?’ This wailing, what does it really
signify? Rabbi Dosa and our teachers are divided on this point.
The one says: ‘It (refers) to Messiah the son of Joseph who is
(will be) killed’, and the other says: ‘It (refers) to the evil
inclination which will be exterminated’. Surely (the right lies)
with the one who says (that it refers) to Messiah the son of
Joseph who will be killed, according as it is written (Zech. xii.
10): ‘And they shall look upon the one whom they have
pierced, and they shall mourn for him as one mourneth for his
only son'”.

‘En Ya’aqob preserves the following version of TB. Sukka, 12
b: “(Zech. i. 20, Hebrew Bible, ii. 3): ‘And YHWH showed me
four charashim’. What are they (i.e. the charashim)? R.
Chunna bar Bizna says: R. Sim’on the Chasid says: this means
Messiah ben David, Messiah ben Joseph, Elijah and the Priest of
Righteousness.”
Targ. Yer. I to Ex. xl. 11 speaks of Messiah the son of
Ephraim through whom Israel will in the end of time overcome
Gog (“utherabbe yath kiyyura weyath besiseh utheqaddesh yatheh meiul Yehosu’ meshiimshanakh rabba de-Sanhedrin de
‘ammeh de’alyedoy ‘dthida ‘ar’a de-Israel le-‘ithpelaga
umeshicha bar Ephraim denafiq minneh de’alyedoy ‘dthidin
beth Israel limenasha le-Gog ulesi’atheh besof yomayya”).
Targ. Yer. to Canticles iv. 5 and vii. 4 speak of Messiah ben
David and Messiah ben Joseph as deliverers of Israel like Moses
and Aaron.

The earlier passages represent Messiah ben Joseph merely as
the forerunner of Messiah ben David and as the Messiah “who
is killed”. The passage in our book goes no further: he is to
appear before Messiah ben David and will be engaged in
warfare. Though it is not expressly stated here that Messiah
ben Joseph will be killed, this is probably presupposed.
Later passages in Num. R. xiv. 2, in Pesiqtha Zut. to Num.
xxiv. 13, Midrash ‘Asereth Melakhim, Pirqe Mashiach, BH. iii.
70, Pereq R. Yoshiyyahu, BH. vi. 115 (Messiah ben Joseph
called Nehemyah ben Hushiel) appears after the victory over
Rome, is killed in the struggle with the Arabs and resuscitated
by Elijah in the time of Messiah ben David. Midrash
Wayyosha’, Nistaroth de R. Shim’on ben Yochai (BH. iii. 80),
Tefillath R. Shim’on ben Yochai (BH. iv. 124), Othoth hamMashiach
(BH. ii. 58), Sefer Zerubbabel (BH. ii. 55) (vide
Introduction,

Sources and Literature, A 3 (B)) give the tradition
that Messiah ben Joseph will be killed in the war with Armilos.
In the Nistaroth de R. Shim’on ben Yochai there are three
names of Messiah(s): Messiah ben Joseph, Messiah ben
Ephraim and Messiah ben David. Num. R. xiv. 2, evidently
dependent upon the tradition preserved in TB. Sukka, 12 b
(acc. to ‘En Ya’aqob, vide above), interprets the four charashim
of Zech. ii. 3 as : “Elijah, the Messiah who shall rise from the
children of Manasse, the Anointed for War (meshu ach
milchamd) who will come from Ephraim and the Great
Redeemer who is one of the sons of the sons of David”.

Attempts at systematization of the various traditions in respect
of the two Messiahs were made by Sa’adya in ‘Emunoth we
De’oth, viii, and Hai Gaon in Ta’am Zeqenim (ed. Frankf. am
Main, 1854, pp. 59 seq.). For these vide Dalman, op. cit. and
Buttenwieser (in JE. loc. cit.). A display of still later, especially
cabbalistic, traditions on Messiah ben Joseph is given in
Eisenmenger’s Entdecktes jfudenthum, ii. 729 seqq. (from
Menorath ha-Ma’or, Shene Luchoth ha-bBerith, Yalqut Chadash,
‘Emeq ha-mMelek, etc.). Passages in the Zohar treating of
Messianic times are: Zohar, i. 118 a, 119 a, 134 a b, 139 a b;
ii. 7 a b, 32 a, 105 b, 109 b; iii. 67 b, 124 b, 125 a b, 153 a b,
212 b; in the Tiqqunim, 78 a, 95 a.

Gog and Magog play the role of “a collective anti-Messiah” (M.
Friedlander, Der Antichrist, pp. 171-3). The war with Gog and
Magog was speculated upon already in pre-Hadrianic Tannaitic
times. Klausner says (op. cit. pp. 90, 100), basing upon
Siphra, Par. Bechuqqothai, 2, Siphre Deut. Pisqa. 343: “.We
can with some certainty maintain that the belief current in pre-
Hadrianic times was that the Messias ben David, supported by
the presence of” the Divine Glory (the Shekind), would wage
war against and overcome the enemies of Israel (i.e. Gog and
Magog), but in the post-Hadrianic times the warfare was
assigned to Messiah ben Joseph destined after a temporal
victory to be conquered, and the final victory, brought about
by God Himself without shedding of blood, crowns Messiah ben
David”.

This distinction is evidently correct. It will easily be
seen that our passage reflects the post-Hadrianic belief in
respect of the Messianic times ; but it may also be noticed that
the vivid impression of the fate of the Messiah ben Joseph
characteristic of the Tannaitic dicta has been somewhat
blurred out; there is not the same nearness of the picture of
war and the conquering and death of Messiah ben Joseph; on
the other hand there are no traces of new developments .and
elaborations of the original conceptions found in later sources.
This suggests that the present passage belongs to a time of
peace not too far removed however from the time of origin of
the Messiah ben Joseph conception, probably some time during
the third century A.D.
and all that the Holy One… will do with them: the final
consummation will be brought about by the Holy One Himself.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 46.

(1) E perhaps reads ‘spirit’
(2) emendated. E corr.: ‘that are deep (or “high”) in Raqia’
and every night in fear ( באמר obviously miswritten for באמת
‘(ר

(3) emendated acc. to E. A: ברקים , an easy corr. of ,ברקיע
‘lightnings’ perhaps under influence of vs. 2: ‘they are
standing on sparks’
(4) emendated with regard taken to E; see 2-2.
(5) E: ‘in sparks of flames of (from)’
(6) E: ‘made them to fly’
(7) E adds: ‘from their place’
(8) E adds: ‘and the additional names (kinnuyim)’
(9) E corr: ‘and will help them anew’
In this chapter R. Ishmael is shown the place of the stars who
are standing by the ‘Throne of the Merkaba’ praising the Holy
One during the time that they are not occupied by ‘doing
service to the world’ in Raqia’, the second heaven. For the
stars, acc. to vs. 3, have two functions: one (during the night)
of lighting the world, the other of singing hymns to their
Creator.

(1) The text of the chapter is in a bad state, both acc. to the
reading of A and acc. to that of E. Especially is this the case
with vs. i. Emendations have been made in the translation
with the help of a comparison of the two readings. (Come and
I will show thee) is omitted in both readings but is obviously to
be inserted by analogy with the opening words of the
surrounding chapters, since the rest of the present chapter
follows the scheme and phraseology of the other chapters of
the section.

(2) standing onsparks of flames round the Merkaba of the
Almighty (MAQOM)… flew off on flaming wings. The stars are
depicted as standing by the Merkaba and evidently conceived
of as living beings, presumably as angels, cf. vss. 3 and 4.
‘Wings’ are the regular attribute of angels arid angelicized
beings, cf. ch. ix. 2 and ‘the Names flying off like eagles’, ch.
xxxix. i. The stars are hence probably pictured as having
bodies and wings after the scheme of the description of angels.
Cf. the representation of the fallen stars as having bodily form,
in i En. Ixxxvi. i seqq., Ixxxviii. i, xc. 21.

Metatron… clapped his hands and chased them off. Metatron
here is represented as having authority over the stars although
their special ‘memunne’ (appointed one) is RAHATIEL. The
authority over the heavenly bodies is a special distinctive mark
of the Prince of the World, acc. to ch. xxxviii. 3 hence this
may be regarded as a trace of the identity between Metatron
and the Prince of the World, maintained by one trend of
traditions: cf. note on ch. iii and intr. told me the names…
has given a name to each one. Cf. i En. Ixix. 21: “through
that oath (i.e. Akae) the stars complete their course. And He
calls them by their names. And they answer Him from eternity
to eternity”. (Charles, i En. p. 140.)

(3) they all enter in counted order under the guidance of
Rahatiel. For RAHATIEL as the ruler of the constellations,
planets or heavenly bodies in general, see ch. xvii. 6 and
note, ad loc. to Raqia’ ha-shSHamayim, i.e. the second of the
seven heavens, which is the region of the heavenly bodies
(Chag. 12 b, chh. xvii. 4, 7, xxxviii. i). Here the stars are
represented as entering the Raqia’ in order to serve the world,
i.e. to give light, etc. to serve the world. For the expression
and idea cf. 4 Ezra vi. 46: “and didst command them (the
sun… moon and order of the stars) that they should do service
unto man”; and see BOX, Ezra-Apocalypse, p. 88, note ad
locum, where attention is called to parallels in Clemens,
Recogn. v. 29 and Horn. x. 25 (“the sun daily waits upon the
world”, etc.), and where also is pointed out that the underlying
idea of the expression is to “emphasize the thought that the
stars are man’s servants because by all the rest of the world
they were regarded as gods”.

And they go out in counted order. ‘go out’ is here obviously
meant as the opposite of ‘enter (the Raqia’Y’. Hence the stars
are here thought to leave the second heaven after having
fulfilled their function of ‘serving the world’. From the Raqia’
they are presumably pictured as proceeding to the ‘Araboth,
the seventh heaven, since they are said (vs. 2) to be standing
round the Merkaba or ‘the Throne of the Merkaba’.
to praise the Holy One, blessed be He, with songs and hymns.
In their function of praising the Most High ‘with songs and
hymns’ the stars are clearly conceived of as angelic beings,
and this is especially marked by the manner in which their fate
is associated with that of the song-uttering angels (see next
verse). For the conception of the stars as angels, cf. Bousset,
Rel. des Judentums, p. 315.

Maimonides, More Nebukim, vol. ii, ch. v, uses the same
scriptural reference as the present verse (Ps. xix. 2) in
support of his view, that “the globes are living and rational
beings… and they serve their Master and praise and glorify
him with great praise and mighty glorification, as it is written
(Ps. xix. 2): ‘the heavens declare the glory of God'”. The idea
of the planets and stars as living, acting and dominating gods
is, of course, fundamental in Babylonian and, by influence
therefrom, in Persian religion accompanied by the conception
of special rulers of the stars. In the Pehlevi literature the
planets and stars are represented as demons or else as
animated or ruled by demons. See Bundahish, iii. 25, xxviii.
43, 44, Zad sparam, ii. 10, iv. 3, 7, 10, etc.

In Jewish
remodelling the planet-gods naturally become planet-angels,
whereas the conception of special angels as rulers of the stars,
constellations etc. or of the whole of the heavenly bodies is
uncommonly frequent. The 70 princes of kingdoms are
sometimes identified with the planets and constellations,
although more often they are represented as the rulers of
them. ‘The angels are the souls of the heavenly spheres’ is a
comparatively frequent dictum. The ‘Ophannim are the angels
who move the spheres, cf. note on ch. xxv. 5. The
identification of the heavenly bodies with angel-princes or
demons was also prompted by the astrological speculations.
The archangels are identified with the seven planets or
represented as rulers of the seven planets, thus preserving the
old conception of the seven sideric rulers from which the
conception of the seven archangels is supposed to have
originated. (See YR. i. 16 a.)

(6) But in the time to come the Holy One, blessed be He, will
create them anew… and they open their mouth and utter a
song. The creating the stars and planets anew is here
explicitly connected with their character of song-uttering
angelic beings. It is, moreover, supported by the scriptural
reference which traditionally was used as basis for the
speculations concerning the song-uttering angels, who also are
said to ‘be created anew’: ‘They are new every morning, great
is thy faithfulness’, Lam. iii. 23. See ch. xl. 4, Chag. 143,
Lam. R. iii. 21, Gen. R. Ixxviii. i. The creation anew in the
case of the angels is depicted as going on continually every
day, whereas that of the stars is designed for the ‘time to
come’. The future world is sometimes represented as referred
to in the said passage (Lam. iii. 23), cf. Gen. R. ib. and
Alph. R. ‘Aqiba.

NOTE. It is significant that there seems to be no remnant in 3
En. of the Gnostic idea of the planets and constellations as evil
agencies, as enemies of the spirit and the spiritual world.
Contrast e.g. the ‘Seven Great Princes’ and the ‘Seventy-two
Princes of Kingdoms’ of 3 En. xvii. with the ‘Seven’ in
Mandaitic. Vide also i En. xix. 13-16, xxi. 3-6. There are,
however, indications that this idea was known at the time of
our book. Thus the inimical role of the planets is in our book
replaced by that of ‘Uzza, ‘Azza and ‘Azzael (chh. iv, v), and
the opposing angels in general. Possibly the present chapter is
intentionally directed against the Gnostic (Parsic-Iranian) idea
in question. (Cf. also Zimmern in Schrader, Die Keilinschriften
und das Alte Testament, 8th ed., p. 459, and Reitzenstein,
-Das iranische Erlosungsmysterium, pp. 59 seq.)

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 47.

(1) E om. 22 so E. A om., but 3 A has a lacuna which
represents
(2) and is wrongly put there instead of before its antecedent
word.
(4) E: ‘and as soon as it has been sung’
(5) A ins.: ‘ הרוחן ‘ (representing a corr. reading ‘ רוחן ‘, ‘their
spirit(s)’?)
(6) E om.
(7) E: ‘mountains of mountains’ A has a lacuna: ‘‘ “חרים חרים
a sign of uncertainty in the text.
(8) E: ‘returns’
(9) ins. with E.
(10) E: ‘forthwith a whirlwind passed by’
(11) emendated (cf. chs. xxxiv. i, xxxvii. 2): כנפי instead of
.כדי
(12) Emend. E quotes Ps. cxi. 2: ‘the works of the Lord (are
great)’ A confuses Ps. xcii. 5 with cxi. 2.
(13) FG ins.: ‘glory’
(14) FGins.: ‘and strength’
(15) FG ins.: ‘by my name’ 153-153: so FGLm. A: ‘all’
(16) FG: ‘in love’ Lm: ‘as a friend’
(17) FGLm: ‘as (I set up his Throne)’ iya Lm: ‘his’
(18) FGLm ins.: ‘on the outside’
(18a) so with FGLm. A lacuna

As a sequel to the exposition in chh. xliii, xliv the spirits of the
righteous, the wicked and those not yet born the spirits and
souls of the song uttering angels who have been burnt by the
fire from their Creator (cf. ch. xl. 3) are here made the
subject of treatment in the general scheme of the section: they
are shown to R. Ishmael by Metatron who super adds divers
explanations and informations.
The angels in question are those who have uttered a song in a
wrong time or improper way, and therefore, as stated in ch. xl.
3, have been consumed by fire. The object of this chapter is
apparently to show that this destruction by fire refers only to
the bodies of the angels, whereas their spirits and souls ‘return
to their Creator and stand behind the Shekina’. (On the real
object, vide Introd. sect. 15.)

Thus the nature and fate of the song-uttering angels who have
failed in their duty are pictured in analogy with those of failing
men. Yet there are a few differences between the
representations of chh. xliii, xliv and the present chapter.
Whereas in chh. xliii, xliv only the term ‘spirit’ (neshama). is
used, the present chapter uses both ‘soul’ (neshama) and
‘spirit’ (ruach) although practically synonymously. And whereas acc. to ch. xliv the punishment by fire is for the
‘spirits’, it is here the bodies only that are represented as
destroyed in fire, the spirits (and souls) on the other hand are
said to return to ‘their Creator’, i.e. to their abode behind the
Shekina, thus rather reflecting the picture of the spirits of the
righteous above the Throne in ch. xliii.

(1) the souls of the angels and the spirits of the ministering
servants. The terms ‘soul’ and ‘spirit’ are here evidently
synonymous. whose bodies have been burnt in the fire of
MAQOM… made into fiery coals in the midst of the fiery river.
The two traditions of the fire from God’s little finger (ch. xl. 3)
and the Nehar di-Nur (see note on ch. xxxiii. 5) as means ‘of
punishment of the angels, are here harmonized, see further,
vs. 2. but their spirits and their souls are standing behind the
Shekina. Even here the two terms ‘spirit’ and ‘soul’ are best
understood as being synonymous. The juxtaposition of ‘spirit’
and ‘soul’ is a mere repetition of that in the beginning of the
verse.

(2) Whenever the ministering angels utter a song at a wrong
time… they are burnt… by the fire of their Creator. Cf. on ch.
xl. 3. and drives them into the Nehar di-Nur. This is to be
understood as an harmonization between the view, acc. to
which the song-uttering angels, when uttering the Song
untimely or improperly, are consumed by a fiery stream from
the little finger of the Holy One, and that, acc. to which the
Nehar di-Nur is the place and medium of extinction of the
angels. The latter view includes that represented in Lam. R.
iii. 21, Gen. R. Ixxviii. i, which maintains that new angels are
created continually to sing the song and then disappear
whither? answer: into the Nehar di-Nur from which they were
created. there they are made into numerous mountains of
burning coal.

This should be compared with the statement of
ch. xxxv. 5 seq.: the angels, until they acquiesce in
performing the Qedushsha, are changed into all sorts of
lifeless, fiery substances, by a ‘whirlwind from before the Holy
One’ (cf. here). Cf. also i En. xxi. 3: “I saw seven stars of the
heaven bound together in it (the place of punishment), like
great mountains and burning with fire”.

their spirit and their soul return to their Creator… standing
behind their Master. This recalls ch. xliii, where the spirits of
the righteous who have been created are said to ‘return’. It
implies that the spirits of the song-uttering angels like those of
men are pre-existent before being manifested with bodies for
the purpose of performing the Qedushsha or singing hymns
and songs. But in contrast with the case of men the
punishment of the failing angels is assigned not to their spirits
but to their bodies alone. That the permanent abode of the
spirits of the angels, not only after the severance from their
bodies but even in their pre-existent state, is the place ‘behind
the Shekina’ may be hinted at in vs. 3: R. Ishmael sees ‘all the
souls of the angels and the spirits of the ministering servants’
standing behind the Shekina.

Such a view may have
developed from a wish to harmonize the different traditions
concerning the creation or origin of the angels, one
maintaining their pre-existence or creation on the second or
fifth day of Creation, the other their continual or successive
creation daily. The first view would then be made to apply to
the creation of the spirits and souls, the second to their bodily
manifestation. In fact the wish to harmonization in this case is
sometimes attested in cabbalistic commentaries, cf. the
statement: ‘the angels who are created daily, sing a song, and
then perish, are those who were created on the fifth day; those
who were created on the second day do not perish’. On the
other hand the view that the angels continue to exist in spirit
after their destruction in fire is explicitly refuted in Hilkoth
Mal’akim (Add. 27199, fol. 123 a): “for the angels who have
been burnt, there is no kind of continued life (or resurrection).
It is not as with men, whose bodies die, their souls however are
living on high and their spirits return to God for them there is
continued life. Not so with the angels : they return to the
Nehar di-Nur”.

(3) who were standing behind the Shekina upon wings of the
whirlwind and walls of fire surrounding them. This is of course
not indicative of any idea of punishment being assigned to the
spirits of the song-uttering angels. Cf. how acc. to ch. xviii.
25 the two high angels SOPHERIEL H’ MECHAYYE and
SOPHERIEL H’ MEMITH are said to be standing on the wheels of
the stormwind. The Kerubim acc. to ch. xxii. 13 are
surrounded by ‘columns of fire on their four sides and columns
of firebrands beside them’. acc. to ch. xxxiii. 3 ‘clouds of fire
and clouds of flame compass the angels to the right and to the
left’. Cf. also the Enoch-Metatron piece, ch. xv. 2.
the likeness of every one was as angels and their wings like
birds’ (wings). Although separated from their bodies of
manifested existence, the spirits and souls of the angels have
bodily form; cf. chh. xliii. 2 and xliv. 5 and note on the latter.

NOTE. The juxtaposition רוחות ונשמות occurs in TB. Chag.
12 b, ונשמות שעתיד להבראות רוחות , but immediately
preceding: נשמתן של צדיקים . Is this passage dependent
upon our book, chh. xliii and xlvii? Also in Mandaitic the
juxtaposition of ‘spirit’ and ‘soul’ in a similar vein is quite
frequent. On the spirit (or perhaps better ‘soul’) as the nonphysical
body of the soul (spirit) in Mandaitic vide Reitzenstein,
Das iranische Erldsiingsmysterium, p. 35. Cf. Introd. section
on ‘the conception of spirit and soul’.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 48A.

(1) ins. with E. A has a lacuna.
(2) E: ‘and’
(3) A: ‘great greatness’
(4) E om.
(4a) lit. ‘and’
(5) E ins.: ‘behold’
(6) E om.
(7) E om.
(8) E om.
(8a) E om.
(9) E om.
(10) E adds: ‘and Samuel among them that call upon His name’
(11) E: ‘and He says’
(12) E: ‘The Holy One, blessed be He, will say (in that hour)’
(13) E: ‘my children’
(14) so E. A: ‘as my arm’
(15) E om,
(16) E adds: ‘from one end of the world to the other’
(17) E: ‘them’

Ch. xlviii (A) is an apocalyptic eschatological fragment, closely
connected with that contained in ch. xliv. 7-10. Like the latter
it uses the symbolical expression of the Right Hand of MAQOM
as representing Israel and the Kingdom of Heaven on earth.
The inactivity of God’s Right Hand its being laid behind him is
the symbol of Israel’s oppression and sufferings among the
nations of the world and the temporary suspension of the
realization of the Kingdom of Heaven on earth. The
deliverance of God’s Right Hand is the deliverance of Israel and
the establishment of the Heavenly Kingdom. Besides, God’s
Right Hand also represents God’s activity for bringing about
the deliverance, and is the instrument of the realization of the
Kingdom.

Vss. 1-4 are in the frame of the present section: R. Ishmael is
represented as shown the Right Hand of Maqom and sees the
five streams of tears that go forth from its five fingers: it is
bewailing the downfall of Israel. Vss. 5-10 on the contrary
cannot in a strict sense be joined into that frame: without any
transition we are there presented with a picture entirely
eschatological and treating of the end of times that will see the
final redemption: God himself will deliver His right Hand and by
it work salvation for Israel and set up His Kingdom, the
establishment of which will be marked by the appearance of
Messiah and the banquet for the righteous in the restored
earthly Jerusalem. The fragment is distinguished by a more
frequent use of scriptural quotations than the other chapters of
the section and of the present book in general (with the
exception of chh. xxiii and xxiv).

(1) the Right Hand of MAQOM, laid behind (Him) because of
the destruction of the Holy Temple. The inactivity of God’s
Right Hand is here connected with the destruction of the Holy
Temple. The cause of its continued inactivity is acc. to ch.
xliv. 7-10 the sins of the wicked, here it is hinted that the
dearth of saints and righteous in Israel accounts for its present
downfall. The destruction of the Holy Temple, the sign of the
downfall of Israel, also implied the total suspension or
cessation of the activity for the realization of the Kingdom on
earth (the cessation of the activity of the Divine Right Hand),
and this again was caused by the sins of Israel. The real
catastrophe in the destruction of the Temple was the removal
of the Shekina from earth, the presence of the Shekina in the
Temple having made it the representative of God’s Kingdom on
earth. See Lam. R. Proem. 24 (God removes his Shekina
from the Temple on account of Israel’s sin, and this is the
cause of the destruction of the Temple. ‘I have no longer an
abode on earth’).

by which the 955 heavens were created. Cf. ch. xliv. 7: ‘thy
right hand that is behind thee, wherewith thou didst stretch
out the heavens and the earth and the heavens of heavens’.
The 955 heavens are, acc. to Masseket Hek. iii, above the
seven heavens, constituting the Divine World from which the
Holy One goes down when manifesting himself in the ‘Araboth
on the Throne of Glory: “in the hour when the Holy One,
blessed be He, descends from the 955 heavens and seats
himself in the ‘Araboth upon the Throne of Glory…”. Y. Ch,
s.v. Mal’akim, no. 98, derives the number 955 by gematria
from the letters of hassdmaim (= ‘the heavens’, the final mem
counted as 600). Metatron alone of all the heavenly household
can ascend into 900 of these heavens, but the remaining 55
heavens are the exclusive abode of the Holy One. Cf. Lam. R.
Proem. 24.

In Seder Gan ‘Eden, BH. iii. 139, the many
heavens above the seven heavens are also connected with the
18,000 worlds, and both are conceived of as the impenetrable
‘Jenseits’ into which no one from the manifested universe,
whether from heavens or earth can enter. “A multitude of
heavens above heavens did the Holy One, blessed be He,
create and the(se) highest heavens have no measure and no
place (but they are the place of the worlds, cf. the similar
saying about God)… and no eye has seen these higher
heavens except… God alone… and the 18,000 worlds (above
the many thousands of worlds that are attached to and
comprised in the seven heavens) have not been entered by
any one save the Holy One, blessed be He, alone, as it is
written (quoting Ps. Ixviii. 18, cf. note ch. xxiv. 17)… for
there is none who knows them save H’… alone”.
whom not even the Seraphim and the ‘Ophannim are
permitted to behold. The Seraphim and the ‘Ophannim are
apparently represented as the two highest classes of Merkaba
angels, in agreement with the angelological section (chh. xxv,
xxvi).

(3) all the spirits of the righteous who are worthy and (i.e. to)
behold the joy of Jerusalem, are standing by it. The spirits of
the righteous have their abode in the Presence of the Holy
One, as acc. to ch. xliii. The ‘joy of Jerusalem’ may refer either
to the earthly or to the heavenly Jerusalem. The centre of the
Messianic Kingdom in the end of times is acc. to vs. 10 the
earthly Jerusalem. But the wording rather supports the
interpretation of the expression ‘the joy of Jerusalem’ as
referring to the heavenly Jerusalem: the spirits of the righteous
are counted worthy and (are now) beholding the joy of
Jerusalem. For the conception of the heavenly City, and its
different shades (the pre-existent Jerusalem, preserved with
God in heaven; the heavenly city which is to descend on earth
in the future age; “the heavenly counterpart of the earthly city,
the eternal reality of which the literal city is but a shadow”) in
Apocalyptic, cf. 2 En. Iv. 2, 4 Ez. viii. 52 (x. 26 seq., 54, vii.
26, xiii. 36), 2 Bar. iv. 2-6, Rev. xxi. 2, g-xxii. 8 (Hebr. xi.
10-16, xii. 22, xiii. 14, I En. xc. 28, 29) and for a full
discussion see BOX, Ezra-Apocalypse, pp. 198 seq. (further
references given there).

CHARLES, Commentary on Rev., ch.
xxi. 2, 10, BOUSSET, Die Offenbarung Johannis, 5 Aufl., 1906,
pp. 453 seqq. The heavenly Jerusalem is, acc. to TB. Chag.
12 b, contained in Zebul (the fourth heaven), acc. to Alph. R.
‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 21, in Shechaqim (the third heaven). Here it is
perhaps regarded as having its place in the highest heaven by
the Throne, since there is probably the permanent abode of
the spirits of the righteous.

(4) the Right Hand of MAQOM was weeping. Cf. Ber. 33: the
Voice goes forth three times every day (night) in the ruins of
the Temple, bewailing its destruction and the dispersion of
Israel among the idolatrous nations, and Lam. R. Proem. 24:
God weeping on account of the destruction of the Sanctuary.
five rivers of tears… shook the earth… five times. The number
‘five’ is deduced from the passage Isa. xxiv. 19 seq. from the
five repetitions in that passage of expressions conveying the
same thing: the earth being shaken.

(5) This and the following verses contain an eschatological
piece treating of the final consummation by God himself in the
end of times. No effort is made by the writer to reconcile it
with the frame of the preceding acc. to which R. Ishmael is
standing by Metatron’s side beholding the Right Hand of God.

when the Holy One, blessed be He, sees, that there is no
righteous man in the generation, etc. The deliverance of Israel
and the establishment of the Kingdom on earth was to have
been brought about as a consequence of the intercessions and
prayers of the righteous and pious among the Israelites, see
vs. 8. As the ideal examples of intercessors in the past the
writer points to Moses and Samuel, cf. vs. 6. The identity as
final goals of the deliverance of Israel, the revelation of the
Heavenly Kingdom on earth and the reinstating of God’s Right
Hand in its right position and activity is here expressed: who
could pray… for the deliverance, for His Kingdom, that it be
revealed in the whole world; and for His great Right Hand, that
He put it before Himself again. ‘Again’, i.e. ‘as in the ancient
days, in the generations of old’ (Is. li. 9) when it wrought
salvation for Israel by the Red Sea (Is. li. 10) or when it
stretched forth the heavens and laid the foundations of the
earth (ch. xliv. 7 and Is. li. 13).

(6) then forthwith will the Holy One, blessed be He, remember
His own justice, favour, mercy and grace: and He will deliver…
The final consummation brought about by God Himself is the
burden of the whole fragment. The thought here is, that when
the expectations for prayers and intercessions from the
righteous in Israel are shown to be in vain, then God will
support His work for the deliverance of Israel, i.e. the
establishment of His Kingdom, by His own righteousness,
merits and mercies: on their ground the establishment of the
Kingdom by God Himself and alone will be justified in spite of
the lack of merits on the part of Israel.
Moses and Samuel. The interceding power of Moses with the
Most High is a frequent theme in Rabbinic; it is especially
attached to the narrative of the golden calf of Ex. xxxii (TB.
Her. 32 a, Meg. 243, Ex. R. xlvii. 14, Num. R. ii. 14, Dent.
R. i. 2). Cf. also- Midrash Petirath Moshe, BH. i. 121 (Moses
says: Rather sooner let Moses and a thousand like him perish
than that one of the people of Israel should perish!” ib. BH. i.
129: “Numerous times did Israel provoke me to anger, but he
(Moses) prayed for them and placated me”). Cf. further TB.
Ber. 7 a, Yoma, 36 b, Baba Bathra, 8 a.

The verse, Is. lix. 6, ‘And he saw that there was no man’ etc.
is also in ‘Othioth ha-mMashiach, BH. ii. 60, used of the end of
times, preceding the appearance of Messiah ben Joseph. and
His righteousness will support Him. This re-echoes the latter
part of the quoted passage (Is. lix. 6): ‘his righteousness, it
sustained him’. Samuel… fulfilled his desire, even if it was not
fit. The scriptural reference, i Sam. xii. 17, is to support the
statement that God granted Samuel his requests, even when
their fulfilment might not be in accordance with His own plan.
To understand this the following part of the passage must be
supplemented:”…! will call unto the Lord and he shall send
thunder and rain, that ye may perceive and see that your
wickedness is great… so Samuel called unto the Lord, and the
Lord sent thunder and rain”. The underlying idea is that God
on this occasion interrupted the pre-determined course of
events (implying a weather not destructive for the wheatharvest)
in favour of Samuel (sending thunder and rain).

(7) He joined fellowship with Moses, ‘nizdawweg’ associated
Himself with, revealed Himself face to face to.
(8) How long shall I wait for the children of men (E: my
children) to work salvation according to their righteousness.
The salvation was ideally to be brought about by the
righteousness and merits of Israel (in particular by their
proclaiming His sovereignty every day in their prayers), but in
the present lack of righteousness in Israel God will depend only
on His own merit and righteousness. The expression, ‘how
long shall I wait for my children to work salvation’, shows that
‘the righteous and pious man’ (vs. 5) of whose total absence
from within Israel the writer is conscious does not refer to a
desired leader in spite of the fact that Moses and Samuel are
chosen as examples of righteous intercessors but to a whole
class of saintly men whose prayers and intercessions would
have had the effect of drawing the Shekina and with it the
Kingdom of Heaven down to earth again.

The symbolical expression, ‘the Right Hand’ of the Holy One, is
in vss. 6-10 changed into that of ‘God’s Arm’. To the writer
these two terms are apparently synonymous, since already, vs.
3, the ‘arm of the Lord’ in Is. li. 9 and ‘His glorious arm’ in Is.
Ixiii. 12, are made to refer to ‘the Great Right Hand’ of God.
The variance of expressions is merely a reflection of the
phraseology of the scriptural passages referred to in the
fragment.

(9) In that moment will the Holy One, blessed be He, reveal His
Great Arm and show it to the nations of the world. The
scriptural basis for this statement is given at the end of the
following verse (Is. lii. 10): “The Lord hath made bare his holy
arm in the eyes of all the nations”. The revelation of the Arm
is the revelation of the Kingdom but at the same time the Arm
is the instrument for the realization of the Kingdom on earth.
its length is as the length of .the world etc. Cf. ch. xxxii:
God’s sword ‘like a lightning from one end of the world to the
other’.

(10) Forthwith Israel will be saved from among the nations of
the world i.e. Israel’s dominion will be established. And
Messiah will appear unto them and He will bring them up to
Jerusalem. In contrast with ch. xlv. 5 this fragment
apparently knows only one Messiah, the Messiah of the house
of David; his role is to lead the dispersed Israelites up to
Jerusalem. No Messianic wars bringing about the victory of
Israel and the Kingdom are mentioned (contrast ch. xlv ib.) on
the contrary the actual consummation is to be effected by God
Himself, through the aid of His Arm. Hence Messiah’s role here
is essentially passive: ‘he will appear, be revealed to them’.
Cf. i En. xx. 37, 38, Ixii. 6, 7, 4 Ez. vii. 28 (“my Son, the
Messiah shall be revealed, together with those who are with
him”), ib. xiii. 32 (“then shall my Son be revealed”), 2 Bar.
xxix. 3 (“it shall come to pass… that the Messiah shall begin to
be revealed”), Mysteries R. Shimeon B. Yochai, BH. iii. 80
(“after that the Holy One, Blessed be He, will reveal to them
Messiah, the son of David… Messiah will spring forth”), TB.
Sukka, 52 b. In ch. xlv. 5 and 2 Bar. xl, on the other hand,
the role of Messiah is decidedly active.

they will eat and drink (A) Israel will come… and eat with
Messiah (E). The Kingdom of Heaven as a feast is a well-known
picture in the Gospels and Rev.: Matt. viii. n, xxvi. 29, Luke
xiv. 15-24, xxii. 16, 18, 30, Rev. ii. 7, iii. 20, xix. 9. For the
banquet prepared for the righteous (with Messiah in the time
to come) cf. i En. Ixii. 14 (“And with that Son of man shall
they [the elect] eat and lie down and rise up for ever and
ever”), 2 En. xlii. 5 (“At the last coming they will lead forth
Adam with our forefathers, and conduct them there that they
may rejoice as a man calls those whom he loves to feast with
him”), 2 Bar. xxix. 3, 4 (“Messiah shall then begin to be
revealed… And Behemoth and Leviathan shall be for food for
all that are left “), Pirqe Aboth, iii. 20 (” Everything is prepared
for the banquet”), Pesikta, 118 b (“Behemoth and Leviathan
are reserved for the feast of the righteous in the time to
come”), Pirqe Mashiach, BH. iii. 76 (“Then [in the Messianic
time] will the Holy One, blessed be He, make a feast for the
righteous on Behemoth, Leviathan and the wild beasts of the
field [Ps. i. n, Ixxx. 13]”), Mysteries R. Shimeon ben Yochai,
BH. iii. 80 (“And Jerusalem will come down built and
completed from heaven and Israel will dwell therein in safety
for thousand years and will [sit and] eat Behemoth and
Leviathan and… the wild beasts of the field [ziz-ha-sSade, cf.
above, perhaps treated as a technical term]”). Cf. Bousset,
Rel. des Judentums, 2nd ed., p. 327, BOX, Ezra-Apocalypse, p.
208.

To this conception is correlated that of the righteous in the
future enjoying the (fruits of) the Tree of Life and spices of the
Garden of Eden. Cf. ch. xxiii. 18, i En. xxv. 5, 2 En. ix, Test.
Levi, 18, Sibyll. ii. 318, iii. 46, Num. R. xiii. 3.
(E) But the nations of the world shall not eat with them. Cf.
and contrast St Matthew viii. 1 1, 12: “many shall come from
the east and the west and shall sit down with Abraham, Isaac
and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven. But the children of the
kingdom shall be cast out into outer darkness”. Cf. and
contrast also Rev. xxi. 8 and especially xxi. 24, 27: “and the
nations of the.world shall walk in the light of it (the glory of
God in Jerusalem) and the kings of the earth do bring their
glory and honour into it… and there shall in no wise enter into
it any thing that defileth…”. Jerusalem is here obviously the
earthly City: the nations of the world are outside its precincts,
even desiring to conquer it: (A) ‘the nations of the world will
not prevail against them. There is no idea of a new earth nor
even of the heavenly Jerusalem coming down (although this is
not actually refuted). Contrast the passage in Mysteries R.
Shimeon ben Yochai, BH. iii. 80, cited above, and Rev. xxi.
The tradition embodied in the present fragment thus bears
marks of being rather old (or at least archaistic).

(A) the Kingdom of Messiah, of the house of David. There is no
hint that the kingdom of Messiah here is conceived of as
temporary. On the contrary it is from the context to be
identified with the Kingdom of Heaven, the Kingdom of God,
see the reference to Zech. xiv. 9: “And H’ shall be king over
all the earth”. The Kingdom of Messiah as identical with the
Kingdom of Heaven represents the final consummation, in
approximately the same sense as that of the prophetic
eschatologies from which passages are drawn as scriptural
support.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 48B.

(1a) FGH begin: ‘The Holy One, blessed be He, has seventy
names that are explicit, and the rest that are not explicit are
innumerable and unsearchable. And these they are. (The
names are missing.) These are the names etc.
(1b) here follows a short fragment of C, see ib.
(2) E ins.: ‘with numerous crowns of righteousness’
(3) FG ins.: ‘with numerous crowns of flashes’
(4) E om.
(5) EFG ins.: ‘myriads of camps of Shekina and thousand
myriads of
(6) EFG: ‘hosts’
(7) E adds: ‘with glory and strength and with great joy and
rejoicing’
(8) so E. A: ‘pillar’
(9) E om.
(10) E: ‘and they send forth as it were lightnings’
(11) EG: ‘unto them glory and praise of strength’
(12) GF add: ‘As it is written (Is. vi. 3): and one cried unto
another and said: Holy, Holy, Holy’
(13) E corr.: ‘fill’
(14) so EFG and H. A: ‘their place’
(15) E adds: ‘And those names of the Holy One, blessed be He,
that are not explicit, are innumerable and unsearchable. And
these they are (!): ADIRIRON, Holy, Holy, Holy I have written it
in another place KPhTBIB, that is YaH, the great: name. They
are written in another place’

Ch. xlviii cont. (B, C and D). The additional fragments now
following, in the translation marked ‘ch. xlviii B, C and D’ resp.
entirely break off the continuity with the preceding. Not only is
the frame of the present section and of all the rest of the book
altogether abandoned, but there is also no connection
whatsoever with the immediately preceding part of the
chapter. B, treating of the Divine Names, is introduced without
reference to any spokesman (in the preceding parts: R.
Ishmael- Metatron). C, a short Enoch-Metatron piece is laid in
the mouth of ‘the Holy One, blessed be He’. D, dealing with
the 70 names of Metatron and the revelation of the treasuries
of wisdom to Moses, is partly attributed to Metatron (vss. 6,
7), partly in general narrative form.

Neither E nor A can be made responsible for putting these
additional fragments in their present place. In A they follow
immediately on the preceding without the slightest break in
the text; hence it is safe to conclude that they were already
extant as concluding parts of the book in the MS. that A
copied. Since A is in no way directly dependent on E, nor vice
versa, both must be traced back to a common source in which
the said fragments had been embodied.
The same fragments, however, recur in printed editions of the
well-known Alph. R. ‘Aqiba (rec. A), letter ‘Aleph (although
missing in some editions). And the MS. in the text-critical
notes referred to as m- ל (Lm), explicitly states its indebtedness
for its recension of C 3-10, 12 and D (abridged) to Alph. R.
‘Aqiba.

A common feature of A and E on one hand and the editions of
Alph. R. ‘Aqiba on the other is, that in the fragment B the
actual Divine Names, there referred to, are missing and were
apparently missing already in the MSS. on which the said
printed editions of ‘Othiyyot R. ‘Aqiba were based (since they
contain no express statement as to their being omitted in print,
as in the case of the names of Metatron, fragment D, see textnotes,
ib.).

In Bodl. MICH. Add. 61, fol. 13 a, however, following on a
recension of the so-called Sepher ha-qQoma and Seder Ma’ase
Bereshith (fol. 12 b) there occurs a fragment which no doubt is
closely related to the present fragments ch. xlviii B, c although
it represents only an abridged version. This fragment is
embodied in text and translation in a separate column and is
marked ‘K’ and כ resp. The distinguishing feature of K is that it
gives the Divine Names and thus supplements the other
sources.

Cf. further note on ch. xlviii c beginning and introduction.
(1) (K): These are the 72 names… FGH count 70 ‘names that
are explicit’, and besides them innumerable names ‘that are
not explicit’. Ch. xlviii c 9, D 5, also refer to the ’70 names of
the Holy One’. The tension between the two tendencies of
giving the precedence as holy or mystical number to 70 or 72
resp. is noticeable in the case of the Divine Names as well as
of the Princes of Kingdoms (cf. note on ch. xvii. 3). In Add.
27180, foil. 39 b-6i a the Divine Names are given as 72,
likewise in S. ha-Chesheq, where the (72) names are
enumerated (Add. 27120, fol. 17 b). Cf. also the conception
of the 72-lettered name.

that are written on the heart of the Holy One… The specific
place of the Divine Names is in different sources differently
designed. The names are sometimes represented as written
on the Fearful Crown, sometimes on the Throne, sometimes on
the forehead of the Most High. Cf. the quotation from Alph. R.
‘Aqiba in note on ch. xxxix. i. Here the Names are
represented as written on the heart of the Most High. In the
Shi’ur Qoma or Sepher ha-qQoma, treating of the various
members of the Godhead, it is said: “on the heart of the King
of Kings there are written 70 names” (Bodl. MICH. 175, fol.
18 b; Bodl. OPP. 467, fol. 59 a b, in the second recension, the
R. Ishmael version; Bodl. OPP. 563, fol. 92 b, also in the R.
Ishmael-recension).

The names enumerated here are on the whole identical with
those of the Shi’ur Qoma passage just referred to. The
resemblance between K (ch. xlviii B) and that passage is as
striking as to prompt the conclusion that one is dependent on
the other. Hence the Shi’ur-Qoma passage in its different
readings may be used as a text-critical aid to the present
fragment.

The enumeration of Divine Names given here presents the
following different categories:
(1) firstly, the various synonyms of the Divine Name, originally
drawn from the O.T., may be singled out from the rest. They Names’. They are here SUR, SADDIQ, SEBAOTH, shaodaY,
‘ELOHIM, YHWH, YaH, CHaY, ROKeB ‘ARaBOTH… The omission
of the important name ‘EHYE ‘asher ‘EHYE is, however,
remarkable. In the Shi’ur-Qoma passage this name occurs
after SEBAOTH in all the readings. It is probable that it was
originally included also in the present fragment. The addition
of this name, moreover, gives the number 72 as the number of
names, agreeing with the specification in the opening of the
fragment. For the name ‘EHYE ‘asher ‘EHYE cf. ch. xlii. 2.
(2) Another category is that of various permutations of the four
letters constituting the Tetragrammaton and the “EHYE’, i.e.
‘Aleph, Yod, He, Waw.

(3) A third category comprises the permutations of other
letters, derived from O.T. names or passages or from the
different systems of substitutions of letters. Lastly a couple of
names consist simply of a name of a letter of the alphabet:
Yod, ‘Aleph and He.
completed for Melek ha-‘Olam. The right interpretation of this
is doubtful to decide. It seems that there was a tradition,
according to which the explanation of the Divine Names or the
series of the Divine Names was permissible as far as to the
name MELEK ha ‘OLAM (the King of the Universe). After that
name it was not permissible to give explanations or discourses
on the basis of the Names. Hence there arose the technical
expression “ad Melek ha-‘Olam’ Cf. e.g. Bodl. OPP. 658, fol.
101 b. The real meaning of the expression in question here is
thus probably (instead of ‘completed for etc.’): here the series
is completed with regard to the rule ‘up to the name MELEK ha-
‘OLAM but not further’.

Holy, Holy, Holy… Blessed be the Name etc… Blessed be He
who gives power to the faint etc. The names are inclosed in
the responses of the QSdushsha and in other glorifications.
This is also the case with the names in the ShVur-Qoma
fragment which in all readings ends with the response
‘Blessed’. The letters representing the responses ‘Holy’ (QQQ)
and ‘Blessed’ (BshKMLW) are to be regarded as together
forming actual Divine Names, acc. to the Notariqon-system.
Some of the other names are perhaps also derived from the
responses, e.g. BBS, KKK, KKL. As Divine Names and not as
private additions of praise by the writer are also to be
considered the Notariqon-complexes at the end of the
enumeration. As a support for these statements may be
comprise the category of Divine Names known as ‘the Ten adduced the following commenting remark on Sepher ha-
Qoma in Bodl. OPP. 658, fol. 102 b: “the Names written in
this book (Sepher ha-qQoma, thus including the parallel to our
passage) are derived from scriptural verses and some of them
are deduced from the ‘Blessed be the name of His glorious
kingdom for ever and ever'”. For the early connection of the
Divine Names with the Notariqon-system cf. the so-called
Prayer of R. Nehunya ben ha-qQana embodied in the liturgy,
the Notariqon of which forms the 42-lettered Name (known as:
אבגיתן קרעשטן נגדיכש בטרצתג חקבטנע יגלפזק
:שקיצית

(A) the names of the Holy One… that go forth… from the
Throne of Glory. This echoes the idea represented in ch.
xxxix. i: ‘the explicit names that are written with a flaming
style on the Throne of Glory… fly off like eagles on sixteen
wings’. See note ad loc. and cf. vs. 2 here: ‘when they bring
them back to their place, the Throne’. It is not actually stated
here (as in ch. xxxix. i) that the Names are written on the
Throne, only that their place is before or by the Throne, and
this in reality accords with the expression of K (and Shi’ur
Qomd): ‘written on the heart of the King of Kings, the Holy
One’, the ‘heart’ being in Shi’ur Qoma, the symbolical
expression for the centre of the Throne. The Names are
probably here as in ch. xxxix. i conceived of as self-existent
beings. This is confirmed by the fact that they are depicted as
crowned ‘with flaming crowns, crowns of chashmal, crowns of
lightnings etc.’ and as escorted like ‘kings’ or ‘mighty and
honoured princes’ (vs. 2) by hosts of angels.

As self-existent
heavenly beings the Names are naturally pictured in the form
of angels: crowned (cf. note on ch. xviii. i, xvi. 2, xl) and
winged (ace. to ch. xxxix. i). Cf. vs. 2. For the conception
of the Names as crowned cf. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 24,
where the letters of the Divine Name (‘EHYE YHWH) are
depicted as crowned: “and all of them (the letters) are crowned
with crowns of brilliant flashes”; ib. BH. iii. 36: “At the hour
when the Holy One, blessed be He, enters the Merkaba… then
the letters on the Merkaba come to meet him with songs… and
the Holy One, blessed be He, embraces them, kisses them and
wreathes two crowns on each one of them: a crown of kingship
and a crown of glory”. Notice the hypostasized character of
the letters (of the Divine Names) in the last quotation.

crowns of chashmal… with the likeness of chashmal. The
chashmal, derived from Ezek. i. 4, is regarded as a celestial
matter or substance. Cf. ch. xxxvi. 2 and note on ch. xxxiv.
i (esp. the quotation from Midrash Konen, ib.). From the same
word is also derived the angelic class Chashmallim (cf. chh.
vii and xlviii c 4).
thousand hundreds of power, i.e. angels. For this expression
denoting angels cf. ch. xxxvi. i (‘ the Nehar di-Nur rises with
many thousand thousands and myriads of myriads of power ‘).
EFG in fact read ‘hosts’ instead of ‘hundreds’.
(2) And they give glory unto them and they answer and cry
before them: Holy, Holy, Holy… (and the Chayyoth say:)
Blessed etc. The ‘going forth’ of the Names from the Throne of
Glory is thus here, as in ch. xxxix. i, connected with the
heavenly performance of the responses of the Qgdushsha. Cf.
vs. i (K). In ch. xxxix the performance of the QSdushsha is
treated as the central event to which the ‘flying off’ of the
Divine Names was an accessory, here the representation is
rather the reverse: the central interest is attached to the
Names, the QSdushsha responses are even represented as
addressed to the Names (just as the Divine Names are the
objects of prayers and glorifications from the side of man).
they roll them. The ‘rolling’ is perhaps to be understood as
referring to the names as angels mounted on wheels, cf. chh.
xviii. 25, xxii. 7.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 48C.

(1) E: ‘thousand thousands’
(2) so FG. A: ‘the Servant’
(3) FG: ‘ascended’
(4) so FG. A: ‘Hall’
(5) FG: ‘him’
(6) so FG. A corr.
(7) so ins. with FG
(8) FGH: ‘to bring them to remembrance’
(9) FGH: ‘to be girt with light’
(10)so ins. with FGH. A here a lacuna
(11) so FG. A corr.
(11a) so FG. A: ‘fire and thousands of fire’
(12) FG: ‘his appearance’
(13) FG ins.: ‘glory’
(14) FGins.: ‘and strength’

(15) FG ins.: ‘by my name’
(15a) so FGLm. A: ‘all’
(16) FG: ‘in love’ Lm: ‘as a friend’
(17) FGLm: ‘as (I set up his Throne)’
(17a) ‘his’
(18) FGLm ins.: ‘on the outside’
(18a) so with FGLm. A lacuna
(18b) Lm omits.
(19) FG: ‘my’
(19a) ins. with FG. A om.
(20) FG ins.: ‘to subdue rulers and presumptuous ones by his
word’
(21) G: ‘kingdoms’
(22) FG cont. (MT): ‘he removeth kings and setteth up kings’

(23) FG: ‘kings’
(24) FG: ‘are intent upon’
(25) FG ins. (MT): ‘he giveth wisdom unto the wise’
(26) A repeats dittographically
(27) so FGLm (= MT) A: ‘ma’aseh’
(27a) Lm: ‘the mouth of the Divine Majesty (Geburd)’
(27b) Lm inserts ‘ by himself
(28) ins. with FG. A om.
(29) FG: ‘masliach’
(30) FG: ‘send him into punishment, but send them (the
decrees) upon another, wicked man’ 303 FG ins. ‘instead’
(31) so FG. A om.
(32) FG om.
(33) FG’ himself
(34) so FG. A plural
(35) FG: ‘for them the book of the Law’

This fragment is a version of the Enoch-Metatron tradition and
exhibits traits very much resembling those of the Enoch-
Metatron piece contained in chh. iii-xv of the present book. In
fact, vss. 1-9 present the same details as those of chh. iii-xv,
although in an epitomized form, vss. 10-12 add statements
about Metatron’s functions as establisher of the Divine decrees
and as teacher of the prematurely dead children.
Both in A, E and the editions of Alph. R. ‘Aqiba the present
fragment appears as a sequel to the fragment treating of the
Divine Names (ch. xlviii B), and likewise in K. In the present
context of AE as well as of edd. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba there seems
to be no internal connection between the two. In AE the
fragment, ch. xlviii B, in its present form gives the impression
of being quite out of place. Its only appropriate place would
have been by ch. xxxix (also treating of the Divine Names).

And also in Alph. R. ‘Aqiba although of a much looser
structure than the present book the reason for placing the
fragment B in the context in which it is now introduced is not
very apparent. The insertion of the fragment C, on the other
hand, is justifiable both as regards the present book and as
regards the Alph. R. ‘Aqiba : in the present book in view of its
dealing with Enoch-Metatron, in Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, letter ‘Aleph,
on account of its beginning with ‘Aleph, representing the
Notariqon (or mnemotechnical formula) for the three opening
words אברתיו (‘I made him strong’), לקחתיו (‘I took him’),
פקדתיו (‘I appointed him’), אלפ = אלף . The close connection
that seems to prevail between the two fragments is hence
neither to be explained by the assumption that they originally
belong to Alph. R. ‘Aqiba (and when borrowed by other
writings having been regarded as a unit) nor by the same
assumption applied to the present book.

The explanation is presumably to be found in K, the only
version that preserves the enumeration of the Divine Names in
fragment B, an enumeration which must be presupposed as
the original part of the fragment. In this enumeration of the
Divine Names we find the word “Aleph’ as one of the Names
(the 55th from the beginning). The “Aleph’ as representing the
sentence ‘I seized him, I took him, I appointed him (K)’ is now
the starting-point and basis of the exposition of the fragment,
ch”. xlviii c. Hence it is possible to conjecture that the present
fragment in reality is framed as a ‘midrash’ (in the proper
sense) on the Divine Name ‘Aleph. On such a hypothesis the
close connection between B and C would be easier to
understand. Both B and C may have originated in the circles
attaching great importance to the conception of Metatron,
God’s representative whose names are based upon the names
of his Creator (cf. vs. 9, chh. iii. 2, iv. i, x. 3 seq., xii. 5).
Among the Divine Names the ‘Aleph was chosen here as
symbolizing the relation between the Holy One and His viceregent,
Metatron.

‘Aleph is represented as the symbol of God’s
sovereignty in Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, in passages preceding the
version of B and C. ‘Aleph as the name or one of the names of
the Godhead is also vindicated by the Shi’urQoma passage (cf.
above on ch. xlviii B). ‘Aleph, Beth, etc., as symbolical for the
Godhead, expressing different aspects of the Divinity, are
dwelt upon in TB. Shabbat, 104 a. (‘Aleph-Beth is. explained
as referring to the instruction in ‘Intelligence’, or the Tora.) As symbolical of Metatron the ‘Aleph (and Beth) is expressly
designed in Hek. R., BH. iii. 104; Metatron’s name is there
“‘Aleph, Beth “, BB, GG, DD, HH, WW, ZZ, ḤḤ Metatron etc.
(cf. ch. xlviii D)”. The name ‘Alpha’ seems also to have been
ascribed to Sandalphon acc. to Hek. Zot. (Bodl. MICH. 9, fol.
67 a) that angel occupying a position similar to or identical
with Metatron’s position (scil. in Hek. Zot.).

(1) I made him strong… in the generation of the first Adam.
The word “ibbartiw’, here translated ‘I made him strong’, is of a
doubtful interpretation. With reference to the expression ‘in
the generation of the first Adam’ it is probable that the word
was to express some activity from God’s part in regard to
Metatron. But Metatron is evidently from the beginning of the
fragment identified with Enoch. Hence the meaning seems to
be to allude to God’s special care for Enoch during his life on
earth, among the men of the generation of Adam. K has the
easier reading ‘I seized him’, which of course is a mere
synonym for ‘I took him’, and like the latter expression is made
to refer to Enoch’s removal to heaven.
For the details of the present exposition cf. on the parallel
passages of the Enoch- Metatron section, chh. iii-xv. when I
beheld the generation of the flood: ch. iv. 3. I removed my
Shekina etc.: ch. v. 13, 14.
For vs. 2 cf. chh. vi. i, 3, iv. 3.
For vs. 3 cf. chh. x. 6, viii. i.

For vs. 4 cf. ch. x. 3 seq. I appointed him over the Chayyoth,
the ‘Ophannim etc. Cf. the angelic classes enumerated, ch.
vii. Metatron is here represented distinctly as the Prince of the
Merkdba-angeh. (Contrast the angelological section, chh. xix
seqq.) a minister of the Throne of Glory… to exalt and arrange
it. Cf. chh. vii and viii. i.
to wreathe crowns upon their heads etc. Cf. in the
angelological section, chh. xxii. 12, xxv. 5 et al.
as I sit upon the Throne of Glory etc. The reading of A seems
to be the best one. In Lm ‘he’ and ‘his’ should be emendated
into ‘I’ and ‘my’ resp. For the present representation cf. Hek.
R. xi, BH. iii. 91: “When the angel of the Presence enters to
exalt and glorify the Throne of His (God’s) glory, and to
prepare the seat for the mighty God of Jacob, then he puts thousand thousand crowns on the honoured ‘Ophannim… on
the glorious Kerubim… the holy Chayyoth… the spark(s)”.
(I committed unto him) the secrets celestial and the secrets
terrestrial (K:)
I committed to him Wisdom and Intelligence. Cf. chh. x. 5,
xi. i, 2.

(5) I made him higher than all. Cf. ch. ix. i. The measure
here ascribed to Metatron, 70,000 parasangs, is unique to this
fragment. As compared with the statement of ch. ix. i and
the measures of the Throne of Glory acc. to ch. xxiii c the size
here assigned to Metatron is remarkably small. Was the
original reading perhaps ‘surpasses all the others that are high
of stature, with 70,000 parasangs’?
The Shi’ur Qoma counts in thousands of myriads of parasangs
in its description of the measures of the Throne (with the
special units of measure prevailing in heaven) and TB. Chag.
13 a, in journeying distances of 500 years (the size of the
world), cf. with that ch. ix. i.
I made his Throne great by… my Throne of Glory. Cf. ch. x. i.
(6) I transformed his flesh into fire etc. Cf. ch. xv.

(7) I made honour and majesty his clothing. Cf. ch. xii. i, 2.
a royal crown… his diadem. Cf. ch. xii. 3. The measure of
the crown, 500 by 500 parasangs, is an exclusive feature of
the present fragment. In Add. 27199, fol. 114 a, the
statement about Metatron’s royal crown ‘of 500 by 500
parasangs’ is quoted from ‘Ma’ase Merkaba’ I called him the
LESSER YHWH. Cf. ch. xii. 4… the Knower of Secrets, ‘Wise in
Secrets’ is part of the name of Metatron acc. to Hek. R. BH.
iii. 104. K. by Gematria 71: the numerical value of אדוני is
71.

(8) I set up his throne at the door of my Hall. Cf. ch. x. 2.
that he may sit and judge the heavenly household. Cf. ch. x.
4, 5, xvi.. i, 2. And I placed every prince before him… Cf. ch.
x. 4, 5, xvi. i, 2.
(9) Seventy names did I take from my names. Cf. chh. iii. 2,
iv. i and xlviii D 5 (contr. xlviii D i). Seventy princes gave I
into his hand, to command… in every language. the ‘Princes of Kingdoms’ are meant. Metatron is here definitely designated
as the ruler over the princes of kingdoms, cf. chh. x. 3, xvi.
2.

to abase by his word etc. As chief of the princes of Kingdoms
Metatron has general executive and governing power over the
world. Through vs. 9 he is essentially denned as a ‘Prince of
the World’. Cf. on chh. xxx. i and iii. 2.
I appointed him to reveal secrets and to teach judgement and
justice. Expresses the tradition of Metatron’s character as
communicator of the heavenly secrets to man (cf. ch. xlviii D
7), the role in which he appears in the frame of the present
book.

(10) Metatron stands and carries it out… the decrees.
Metatron standing and executing the Divine decrees
represents another trend of traditions than those contained in
the statement ‘Metatron sits and judges the heavenly
household’. But both seem to have been connected already at
an early time. So in a pregnant (and contradictory) form in
Rev. of Moses (Gaster, RAS’s Journal, 1893): “Metatron, the
angel of the Presence, stands at the door of the Palace (Hall) of
God. And he sits and judges all the heavenly hosts before his
Master. And God pronounces judgement and he executes it”.
Cf. further on ch. xvi. 5.

(11) they do not execute it etc. This verse has no reference to
Metatron, and it would seem that it does not belong to the
Enoch-Metatron piece. It is a midrashic exposition on the
continuation of Is. Iv. 11, the scriptural passage used as
support for the view on Metatron as executor of the decrees. It
is omitted by Lm and may be regarded as additional.

(12) Metatron sits three hours every day… and teaches the
prematurely dead. This is a well-known tradition with regard to
Metatron, recurring in TB.’Aboda Zara, 3 b (in a slightly
different form), Metatron sharing the function with God
himself, and frequently in later writings, cf. e.g. YR. i. 31 b
(quoting ‘Or haChayim).

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 48D.

(1) In the printed editions FGH the names are left out except
no. 105 ‘saGNezagiEL’ Lm: ‘(omission of names marked by a
lacuna). Na’ar (= Youth, cf. chh. iii. 2, ix. i). Ne’eman [=
Faithful; again a lacuna] the LESSER YHWH [again lacuna] and
he is called (NecaNzecaEL)’
(2) FG: ‘Sagnezagiel’ Lm: ‘Neganzegael’
(3) G: all wisdom is committed ‘F:’ the wisdoms are all
committed’
(4) Lm: ‘for they taught him them in forty days while Metatron
was standing’
(5) FG ins.: ‘on the mount of the Torah’
(6) ins. with FGLm.
(7) Lm om.
(8) Lm ins.: ‘short’

(9) FG: ‘he gave them to Moses as a gift’ Lm: ‘he gave him all
of them as before (i.e. he had forgotten them) as a gift’
(10) Lm om.
(11) here Lm ends
(12) so ins. with FG, for the sake of the following contex.
(13) FG: ‘said’ or ‘read’
(14) FG om.
(15) FG: ‘is’
(16) so ins. with FG. A lacuna
(17) FG ins.: ‘the Holy One’
(18) FG: ‘seals’
(19) FG ins.: ‘all the orders of the heaven of ‘Araboth’
(20) FG ins.: ‘in reign and dominion’ A lacuna

(21) FG: ‘kingdom’
(22) so ins. with G. A lacuna F: ‘For’
(23) FG ins.: ‘the angel, the Prince of the Glory, the Angel, the
Prince of the Hall(s)’
(24).FG om.
(25) G: ‘of the princes ; the angel, the Prince of the high ones’
F: ‘of the high princes’
(26) FG: ‘the children of men’
(27) A: ‘tailed’
(28) FG ins.: ‘men of blood and gonorrhaea’
(29) FG: ‘men of putrefying drops’
(30) FG om.
(31) ins. with FG. A om.
(32) FG ins.: ‘sparks of splendour’
(33) so FG ins. A lacuna
(34) ins. with FG
(35) FG om.
(36) FG: ‘it’
(37) FG ins.: ‘the Scribe’

(38) FG ins.: ‘to the masters of faith’
This last fragment of the present chapter consists of mixed
pieces of traditions only loosely bound together. The first, vs.
i, treats of the names of Metatron. Seventy names has
Metatron. The number is given as 70 in accordance with chh.
iii. 2, iv. i, xlviii c 9. They are as in the passages mentioned,
represented as a reflection of or based upon the Divine
Name(s). The enumeration contains a larger number of names

than the indicated 70. It evidently is a list of all the names
that were known by the writer to be applied to Metatron. So
also other enumerations, e.g. S. ha-Chesheq, ed. Epstein,
and the commentary on Metatron’s names, Bodl. MICH. 256,
foil. 29 3-44 a, exceed the number 70.

As to the character of the names here enumerated the
majority are angelic names of the usual pattern. Nos. 83 and
85-86 (= Zehanpuryu) occur as names of angels in ch. xviii.
8, 21 of the present book. Cf. also no. 82 with Zakzakiel, ch.
xviii. 17, and no. 73 with Simkiel, ch. xliv. 2, 3. In Schwab,
VA., the following names of the present enumeration recur as
names of individual angels attested in other writings, viz. nos.
i, 3 and 4 (companion of Metatron, Zohar, i. 149 a, Prince of
the Law, ib. iii. 197 b), 5 (Prince of Understanding, S. Raziel,
45 a), 6 (Prince of the Presence, Hek. R. xvii, xxvi, cf. xxx),
19 (in a variant form), 20, 21, 22 (in many variants), 24, 25,
48, 49, 51, 54, 60, 63, 83, 84, 85-86, 96, 104 (i En. vi. 7).
These names which probably are understood as representing
different aspects and functions of Metatron perhaps indicate
that Metatron was to be conceived of as combining all the
different functions assigned to the special angels of the resp.
names. Cf. YR. i. 56 b, referred to below.

Another group among the names enumerated consists of
variants of the name Metatron, e.g. nos. 23 (Metatron), 30,
31, 46, 47. This category of names forms part also of other
enumerations of Metatron’s names.
A few names are permutations of the letters of the
Tetragrammaton and ‘EHYE, after the pattern of the
enumerations of Divine Names: nos. 13 = 16, (53), 80, 81. Cf.
note on ch. xlviii B i .

Lastly mention may be made of the specific appellations of
Metatron: no. 17 ‘Ebed (= Servant) and no. 102 the Lesser
YHWH. ‘Ebed, ‘servant’, is expressly attached to Metatron in
the Enoch-Metatron sections, chh. x. 3, xlviii c i, the Lesser
YHWH in chh. xii. 5, xlviii 07. On the other hand it is
noteworthy that the name ‘Na’ar’ which is given a prominent
place in chh. iii and iv, is not included in the present
enumeration, nor in those of YR. i. 60 b, S. Chesheq, Bodl.
MICH. 256, foil. 29 3-44 a. It seems, however, to have been
extant in the recension of which Lm is an abridgement.
Besides, acc. to traditions appearing in Zohar (e.g. i. 223 b)

and elsewhere, cf. YR. i. 56 a (from ‘Pardes’), Na’ar is
represented as equivalent with “Ebed’: “Metatron is called
‘Na’ar’ (= παις, Servant) because he does the service of a
na’ar, he ministers before the Shekina and he distributes
maintenance to all the companies of angels”. (Metatron as
‘na’ar’ is also identified with Abraham’s servant Elieser through
combination with Ps. xxxvii. 25 also called Zaqen and Saba
de-Beta, the Eldest of his house: Zohar, i. 149 a et al.)

Among the other names may be of special interest: Pisqon (no.
48), occurring Sank. 44 b, and by Rashi referred to Gabriel. It
evidently denotes Metatron’s office of deciding, passing
judgement, cf. ch. xlviii c 8, 10, x. 5. This name also occurs
in the form ‘Ru’ach Pisqonith, the deciding spirit’ (Bodl. MICH.
256, name no. 25); cf. Pesiqtha 27 b. Senegron (no. 22), i.e.
‘defensor’, whereby Metatron is indicated as occupying the
same position as in Rabbinic is usually assigned to Mikael:
defending Israel against the accusations of Satan, Sammael, or
the representatives of the heathen nations, cf. on ch. xxx.
Gal Razayya (no. 88) cf. Razrazyah (no. 68), i.e. ‘Revealer of
secrets’ or ‘knower of secrets.’ Cf. ch. xlviii c 7, ch. xi. He is
the mediator transmitting the celestial secrets to man.

The
name ‘ Galli-Razayya ‘ is the sixty-seventh of the names
enumerated, Bodl. MICH. ib. Related to this name is no. 91
(‘depths soil, of secrets’). Noteworthy is Mekapperyah (no. 93)
which would seem to assign to Metatron an atoning function.
Yehoel (no. i) is as well in earlier as in later literature the
name of the high angel of the ‘Presence’ (cf. BOX, Ap. Abr. x,
xii). His name is composed of the letters of the Divine Name,
hence the ‘shemi beqirbd’ (‘my name is in him’) could
appropriately be applied to him. Cf. Ap. Moses, and in a later
attestation e.g. Add. 26922, foil. 41 b seqq. (Yehoel on a
level with Metatron as the Prince of the Presence). Lastly the

Tetragrammaton itself appears as one of the names : no. 14.
For enumerations of the names of Metatron cf. inter al.: (i)
Hek. R. xxvi. BH. iii . 1 04 (the centre of this enumeration
are the ‘eight names’: Margeziel, Giyothiel, etc., Yehoel…
Sagnesagiel): “In the camps of the holy angels they call him:’
Metatron, the ‘Ebed YHWH (!), the long-suffering and the
merciful or: YHWH, wise in secrets etc.”. (2) Hek. Zot. Bodl.
MICH. 9, fol. 69 b, containing nos. 6, 46, 84 here, and ‘Uzyah,
Menunyah, Sasnegaryah, ‘Atmon, Sigron, etc. (3) Hek. Zot.
Bodl. MICH. 9, fol. 70 a:”… the prince of the Host on high, the
‘Ebed YHWH, God of Israel, blessed be He, longsuffering etc.”;
cf. Hek. R. above. The Divine Attributes (from Ex. xxxiv. 6- 7, cf. 4 Ez. vii. 132 seqq.) seem to have been ascribed to

Metatron, and the name ‘Ebed’ to have been referred to the
‘Ebed YHWH picture of Deutero-Isaiah. (4) Shi’ur Qoma, e.g.
Bodl. OPP. 467, fol. 59 a, Bodl. OPP. 563, fol. 92 b:
“Metatron, Ruah Pisqonith (cf. above), Itmon, Hegron, Sigron,
Maton, Miton Netif, Netiph”. (5) YR. i. 56 b from Tiqqunim.
This passage makes an attempt at explaining the meaning of
the names. Metatron, it says, is called by the resp. names
acc. to the various functions he is performing. He is called
‘Otmon’ (from ‘atam = stop, shut’) when he seals the guilty in
Israel, ‘Sigron’ (‘sagar shut’) when he shuts the doors of
prayers
(i.e. the doors through which man’s prayers are let
into heaven), ‘Pithhon’ at the time when he opens for the
prayers, ‘Pisqon’ (cf. above) at the time when he decides
Halakoth in Raqia’, in the (celestial Beth Din… And this angel is
called by 60 myriads of names of angels (cf. above). He is
called ‘ Chasdiel’ when he does kindness to the world, ‘Gabriel’
at the time when ‘gebura’ is in the world, ‘Sithriel’ when he
hides the children of the world under his wings from the angels
of destruction.

He is also called Sidqiel, Raphael and Malikiel.
(6) YR. i. 60 b, from a ‘midrash’, with reference to Alph. R.
‘Aqiba, hence possibly a fragment of a recension of the present
verse. In fact, the following names of the present verse occur
there: nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 27, 28, 17, 30, 49 (variant), 21
(and variant), 22, 48 (as Pisqonith), 25. Of the remaining
twenty names of that passage five recur in S. ha-Chesheq and
the related commentary on Metatron’s names, Bodl. MICH.
256 and a couple of the rest in the Hek. R. and Hek. Zot.
passages referred to above. (7) S. ha-Chesheq (Add. 27120,
foil, i seqq.). The following names of the present verse occur
there: nos. 11, 17, 21, 25, 30, 41, 49, Si, 54,. 58-59, 60, 61,
64, 75, 77, 90, 94, 95. (8) Bodl. MICH. 256, foil. 29 3-443, a
treatise called Shemoth shel Metatron:

‘The Names of
Metatron’, presenting 77 different names with commentary.
The names and order of names are on the whole identical with
or resembling those of S. ha-Chesheq. It may be noted that
the ‘Yephiphyah’ of vs. 4 of the present fragment (the Prince
of the Law who transmits the treasuries of Wisdom-Tora to
Moses) is included in this enumeration as a name of Metatron.
Sigron, ‘Itmon, ‘Ebed, Senegron, Galli-Razayya also occur. The
comments on the names consist in explanations by means of
Gematria. The names are here also represented as signifying
different functions of his. The name Metatron e.g. is by
gematria ‘Shaddai’, for he said to God’s world: it is enough
שדי and Metatron carries the world upon the great crown, and he is suspended from the finger of the Holy One, blessed be
He; it is by gematria ‘ Shuah’ (from ‘shiah = prayer’) for he is
appointed to receive the prayers. The name Titrasyah is by
gematria ‘Gash’ (‘come near’, numerical value 303), for he
comes nearer to the Throne than any other angel. -It is by
gematria ‘ ha-Rahdman (‘the Merciful’), for when the Holy One
is wroth with his children, Metatron prays before him and turns
him from the attribute of justice to the attribute of mercy (cf.
ch. xxxi, Ber. 7 a) and so on.

(2) Sagnesakiel. On this name confer note on ch. xviii. 1 1.
Because all the treasuries of wisdom are committed in his
hand. Cf. chh. x. 5, 6, viii. i, xi, xlviii c 7.
(3) all of them were opened to Moses on Sinai… The treasuries
of wisdom contain the heavenly Tora which was revealed to
Moses. The narrative contained in vs. 3 and occurs in variant
forms in Ex. R. xlvii, Num. R. xviii et al. It is also in a similar
form extant in Rev. Moses (Pes. R. xx), BH. i. 60 seqq. and
in this recension it recurs in YR. ii. 67 b, quoted from Pirqe
Hekaloth. acc. to Lm and vss. 7 seqq. it seems that Metatron
was the transmitter of the Tora to Moses. This would account
for the insertion of the fragment here.

(4) he forgot all of them etc. ‘when he began to go down and
saw all… the angels of fear, of trembling, of awe and dread,
then trembling seized him and he forgot all of them in one
moment’, acc. to Rev. Moses, YR. ii. 67 b.
(5) These seventy names are a reflection… Cf. on chh. xlviii c
9 and iii. 2. The seventy names are here referred to the Most
High as King of the kings of kings, probably indicating the
aspect of rulership over the world, the seventy nations. When
ascribed to Metatron they signify, as may be assumed,
Metatron’s character of representative ruler of the world, esp.
over the princes of kingdoms; cf. the statement following:
‘(put upon Metatron’s name… the twenty-two letters… with
which are sealed the destinies of the princes of kingdoms…
and the destinies of every nation and tongue. Cf. also on chh.
iii. 2, x. 3, xvi. 2, xlviii c 9 and vs. 6 here: Metatron… the
Prince of the… princes, the exalted, great and honoured ones,
in heaven and on earth. the Explicit Name(s)… which are
graven on the Throne of Glory. Cf. chh. xxxix. i, xlviii B i, xiii.
i, xli. 4.

and twenty-two letters… The twenty-two letters are
presumably conceived of as contained in the Divine Names
that were ‘put upon Metatron’. The holy letters constitute the
Names, hence Names and letters are terms interchanged, with
which are sealed. The creations and decrees of the Holy One
are often represented as stablished by, sustained by or sealed
with a Divine Name or a letter. Cf. Aiph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii.
24: “All the Explicit Names are written with He etc. And
heaven and earth are sealed with it (them) and this world and
the world to come and the days of Messiah. And how many
are the letters by which heaven and earth are sealed? They
are 12…, namely the letters of the Name ‘ ‘Ehye ‘asher ‘Ehye’
(Aleph, He, Yod, He, etc.)”. on the ring upon his finger. Cf. ib.
25: “they are sealed with the ring: ‘EHYE ‘asher ‘EHYE”. the
destinies of the… Angel of Death and the destinies of every
nation and tongue. ‘The lots, פתקי , of the angel of death’
presumably means ‘the records of the ultimate fate of
individuals and nations, kept with the angels of Death’; cf.
Alph. R. ‘ Aqiba,
rec. B, BH. iii. 63:

“the Pittaqe, the records of destinies of
every nation are kept with thee (the angel of Gehenna,
Negarsanael,) but the Pittaqe of thine do not include the
people of Israel”.
(7) when I revealed this secret to Moses… the secret by which
were created heaven and earth… Gehenna… the Garden of
Eden… the Tora and Wisdom and Knowledge etc. all the hosts
of every heaven raged against me. With this may be
compared the fragment, containing protesting words of the
angels, preserved in Hek. R. xxix: “This Secret may not go out
from the house of thy treasures and the mystery of subtle
understanding from thy treasuries. Do not make flesh and
blood equal to us”.

Another parallel is found in Hek. Zot. MICH. 9, fol. 68 b:
“Thou didst reveal secrets and secrets of secrets, mysteries
and mysteries of mysteries to Moses, and Moses to Joshua etc.
(cf. below)… and Israel made out of them the Tora and the
Talmud…”. So also here the Tora, Wisdom and Knowledge are
said to be formed through the ‘Secret’.

The ‘secret’ is hence the Wisdom or totality of Gnosis on which
the written and oral Tora is based, and by which the whole
manifested world is created. If brought into connection with
vss. 2, 3 the ‘secret’ of the present verse refers to the
contents of ‘the treasuries of wisdom’ that were all opened to
Moses on Sinai. What the inner essence of the secret is
conceived to. be is not immediately apparent here. The chain
of tradition set forth in vs. 10 suggests that it was thought to
be contained in the mystical knowledge or traditions of the
secluded circles of ‘the men of faith’. In the present
connection it would seem that the ultimate constituent parts or
elements of the secret is the ‘Letters and Names’.

By the
letters heaven and earth are created, acc. to chh. xiii, xli, and
wisdom, understanding etc. ‘by which the whole world is
established’ (ch. xli. 3, cf. here). The Tora itself, either
celestial or as transmitted to Israel, is constituted by the letters
in the mystical sense. God’s conferring His Names and
‘Letters’ on Metatron symbolize Metatron’s initiation in the
celestial gnoseis ; thereby he is the Prince of Wisdom, the
guardian of the ‘treasuries of Wisdom’ (vs. 2). This view is
supported by the following passage in Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii.
26: “God revealed to Moses on Sinai all the (Divine) Names,
both the names that are explicit, the names that are graven
upon the Crown of Kingship, the names graven upon the
Throne of Glory, the Names graven upon the Ring on his hand,
the names that are standing like fiery pillars round his chariots,
the names that surround the Shekina as eagles of the
Merkaba, and the Names,

by which are sealed heaven and
earth, the sea and the dry land… the orders of the world and
the orders of Creation. Zebul, ‘Araboth, and the Throne of
Glory, the treasuries of life and the treasuries of blessings…
“(Graetz: “the secret=Shi’ur Qoma” see Introd.). (10) And
Metatron brought them out… to heal all diseases etc. The
verse may be additional here, since it assigns to the
‘mysteries’ primarily a practical, magical import, whereas the
practical interest in the mysteries is nowhere represented in
the rest of the chapter nor the whole of the present book.
Besides it is not a direct continuation of vs. 9: it refers to the
transmitted lore as ‘them’, in the plural, vs. 9, speaking only of
‘it’, the ‘secret’. The transmitted secrets are included in the
revelations of oral Tora from the treasuries on high to Moses,
as in vss. 3 and 4. committed them to Moses, and Moses to
Joshua. The chain of tradition is modelled on the characteristic
pattern, attested in Pirqe Aboth, i. i

(Moses received the Tora
from Sinai, and transmitted it to Joshua and Joshua to the
elders etc.). A close parallel to the present passage is found in
Hek. Zot. Bodl. MICH. 9, fol. 68 b, already referred to
above,”… revealed… the secrets… to Moses, and Moses to
Joshua and Joshua to the elders, the elders to the prophets, the
prophets to the chasidim, the Chasidim to those who feared
the Name, and these to the men of the Great Synagogue, and
the men of the Great Synagogue to all Israel, and Israel made
out of them the Tora”. For chains of secret tradition cf. also 2
En. xxxiii. 10, TB. Chag. 14 b, Yer. Chag. 77 b, Zohar, i. 55
b, 58 b. to R. Abbahu and R. Abbahu to R. Zera.
R. Abbahu, Palestinian Amora, head of the Academy at
Caesarea, second generation; R. Zera, the pupil of R. Abbahu,
migrated from Babylon to Palestine.

The sponsor of the
present fragment apparently regards the ‘secrets’ as belonging
to the Palestinian teachings. the men of faith presumably is
the technical term for the select few by which the ‘secrets’
were supposed to be guarded before they received the
publicity of the writer’s time. They are referred to as a definite
class among those who are to be inhabitants of the future
world in Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 29. As receivers and
guardians of the secrets ‘the men of faith’ appear also in
Zohar, e.g. i. 37 b ( בני מהמנותא ). Cf. the frequent
Mandaitic expression בהיריא זידקא (Lidzbarski: “Manner von
erprobter Gerechtigkeit”) and in this connection especially
Lidzb., Mand. Lit. 269 3-6 (also 268 9 269 2): “Hibil blessed
thee (i.e. the banner shishlamel) and committed (or gave)
thee to the hidden Adam.

Adam blessed thee with great
blessing and gave thee to the BShire Zidqa (men of proved
faith, righteousness) to enlighten their appearance and cause
it to shine exceedingly.”Vide Introd. section 7. to heal… all
diseases… as it is written (Ex. xv. 26) etc. The use of magical
devices for purposes of healing was brought in connection with
the passage Ex. xv. 26 already at an early time: the verse
itself was used as a magical formula acc. to the denouncement
of those ‘who recite Ex. xv. 26 with a view to healing’
attributed to R. Aqiba (recorded in Ab. R. Nathan, xxxix).
Naturally the verse was also used to supply efficacious names
(through permutations of the letters, acrostics etc.) for the
same practical purpose. Cf. Tos. Sabb. 7, ‘Ab. Zara, 67 b,
Mishna Sanhedrin, xi. i, Tos it, xii. 10, Gem it, 101 a; TB.
Sheb. 15 b. For the ‘secrets’ committed to Moses containing ‘
דברי רפוא ה ‘. especially the Ma’yan Chokma (end), Arze
Lebanon, 46 b seq.

Ended and finished.

Praise be unto the Creator of the World.

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The Third Book of Enoch Chapter Notes (Part 1 of 2)

THE THIRD BOOK OF: ENOCH.

CHAPTER NOTES AND EXPLINATIONS.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 1.

(1) so DE. A: ‘in my vision the Merkaba’
(2) DE: ‘Qapiel’
(3) so with DE. A om.
(4) E: ‘fourth’
(5) DE: ‘sight’ ‘appearance’
(6) DE: ‘the Throne of Glory’
(7) A ins. ‘from standing’ DE ins. ‘from my standing place’
(8) DE om.
(9) lit. ‘power’ i.e. proclamation of God’s power.’
(10) DE: ‘the Throne of Glory’

CHAPTER 1 AND 2.

(Additional, see Introduction, section 7.) Chh. i and ii; which
are not extant in BCL, form an introduction to the book,
supplying the explanation of the frame of chh. iii-xlviii A,
purporting to be revelations and communications given to R.
Ishmael by Metatron-Enoch. By the present introductory
chapters is indicated that the occasion of these revelations
was Rabbi Ishmael’s ascent to behold the vision of the
Merkaba (the Divine Chariot). R. Ishmael’s ascension to
heaven and intercourse with Metatron, or the Prince of the
Presence, forms an intrinsic part of the Legend of the Ten
Martyrs, including the so-called Apocalyptic Fragment (BH. v.
167-169, vi. 19-35; Siddur R. ‘Amram Gaon, 3 b, 13 b-i3 a;
Gaster, RAS’s Journal, 1893, pp. 609 seqq.). The R. Ishmael
version of Shi’ur Qoma is also framed as a revelation to R.
Ishmael from Metatron. See further Introduction, sections 7 c
and 10. The ‘R. Ishmael’ introduced in these writings is, acc. to
them, one of the ten martyrs, contemporary with R. ‘Aqiba,
also one of these martyrs with whom he exchanged opinions
and contended teachings on mystical subjects, was a High
Priest and the son of a High Priest, hence in possession of the
Great Divine Name, by force of which he was able to ascend to
heaven. The time of the martyrdom was the beginning of the
second century.

Behold the vision of the Merkaba. Identical expression: Hek.
R. BH. iii. 83. entered the six Halls etc. For the conception of
the seven Halls cf. note on ch. xviii. 3 and chh. x. 2, xvi. i,
xxxvii. i, xxxviii. i, xlviii c 8 and esp. Hek. R. The Halls are
situated in the highest of the seven heavens. The Merkaba
and the Throne of Glory are, acc. to the earlier conceptions
represented here, located to the seventh Hall. For later
developed conceptions cf. Zohar, i. 38 3-45 b, ii. 245 3-269 a;

Pardes Rimmonim, Gate xxiv, and Intr. R. ‘Aqiba also narrates
his ascent to the seven Halls, in Pirqe R. Ishmael, ch. xviii
(Bodl. MICH. 175, foil. 20 a seq.). one within the other, lit,
‘chamber within chamber’, the Halls being arranged
inconcentric circles. Cf. Mass. Hek. iv (“the seven Halls, one
within the other”).
(3) that the merit of Aaron… be valid for me, ‘be valid’, lit.
‘complete, complement my measure’, so that Qafsiel… and the
angels with him may not get power over me. Qafsiel is here
evidently the guardian of the seventh Hall. The forms Qafsiel
and Qaspiel interchange. Qaspiel is one of the guardians of
the seventh Hall acc. to Hek. R. xx. Cf. ib. xv and xix.
Zohar, ii. 248 b. The form Qafsiel is attested in Zohar, iii. 3 b
and S. Rasiel, 4 b. For the guardians of the Halls, see ch.
xviii. 3.

(4) sent to me Metatron etc. also acc. to Legend of the Ten
Martyrs, BH. vi. 19 seqq. Metatron is sent to take care of R.
Ishmael. Cf. Rev. of Moses Yalqut Re’ubeni, ii. 67 a b.
(6) camp(s) of Shekina. Cf. note on ch. xviii. 4 and chh.
xxxii. 4, xxxv. 3.
(7) princes of the Merkaba. Cf. ch. xxii. 10. Seraphim. Cf.
ch. xxvi.
(8) The Seraphim, Kerubim and ‘Ophannim. Cf. chh. xxvi, xxii
and xxv. They are here indicated as angels of the seventh Hall
by the Merkaba: Merkabaangels. The highest class of the
Merkaba-angels is possibly, acc. to the present representation,
the Chayyoth’ beneath and above the Throne of vs. 12.
Cover ye your eyes. Cf. ch. xxii B 5 seq.

(9) Cf. Ap. Abrah. x (ed. BOX): “Go, Jaoel, and by means of
my ineffable Name raise me yonder man and strengthen him
from his trembling”.
(10) to say a song. R. ‘Aqiba, when arriving in the seventh
Hall, utters a song of praise acc. to P. R. Ishmael, ch. xviii
(referred to above).
(11) opened to me the gates etc. The gates are the gates of
treasuries on high ‘under the Throne of Glory’, cf. ch. viii.
gates of Shekina is difficult. Jellinek in E suggests the emendation: ‘gates of Understanding’ (cf. ch.
viii and the
expression ‘the 50 gates of understanding’).
(12) psalm, song… eulogy ( נעימה ). Cf. Zohar, iii. 50 a,
נעימותא (= chanting). the Holy Chayyoth… answered. The
Holy Chayyoth utter the Qedushsha responses ; cf. ch. xx. 2.
Vide Introduction, section 17 a.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 2.

(1) E: ‘children’ ‘servants’ corr.
(2) DE ins. ‘came (and)’
(2a) E om.
(3) so with D. A corr.
(4) D: ‘who offered heave offerings’
(5) DE: ‘as it is written’
The present chapter setting forth the inquiries of the angels
concerning the admittance of R. Ishmael to the high heavens is
a travesty of the similar passages, chh. iv. 7, vi. 2, xlviii D 7.
(1) the eagles of the Merkaba. One of the four Chayyoth is
described as ‘Eagle’ in accordance with Ezek. i. 10, x. 14.
The plural ‘eagles’ can be accounted for on the assumption
that the tradition here represented holds the view that there
existed two (or several) classes of Chayyoth. This may
perhaps be hinted at in the preceding chapter, vs. 12: ‘the
Chayyoth beneath and above the Throne’. “The higher and the
lower Chayyoth”: Zohar frequ. “Two eagles”: Zohar, iii. 170 b.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 3.

(1) B om.
(2) C: ‘When I had ascended to the Merkaba, I asked Metatron
to write down for me all that has been written concerning the
angel, the Prince of the Presence, and thus said I to him.’
(3) BCL: ‘ nations’
(4) BCL: ‘are similar to’ ‘are a reflection of.
(5) B: ‘of my King and my Creator’ C: ‘my King, the Holy One,
blessed be He’ DE: ‘the King of the Kings of kings’ L: ‘kings’
(corr. for ‘my king’?)
(6) L: ‘kings’ (corr. for ‘my king’)
(1) while stating that Metatron has seventy names
‘corresponding to (the number of) nations of the world’ gives
the distinction to the name ‘Youth’ (Na’ar) as being that by
which he is called by his ‘King’, the Holy One. Hereby it forms
the introduction to the following chapter which is framed as an
explanation of this name as applied to Metatron the
explanation being acc. to that chapter, vs. 10, that Metatron,
as identical with Enoch, the son of Jared (Gen. v. 18, 21-24)
who was taken up to the heavens and made an angel-prince, is
as ‘a youngster and a youth among the other angels and
princes (existent from the days of Creation) in days months
and years’.

(2) I have seventy names corresponding to the seventy
tongues (BCL: nations) of the world. The statement ascribing
seventy names to Metatron, occurs also ch. xlviii. D i, 9 et
frequ. (cf. ch. xxix). The seventy names of Metatron are here
connected with the seventy tongues (nations) of the world
which represent the world in its entirety, i.e. their reason of
existence is conceived of as founded on Metatron’s functions
as concerned with the nations of the world or with the affairs of
the world as a whole. Hence the passage reflects the tradition
of Metatron being the Prince of the World. Since the seventy
nations are represented in heaven by the seventy (or seventytwo)
‘princes of kingdoms ‘ (cf. on chh. xvii. 8 and xxx. 2) ,
the Prince of the World is depicted as the prince and ruler of
these (see ch. xxx) and this function is also assigned to
Metatron: chh. x. 3, xvi. 2, xlviii c 9 (cf. notes ad loco). In the last-mentioned passage, ch. xlviii c g,
Metatron’s rulership
over the seventy princes is expressly connected with his
character of bearer of seventy names and he is there also
pictured as wielding executive and governing power over the
world and the nations through the seventy princes as agencies.
Cf. YR. L 57 b (quotation from ‘Emeq ha-mMelek):

“Metatron
is the Prince of the World, for he distributes maintenance to
the princes of the nations of the world”. In the rest of the
present book Metatron’s rulership is mainly presented in its
celestial aspect; he is the prince, ruler and judge of the
children of heaven, only implicitly brought into connection with
the things terrestrial. Nowhere in this book is he definitely
stated to be ‘the Prince of the World’. This term is not used by
the present Enoch-Metatron section and in the latter part of
the book the ‘Prince of the World’ appears as different from
Metatron (see chh. xxx. 2 and xxxviii. 3 and notes).
all of them are based upon the name of my King, the Holy One
(ace. to the readings of BCDE[L] and the reading implied by
the opening words of ch. iv:

‘Why art thou called by the name of thy Creator, by seventy
names?’). This is another aspect of the origin and import of
Metatron’s seventy names : they are a reflection of the
seventy names of the Most High (cf. the reading of BCL). The
same is stated in chh. xlviii C 9, xlviii 1, 5, appearing also in
the form of the dictum ‘called by the name of His Master, for
“my name is in him” (Ex. xxiii. 21) and in the ascribing to
Metatron of the name ‘the lesser YHWH’: chh. xii. 5, xlviii D i.
There are two lines of ideas to be distinguished here:
(1) Metatron’s names are conceived of as ‘based upon’ the
Divine Name κατ’ ε’ξοχη’ν, the Tetragrammaton, which
simply means that the different names contain the YHWH or
YaH as component part. This is not a trait exclusive to the
Metatron-conception, but applied to various other high princes
and angels, cf. ch. x. 3 and esp. ch. xxix. i.

(2) acc. to the other line of thought the seventy names of
Metatron are actually one by one the counterparts, images,
reflections of the seventy names of the Godhead (cf. ch. xlviii
5: ‘seventy names of His by which they call the King of Kings of
kings in the high heavens’). This is an exclusive feature of the
Metatron-picture, as is also the name ‘the Lesser YHWH’ based
upon the name Metatron. This strange expression which is attested only in A occurs also Hek. Zot.
Bodl. MICH. 9, fol.
69 b, where it signifies that the divers names are to be
understood as referring to the angel-prince known as
‘Metatron’ (the names given there are such as nos. 6, 46, 84
of ch. xlviii D i and ‘Pisqon, Sigron, Zebodiel etc.’). The
expression might, however, also refer to variants of the name
‘Metatron’, e.g. Mitatron, Mittron, Mitton, Mitmon, ‘Atmon,
‘Otron, etc.; cf. ch. xlviii D i and Yalqut Re’ubeni, 56 b. The
reading of BCDE is presumably correct here. Cf. above.
my King calls me Youth (Na’ar). The name Na’ar’is regularly
ascribed to Metatron; cf. on ch. xlviii D i. It is also applied to
the Prince of the World, TB. Yeb. 16 b. The derivations and
explanations of the name differ.
The present section (cf. iv. i, 10), as has already been pointed
out, explains it from Metatron’s identity with Enoch. In TB.
Yeb. ib. the name ‘Na’ar, Youth’ is deduced from Ps. xxxvii.
25 :

“I have been a youth and now am old”, which is made to
refer to the Prince of the World (who was young in the days of
Creation). The Tosaphoth on this passage state that Enoch-
Metatron and the Prince of the World are both called Na’ar, yet
they must not, acc. to the Tosaphists, be identified: Ps. xxxvii.
25 refers to the Prince of the World only, not to Enoch-
Metatron. This of course implies that the verse in question was
acc. to one tradition referred to Metatron (in fact Metatron is,
apparently with reference to Ps. xxxvii. 25, described both as
‘ Na’ar, Youth’ and ‘Zaqen, Old, Eldest’; cf. Yalqut Re’ubeni, i.
60 a). See further the Introduction. In Zohar, i. fol. 223 b et
al. the appellation Na’ar as given to Enoch-Metatron is derived
from Prov. xxii. 6, ‘ Chdnok la-nNa’ar’, which is interpreted:
‘Enoch was made (the) Na’ar’. The present verse is quoted in
Zohar, i. 37 b, from ‘Book of Enoch’.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 4.

(1) so CD. A: ‘ callest thou ‘(corr.) B:is thy name (like the name
of thy Creator)’
(2) so BCDEL. A: ‘for the reason that he (the Na’ar) is also
(Enoch etc.)’
(3) so BCDEL. A: ‘the Merciful One is not cruel’
(4) C ins. ‘what did they sin, and those that were taken away
with them’
(5) BC om. L: ‘in their lifetime from the world’
(6) (B) CL: ‘made me into’. Above acc. to DE, lit. ‘joined me to
the ministering angels as a prince and a ruler’. A corr.
(Ziggewdni: me signavit?)
(7) BCL ins. ‘when the Holy One, blessed be He, took me up to
the high heavens’
(8) D: ‘three angels, ‘Azza, ‘Uzza and ‘Azzael’ B: ‘three angels:
Mal’aki, ‘Azza and ‘Azzael’ CE: ‘three of the angels (of) ‘Azza
and ‘Azzael’ L: ‘three angels, Mamlaketi, ‘Azza and ‘Azzael’ YR.
i. 35 a: ‘three angels from among the angels of ‘Azza and
‘Azzael.’
(9) BCDEL ins. ‘Lord of the Universe!’
(10) C: ‘Let not man be created!’
(11) C ins. ‘for he will sin’ A ins. ‘again’
(12) so AL. BCD: ‘waters’
(13) DLE om.
(14) C ins. ‘and thy mother’

(15) BCL: ‘in years’
This chapter is framed as an explanation of the name ‘Na’ar,
Youth’ as applied to Metatron. It relates how Metatron is Enoch
of Gen. v who was removed to heaven and there made into an
angel-prince. The reason of his translation was the sinfulness
of the generation of the Flood to which he was to bear witness
to future generations and in the world to come. His testimony
was to justify the destruction of all living beings in that
generation through the Flood.

The high angels ‘Azza,’ Uzsa and’ Azzael enter protest against
Enoch’s translation, but God rebukes them and elevates Enoch
into a ruler and prince over them.
(1) Why art thou called by the name of thy Creator etc. This
part of the question is not answered in the chapter. It is to be
considered merely as a repetition of the statement of the
aforegoing chapter. The real question is: Why do they call
thee’ Youth’ in the high heavens?
(2) Because I am Enoch the son of Jared. The identity of Enoch
and Metatron is proclaimed in Targ. Yer. in the well-known
passage to Gen. v. 24. There the ground for identification
seems to have been the function of Scribe assigned both to
Enoch and Metatron. For Enoch as Scribe cf. e.g. Jub. iv. 23,
2 En. liii. 2; for Metatron, TB. Chag. 153. This function of
Enoch-Metatron is not emphasized in the present book,
although the office of ‘witness’ of the sins of the generation in
its original conception is probably connected with that of
‘scribe’; see the next verse.

(3) when the generation of the flood sinned and were
confounded in their deeds, saying unto God: Depart from us…
(Job xxi. 14). The sins of the generation of the Deluge are not
defined as to their nature, except as a rebellion. acc. to chh.
v, vi the sin of the generation that caused the removal of the
Shekina and with the Shekina, of Enoch, was idolatry; cf. on
ch. v. 6. The expression ‘Depart from us etc. (Job xxi. 14)’ is
used already injtib.xi. 6 in connection with the idolatry of the
early times (the name ‘Seroh = Sum: depart or sani). Cf. Gen.
R. xxxi. 6: the ‘chamas (violence)’ of which the earth was
filled in the time of the Flood acc. to Gen. vi. 13, comprised
the three cardinal sins, adultery, idolatry and bloodshed. To be
a witness against them. The idea of Enoch’s removal to
heaven in order to be a witness against the sins of mankind is
attested in Jub.iv. 21 seqq. His function of witness is there
made the essential part of his office as Scribe: “(22) And he
(Enoch) testified to the Watchers who had sinned with the
daughters of men…

And Enoch testified against them all. (23) And he was taken
from amongst the children of men,… into the Garden of Eden…
and behold there he writes down the condemnation and the
judgement of the world, and all the wickedness of the children
of men. (24) And on account of it God brought the waters of
the flood upon all the land”. (Enoch’s testimony brings about

the decree of destruction, contrast the present chapter.) The
same idea of Enoch as witness in heaven against man’s sin
persists in later traditions; cf. YR, i. 57 a (perhaps dependent
upon the present fragment): “‘When the generation of the
flood sinned God took him (Enoch) to be a witness against
them’: (so that if anyone might say:) if man sinned that was
because he was created from the four elements or because his
generation were wicked men, God would answer: Behold,
Enoch was also in a generation of wicked men, and he also was
created of the four elements (scil. yet he did not sin)” that
they may not say: ‘The Merciful One is cruel.
(4) What sinned all those multitudes etc.’ Enoch-Metatron is to
bear witness to the justice of God’s decree of destroying not
only mankind, but all living beings, including the cattle and the
wild beasts, in the waters of the Flood. How Enoch’s testimony
was to refute the charge of cruelty that might otherwise be
raised against God is not further explained.

No answer is given
to the question: ‘What did the cattle, beasts and birds sin?’ The
answer is probably to be understood thus: even the animals
were implicated in the wickedness of the generation. The
question is noted in Rabbinic. Cf. Gen. R. xxviii. 8, where it
is stated that in the generation of the Flood even the animals
sinned: “as it is written (Gen. vi. 12): ‘all flesh had corrupted
its way upon the earth’. ‘All men’ is not written here, but ‘all
flesh’ (i.e. including the animals). Yea, even the earth fell to
whoredom”. Similarly TB. Sank. 1 08 a (attr. to R.
Yochanan): “all flesh had corrupted its way upon the earth’;
this means to say, that the cattle defiled themselves with the
beasts and the beasts with the cattle and all of them with men
and men with all of them”. Parallel is Pirqe de R. ‘Eli’ezer, ch.
xiv : “(with reference to the curse put upon the earth on
account of Adam’s sin) If Adam sinned, what was the sin of the
earth? Only this, that the earth did not denounce the evil
doings of man”. In other connections we find the very question
repudiated as an undue criticism of God’s ways ; so with
reference to the narrative of i Sam. xv. 3 and Deut. xxi. 4 in
TB. Yoma, 22 b and EccL R. vii. 33 : “(in the former case) If
the men had sinned, what were the sins of the women, what
the sins of the infants, the cattle, oxen and asses? (and in the
latter case) If man sinned, what was the sin of the cattle?” No
answer is given but a quotation by Bath Qol of Eccl. vii. 16,
“Be not righteous over much”, explained thus: ” Do not think
that thou canst judge about what is just and unjust better than
thy Creator!” Cf. also TB. Shabb. 54 b, 55 a.

(6) three of the ministering angels, ‘Uzza, ‘Azza and ‘Azzael.
The three angels, ‘Azza, ‘ Uzza and ‘Azzael are in the present
chapter represented as belonging to the order of ministering
angels, inhabitants of the high heavens, whereas acc. to ch. v
they are evil agencies, inspirers of idolatry. They are usually
mentioned as two only (‘Azza and ‘Azzael, ‘Uzza and ‘Azziel,
etc.), not as three. (The readings of CE and YR, in fact, have
‘Azza and ‘Azzael only.) Cf. however 2 En. xviii. 4 and note on
v. 9 (important parallel). The names are in all probability of an
early origin: they can be traced to i En., to gnostic works (see
Introduction) and in Talmud. The meaning of the words is
pellucid: Strength, Might-God, Divine Power. Most of the
preserved traditions represent them as fallen angels.

They are
attached to the speculations centring round the mystical piece
Gen. vi. 1-4. In i En. vi. 7 ‘Asael’ is one of the leaders of the
angels who fell and led mankind astray into fornication and
idolatry. The conception of ‘Azza and ‘Azzael as fallen angels
evidently underlies the dictum, attributed to the school of R.
Ishmael, recorded in TB. Yoma, 67 a, acc. to which ‘Azazel of
Lev. xvi. is to be considered as a composition of ‘Azza and
‘Azzael, ‘for Azazel atoned for the sins of these’. Rashi, ad
locum, connects ”Azza and ‘Azzael with ‘the sons of God’ in
Gen. vi. 2 (cf. i En, vi and Charles’ note on i En. vi. 6).
In Zohar the same view is repeatedly set forth. See vol. i. 19
b, 23 a, 25 a b, 37 a with Tosefta, 55 a, 58 a, 126 a, vol. iii.
194 a, 208 a and ‘Idra Rabba. ‘Azza and ‘Azzael (in this form
they are always referred to in Zohar) are the angels who had
been thrown down from heaven ‘from their state of holiness ‘,
and after that went astray with the daughters of men
(Nd’amah, Gen.-iy. 22) and also taught mankind sorceries (cf.
ch. v. 9) being now definitely unable to leave the lower
regions (ctr. the present verse).

A slightly modified version of
the idea is found in ‘Idra Rabba: ‘”Azza and ‘Azzael are the
‘giants’ (Gen. vi. 6), not the sons of God (ib. 2)” this is
perhaps a reminiscence of the distinction emphasized in the
Book of Jubilees between the sons of Elohim and the demons,
the sons of the sons of the Elohim “for the sons of God were
not on earth but Azza and Azzael were on earth”. The same is
quoted from Midrash Ruth by Siuni, in YR, i. 61 b. BH. iv.
127-8, instead of ‘ ‘Azza and ‘Azzael’, has ‘ Shamchazai and
‘Azzael’. Shamchazai is of course identical with the Semiazaz
or Semjaza of i En. vi. 7, viii. 3 (cf. Charles, ad loco). In the
present chapter ‘Azza, ‘Uzza and ‘Azzael are represented as
high angels, accusing man before God on account of his sin:
‘Said not the first ones rightly before Thee, Create thou not

man?’ One of the traditional statements about ‘Azza and
‘Azzael in the adduced references, in fact, reveals the view
that the fall of these angels was caused by their accusing man
before God. Thus e.g. in a citation in Yalqut Re’ubeni, i. 61 a,
with reference to Gen. vi. 2: “the ‘sons of God’ are ‘Azza and
‘Azza’el who laid accusations (against man) before their Master
and he threw them down from the holy place on high… and
they defiled themselves with the daughters of men”, and ib.
(from Kanfe Yona), also with reference to Gen. vi. 2: ‘Azza and
‘Azzael are the angels that laid accusations against man and
said: ‘Why didst Thou create him? For he is going to sin and to
provoke Thee’. The Holy One, blessed be He, said to them:
‘Behold! If ye go down to the lower world, ye will sin as he’,
and He cast them down. And they are the ‘sons of God’ who
took themselves wives from among the daughters of men…
and after they had fallen into sin… they were no longer angels”
and when they desired to return to their former place, they
were unable to do so.

Essentially the same is found in Zohar, i.
23 a, 37 a Tosefta. In Zohar they are even identified with ‘the
first ones’ who opposed man’s creation in the beginning.
This tradition harmonizes the two views represented in chh. iv
and v respectively: the one regarding these angels as
belonging to the celestial household, the other as evil
agencies, demons inspiring idolatry. In their present setting
the two views cannot, however, be harmonized: acc. to ch. v
‘Azza, ‘Uzza and ‘Azzael are evil agencies (that is, acc. to the
harmonizing view, fallen angels) before -Enoch’s translation to
the heavens, acc. to ch. iv, on the other hand, they are still
high angels in the presence of the Holy One, at the time when

Enoch is taken up to heaven. Furthermore, the writer of ch. iv
evidently does not think of the angels in question as fallen
angels at all, to judge from the following expression: “he
(Enoch-Metatron) shall be a prince and a ruler over you in the
high heavens”, and from the representation in vs. 9: the
angels yield and pay Enoch-Metatron due homage.
There are instances of traditions according with the view of the
present chapter, representing ‘Azza, ‘Uzza or ‘Azzael (‘Azziel)
as high angels and princes, with permanent membership in the
Celestial Court. They are then often connected with the
proceedings of Judgement. Thus acc. to Sib. Or. ii. 217,
‘Azziel is one of five angels who lead the souls of men to
judgement. acc. to S. ha-Chesheq (Add. 27120), fol. 12 b,
‘Azzael is one of the “10 heads of the Great Sanhedrin in
heaven”. acc. to a quotation from “a commentary on

Ma’areketh ha-‘Elohuth” in Yalqut Re’ubeni, i. 55 a, ‘Azza is the
head of the angels of Justice, ‘Uzziel the head of the angels of
Mercy (cf. ch. xxxiii), but both under the authority of
Metatron. S. Raziel, 40 a represents ‘Azzael as one of the
seven angels near God’s Throne, cf. ib. 40 b, and Hek. R. BH.
iii. 96, 99, introduces ‘Uzziel as one of the guardians of the
fifth Hall. Cf. S. Raziel, 27 b.

Said not the First Ones rightly before Thee: Do not create man!
For the angels as opposing man’s creation cf. e.g. Gen. R.
viii. 5. Striking is here the parallel TB. Sanhedrin, 38 a: when
God was about to create man, he first created a company of
angels whom he asked whether they consented to man’s
creation or not. Upon being told of man’s future deeds, they
said “Let not man be created” – and were consequently
consumed by the Divine Fire. The same happened with
another company that God called into being immediately after.
But the third acquiesced and remained in life. However, as
soon as they “came to the men of the generation of the flood
and of the generation of the dispersion whose deeds were
confounded (cf. vs. 3) they said before him: ‘Master of the
World! Said not the first ones rightly before Thee: Create thou
not man?’ whereupon God answered with the first part of the
scriptural verse laid in God’s mouth also here: Is. xlvi. 4”.

The same narrative is echoed in Ma’yan Chokma, BH. i. 60 seq. in
God’s rebuke of Hadarniel. In the quoted Talmud-passage the
expression ‘first ones’ naturally refers to the first created
company of angels, here it simply means the angels present at
man’s Creation and opposing it. For the expression’ first ones’
used of certain angels cf. also TB. Ber. 5 a (of Mikael).
(7) Is not he one from among the sons of those who perished
in the days of the Flood? This seems to imply, not only that
Enoch was counted as one of the men of the generation of the
Flood, but even as living after the Flood or in the days of the
Flood, a view which of course entirely disagrees with the
chronological system of Gen. v, vii. ii, acc. to which Enoch
disappeared from earth more than 600 years (669) before the
Flood.

(8) What are ye etc. God’s answer in the same expressions as
those of the angels, that ye enter and speak. Even the highest
angels are not allowed to enter before God’s presence, with
some distinguished exceptions (cf. the conception of the
Curtain of MAQOM: on ch. xlv. i , x. i). he shall be a prince
and a ruler over you in the high heavens for I delight in this one more than in all of you. This
probably is meant to refer not
only to ‘Azza, ‘Uzza and ‘Azzael, but to the ministering angels
with them or else their suite of angels. Notice how CE in vs. 6
represents ‘Azza and ‘Azzael not as individual angels but as an
order of angels, just as in the old tradition of i En. vi seqq.
Asael was only one of the leaders of a multitude of angels.
Metatron a ruler over ‘Azza and ‘Azzael: cf. quotation Yalqut
Re’ubeni, i. 55 a, referred to above, a ruler over the princes
and angels in general: cf. ch. x. 3, 4.
(9) Happy art thou and happy is thy father. This beatitude
echoes the conception of “the Zakut of a Pious Posterity”
(Schechter’s expression, Aspects, pp. 195 seqq.). The merits
of the sons retroact upon and determine the fate of the
fathers.
(10) because I am small and a youth among them. This is the
answer to the opening question of the present chapter. Cf.
note ib. The angels are existent from the days of Creation. Cf.
above.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 5.

(1) BCL, YR. i. 59 a: ‘on the day’
(2) B: ‘were entering’ CL: ‘were assembling’ DE: ‘were leaping’
(3) BCL: ‘and in companies and camps from Raqia” E om.
(4) DE: ‘to roam, to fly over’
(5) EL: ‘and Eve’
(6) DE: ‘in one moment, 365,000 and to the globe of the sun’ A
reads ‘65,000’ instead of ‘365,000’ (BCDEL).
(7) DE: ‘beheld’
(8) BCDEL: ‘from Eden to the Garden, from the Garden to
Raqia’ and from Raqia’ to the Garden of Eden’
(9) so BCDL. A: ‘ splendour of the image
(10) L: ‘did not consume away’
(11) lit. ‘came’
(12) E om.
(13) E om.
(14) lit. ‘in mountains and hills’
(15) with BCDEL, reading pi”el. A has hithpa”el: ‘make use of
(16)-16 CL: ‘ ‘Azza and ‘Azza’el’ D: ‘ ‘Azza and ‘Azzi’el’ E: “Uzza
and ‘Azza’el’ cf. ch. iv. 7.

(17) C om. L:’ the art of sorceries’
(18) B om. C: ‘now that thou art on earth, thou art become in
condition like as the inhabitants of the earth who worship idols’
(19) L: ‘those who go down to earth and are idol-worshippers’
(20) C adds’: ‘ and the Shekina ascended to heaven’
(21) BCDEL om.
This chapter treats of the removal of Shekina from earth on
account of the idolatry of Enosh and his generation. It contains
no definite reference to the subject proper of the present
section: Enoch(-Metatron) and his translation to heaven.
Furthermore, it represents a different tradition from that of ch.
iv as to the nature of the angels ‘Azza,’ Uzza and ‘Azzael. The
connection with the context is, however, established by ch. vi.
i, 13, which associate the translation of Enoch to heaven with
the removal of Shekina from earth. The chapter may therefore
in its present position be considered as an introduction to ch.
vi, offering a preparatory explanation of the reason and
circumstances of the removal of Shekina, there alluded to.

As regards the relationship between ch. iv on one hand and chh.
v and vi on the other, it might be safe to assume that they
represent respectively two different lines of tradition as to the
translation of Enoch: one (ch. iv) connecting it with the sins of
the generation of the flood of which he was to bear testimony
to coming generations, the other (chh. v, vi) holding the view
that Enoch as the only righteous man of his generation was
taken up on the occasion of Shekina’s return to the heavens.
The object of Enoch’s translation, acc. to the latter view, was
apparently not his function of witness, but is expressed by the
last words of ch. vi: ‘I have taken him as a tribute from my
world’ or ‘as my only reward for all my labour with the first
generations of the world’.

(1) From the day… Shekina was dwelling etc. This represents
the frequently attested idea that the original abode of the
Shekina was among the ‘ terrestrials, ha-tTachtonim’ (Cant. R.
vi, Num. R. xii. 5; cf. Abelson, Immanence of God in
Rabbinical Literature, pp. 117-139). The specific view of the
present passage is, that Shekina remained on earth after the
first Adam’s fall until the rise of idolatry in the generation of
Enosh. acc. to Cant. R. vi (see Abelson, op. cit. p. 136)
Shekina was removed from earth already with Adam’s sin: to
the first heaven, and then in six subsequent stages
corresponding to the six following epochs of men’s degradation
from heaven to heaven (the epochs are acc. to that passage:
the sins of Cain, of the generation of Enoch, of the generation
of the Flood, of the Dispersion, of the Sodomites and of the
Egyptians in the days of Abraham). acc. to Num. R. xii. 5 (in
a dictum attributed to R. Simeon ben Yochai) the Shekina was
dwelling on earth in the beginning, was removed with the sin
of Adam, and returned with the erection of the Tabernacle. Ib.
(ace. to Rab) the Shekina is also said never to have taken up
its abode on earth until the erection of the Tabernacle. Cf. on
vs. 13.

The Shekina here stands for the manifestation of God, to all
intents and purposes identical with the manifestation on ‘the
Throne of Glory’: when on earth Shekina is no longer in
heaven, see vs. 11.
upon a Kerub. Cf. chh. xxii. 12, 16, xxiv. i, 17. upon a Kerub
under the Tree of Life. Cf. Apoc. Mosis, xxii. 3,4: “When God
appeared in Paradise mounted on the chariot of His Cherubim
with the angels proceeding before him…. And the Throne of
God was fixed where the Tree of Life was”. Here the Kerub
takes the place of the Throne of Glory which is left in the
highest of the heavens, acc. to vs. ii.
(2) And the ministering angels were… going down from heaven
in companies etc. Cf. Apoc. Mosis, xvii. i, xxii. 3 seq. Alph.
R. ‘Aqiba, letter ‘Aleph: “when the first Adam beheld the
Sabbath, he opened his mouth in praise of the Holy One: then the ministering angels went down
from heaven in companies…
“; ib.: (in the world to come) “the angels will come down in
companies from heaven to the Garden of Eden”. And ib. EH.
iii. 60: “(when God had created Eve and brought her to Adam)
all the heavenly household went down… to the Garden of
Eden”. Cf. Yer. Chag. 77 a, 4 Ez. vi. 3.

(3) the first man and his generation were sitting outside the
gate of the Garden to behold the radiant appearance of the
Shekina. Although expelled from the Garden of Eden Adam
and his generation still partake of the splendour of Shekina.
Cf. TB. Ber. 173:”(in the world to come) the righteous will be
sitting with crowns on their heads and enjoy the splendour of
the Shekina”. The idea of the radiance of Shekina is closely
related to that of the heavenly light, of which the light created
on the first day was an emanation and which is reserved for
the righteous in the world to come. Cf. next vs.
(4) The splendour of the Shekina traversed the world from one
end to the other… And everyone who made use of the
splendour of the Shekina…

No demons got power over him. For a discussion of the
conception of the ‘splendour (ziw) of the Shekina’ see Abelson,
op. cit. pp. 85-89. The splendour of the Shekina is here
apparently conceived of as a light-substance protecting from
illnesses, from the power of demons and from everything evil
and unclean, For the idea of the splendour of Shekina as
protecting from demons cf. Num. R. xii. 3. It is also
conceived of as a sustaining substance, a spiritual food, both
for the angels and the saints. TB. Ber. 17 a (see Abelson, op.
cit. p. 87; Kohler, Jewish Theology, p. 198). Yalqut on Ps. viii
(TB. Shabbat, 88 a): “when God spread the splendour of
Shekina over Moses the angels could not burn him”. Yalqut on
Ps. xlv: “the righteous will feed on the splendour of Shekina
and… they will receive no injury”. ‘The splendour of Shekina’ is
further used as an attribute of honour and glorification for the
highest angels; cf. ch. xxii. 7, 13. Cf. 4 Ez. vii. 42, 122,
Rev. xxi. 23 (notes in BOX, Ezra-Apocalypse, pp. 85, 127,
161). The conception of the splendour of the Shekina is
sometimes seen under the aspect of the ‘first light of Creation
‘or as’ the uncreated light of the Divine Presence’ of which the
first light is an emanation: this light is referred to in similar
terms as those used of ‘the splendour of the Shekina’ Cf. in
the present connection Gen. R. xi. 2, xii. 5: “in the light
which God created on the first day (so Gen. R. xi. 2; ib. xii. 5: the light by which the world was
created) the first Adam saw
from one end of the world to the other… but as soon as the
Holy One, blessed be He, beheld the deeds of the generation of
Enosh, of the Deluge and of the Dispersion he took it away and
treasured it… for the righteous in the world to come”. Sim.
TB. Chag. 12 a.

(5) went out and went in: from the Garden to Eden. The
Garden of Eden is the greater whole of which Eden is a part:
Gen. R. xv, the Garden and Eden are two distinct things: TB.
Ber. 34 b. For the expression ‘went out and went in etc.’ cf.
the account of Shekina’s ten different journeys in the Temple
in Lam. R. Proem. 25. The idea is probably deduced from
Gen. iii. 8 (“and they heard the voice of the Lord God walking
in the Garden”): the passage is interpreted in this sense in
Num. R. xiii. 4 (although there God’s Shekina is said to have
had its permanent abode in heaven, from where it went down
and went up again).
(6) until the time of the generation of Enosh who was the head
of all idol worshippers of the world. The generation of Enosh is
here specifically connected with idolatry. In Rabbinic the
cardinal sins of idolatry, adultery and bloodshed (and the
calling of God’s name in vain and sorceries) are often
promiscuously referred to the generations of Enosh, of the
Deluge and of the Dispersion. But cf. Lam. R. Proem. 24 :
“the generation of Enosh who were the heads of idolworshippers”.

(7) And they erected the idols in every quarter of the world:
the size of each idol was IOOO parasangs. This-as well as the
following vs. seems to presuppose the view of the men of this
generation as being of immeasurably higher stature than those
of later generations, an idea occasionally met with in Rabbinic.
(8) And they brought down the sun, the moon, planets and
constellations. There is perhaps here a covert trace of an
original representation of the generation of Enosh as
worshippers of the sun and the planets. In the present form
the heavenly bodies are made the attendants of the idols: they
placed them before the idols to attend them like as they attend
the Holy One, blessed be He. The idea is to illustrate how man
put the idols in all respects in the same place as that which
rightly belonged to God alone. Yalqut to Gen. iv. 26 quotes
an account of the deeds of the generation of Enosh of a similar character as vss. 7 and 8 here
(idols of copper, brass, iron,
wood, stone).

(9) What power was in them… ‘Uzza, ‘Azza and ‘Azziel who
taught them sorceries, whereby they brought them down. The
quotation Siuni, Yalqut Re’ubeni, i. 53 a, has ‘Shemchazai and
Azzael’ (so also BH. iv. 127-128, Yalq. Shim. Gen. xliv; cf.
on the following vs.). On ‘Azza, ‘ Uzza and ‘Azzael see on ch.
iv. 6. Here they are represented as evil agencies, teaching
men sorceries and thereby supporting or rather inspiring the
idolatry. The tradition here set forth is of course a direct
descendant of that which has found expression in the
pseudepigraphal writings, esp. i En. vi, vii, viii: Semiazaz and
Asael among other leaders of the fallen angels who corrupted
mankind, vii. i: “they began to… defile themselves with them,
and they taught them charms and enchantments”, viii. i:
“Azazel taught men… and made known to them the metals (cf.
‘gold, silver etc.’ here)… and all kinds of costly stones (cf.
here)…. (3) Semjaza taught enchantments… Baraqijal
astrology. Kokabel the constellations,… Shamsiel the signs of
the sun, Sariel the course of the moon”, vide Charles, ad loca.
Addjfub. iv. 22, v. i , xi. 4 seqq.: “they made for themselves
molten images, and they worshipped each their idol… and
malignant spirits assisted and seduced them into committing
transgression and uncleanness”. 2 En. vii, xviii. 2 En. xviii. 4
is of special interest in the present connection, since it shows
that already at an early time a tradition obtained that had
fixed the number of these angels as three as against the
tradition of the passages quoted in i En. representing them as
a large number: “and of them (Grigori = Watchers) there went
three to the earth from the Throne of God to the place Ermon.
And they entered into dealings etc.” Later the number is
further reduced to two, so always in Zohar; cf. on vs. 6 of ch,
iv. Cf. Midrash Petirath Moshe, BH. i. 129: “the angels ‘Azsa
and ‘Azza’el went down from the heavens and became corrupt
in their ways”.

(10) At that time the ministering angels brought charges
against man before God etc. ‘What is man etc.’ This verse, Ps.
viii. 4, is traditionally made to express the animosity of the
angels against man, and rather suitably. See Tanchuma, Par.
Bechnqqothai (Lev. xxvi) ; Gen. R. viii. 5 (in connection with
the creations of man); P. R. ‘El. xiii uses the similar passage
Ps. cxliv. 3, 4 (“The ministering angels said before the Holy
One, blessed be He: ‘Lord of all the World, what is man that
thou takest knowledge of him or the son of an that thou takest account of him’). Cf. Jerachmeel,
xxii. i, and Ma’yan Chokma,
BH. i. 58. But the form of accusation here recorded is also, in
particular, attributed to the angels ‘Azza and ‘Azzael. Thus in
Zohar several times, ‘Azza and ‘Azzael are said to have used
this argument when opposing man’s Creation, Zohar, i. 23 a,
and another quotation in YR, i. 60 a. A strange similarity with
the present chapter is exhibited by the fragment quoted in
Yalqut on Gen. vi. 2 (from Midrash Abkir): “the disciples of R.
Yoseph asked him : what is ‘Azzael’} he answered them: as
soon as the generation of the flood (cf. ch. iv) stood up and
worshipped idols (cf. the present chapter) the Holy One was
sorely grieved. Then forthwith came the two angels
Shemchazai and ‘Azza’el and said before him: Master of the
World!

Did we not say before thee when thou didst create thy
world: what is man that thou art mindful of him. He answered
them: if ye were to go down to earth, the evil impulse would
get power over you more than over man…. Let us go down. . .
He said: Go down and dwell with them. As soon as they were
on earth, they corrupted their ways with the daughters of
men… “. In that passage almost all the different statements
about ‘Azza and ‘Azzael are woven together. Cf. on ch. iv. 6.
(11) Why hast thou left the highest of the high heavens etc.
This presupposes that when Shekina was dwelling on earth it
was absent from the Araboth Raqia’.
(13) Forthwith the Holy One… lifted up His Shekina from the
earth… and he ascended to the high heavens. ‘The Holy One ‘
and ‘Shekina’ are here practically synonymous. The idolatry is
one of the main causes of the disappearance of the Shekina
from on earth. Cf. Sifre (ed. Friedmann), 104 a, Mekilta, 72 a,
Tanchuma Lev., Par. behar (Schechter, Aspects, p. 223,
Abelson, op. at. p. 101). The idol erected in the Holy of
Holies by Manasse, by its presence, its “face” drives out the
Shekina from the Temple. The Shekina and the idols cannot
remain in the same place: this is the burden of the
remonstrances of the angels acc. to vs. 12. Cf. Cant. R. vi,
Num. R. xii. 5, already referred to, note on vs. j. Cf. also
Lam. R. Proöem. 24 (in connection with the destruction of the
Temple): “I have no abode on earth. I will remove my Shekina
from earth and take it up to my former place”.

(14) And he ascended to the high heavens etc. Already acc. to
ch. xlviii c the narrative about Shekina’s removal from on
earth is connected with the taking up of Enoch as can be seen
from the parallel to the present chapter found ib. (i.e. ch. xlviii c) vs. i: “When I beheld the men of
the generation of the
flood (ctr. here and cf. ch. iv) that they were corrupt, -then I
went and removed my Shekina from among them. And I lifted
it up on high with the sound of a trumpet and with a shout as it
is written (Ps. xlvii. 5) ‘ God is gone up with a shout etc.’

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 6. (1)

(1) C: ‘sought me’
(2) so BCDL. A: ‘led me’
(3) BCL: ‘on a great Kerub’ 33 BCL: ‘in’
(4) BDEL: ‘and a servant’ C: ‘and with songs’
(5) C: ‘the fire which consumeth fire’ L: ‘the heavenly fire’ ‘the
fire above’
(6) BE: ‘spirit’ (‘rutti’ for ‘rehi’)
(7) So BCDEL. A. ‘among smells’
(7a) L: ‘5360’ YR. i. 55 b: ‘5380’ and om. ‘myriads’
(8) lit. ‘drop of semen’
(9) read pi’ ‘el instead of Mthpa”el.
(10) E: ‘spirit’
(11) L ins. ‘a drop of
(12) C:’here and in (those) cut of flames’ L: ‘between hedges of
flames’
(13) so BCDELZ. A: ‘host of (my Kerubim)’
(14) L: ‘and worship’
(15) L: ‘but this one (only) have I taken from my whole world
under all the heavens’.
(16) BC om.
(17) so DE. A: ‘beauty, form (tabnith)’

(18) S, YR. i. 55 b (Pirqe Hehaloth): ‘he is the (only) reward
that I have received for all my labour under all the heavens ‘
Chh. vi seqq. The translation of Enoch. On the affinities of the
representations of Enoch’s translation in i En., 2 En., and 3 En.
vide Introduction, 7 (a) and (b).
According to this chapter Enoch was translated together with
the Shekina: The Shekina was removed from earth on account
of the idolatry of men.

The chapter is a sequel to the antecedent chapter; cf. note ib.
intr. As was pointed out above, note on v. 14, the connection
of the removal of Shekina with the translation of Enoch is also
attested in the 2nd Enoch-Metatron piece, ch. xlviii c i. There,
as in ch. vii, it is referred to the sins of the generation of the
Flood (ch. iv). Besides, the present chapter contains a new
specimen of angelic accusation against man before God or of
protest against privileges awarded to man: in this case Enoch’s
ascension to the high heavens.
(1) When the Holy One… desired to lift me up… He first sent
‘Anaphiel H. For ‘Anaphiel cf. ch. xviiii. 18 and note. acc. to
Hek. R. xxii Anaphiel is the highest of the angels, “higher than
the Prince of. the Presence and greater than he”.
Ch. xvi here (ace. to reading of BDL) he is the angel sent to
‘punish’ Metatron with strokes of lashes of fire. The meaning
of the name: ‘Branch of God is explained ch. xviii ib. He
represents the overarching majesty and sovereignty of God in
the heavens, ramifying through all the firmaments. Hence he
is also conceived of as protecting guide.

The Tetragrammaton (H) is contained in his name, cf. on chh. x. 3, xxx. i ; cf. Hek.
R. xxi. YR. i. 5 a (from Sode Rasa): “the ring with the seal of
heaven and earth (cf. on ch. xlviii D 5) are entrusted to him
and all in heaven and earth kneel down and prostrate
themselves before him”.
upon a fiery chariot with fiery horses. The biblical narrative of
Elijah’s ascension to heaven has been suggestive here. In mystical literature the Biblical traits
ascribed to Elijah are
referred to Enoch and vice versa: they are regarded as
belonging to the same category ot saintly men, since they
were both removed from earth in their lifetime. “i En. 70
describes Enoch’s final translation in terms of that of Elijah”
(CHARLES, i En. xlix). (Cf. i En. Ixxxix. 52, xciii. 8, 4 Ez. vi.
26, note (m) in Box, Ezra-Ap. pp. 77 seq.) In later mysticism
Elijah is often identified with the ‘twin brother of Metatron’,
Sandalfon, in explicit analogy with the identification of Enoch
with Metatron (YR. i. 54 b, 57 b, 58 a; cf. Introduction).

(2) the Holy Chayyoth, the ‘Ophannim, the Seraphim, the
Kerubim, the Wheels of the Merkaba and the ministers of the
consuming fire. This is evidently intended as an enumeration
of the highest classes of angels. The classes here mentioned
are the five classes of Merkaba-angels of the angelological
section, chh. xxi, xxv, xxvi, xxii and xix resp. The ‘ministers of
the consuming fire’ may refer to the ministering angels in
general whose substance is fire or to the angels in charge of
the fire issuing forth from under the Throne (cf. on ch. xxxiii.
4). For the present enumeration cf. the parallel in the
following chapter. All these highest classes of angels are here
represented as protesting against the privilege awarded to the
man Enoch of ascending to the high heavens. Cf. P. R. ‘El.
passim. Cf. also Dent. R. xi. 4 (the Galgallim of the Merkaba
and the flaming Seraphim praise God for not regarding persons
with reference to Moses). perceiving my smell etc. For the expression cf. Gen. R.
xxxiv. 10:

“God perceived the smell of Abraham, the Patriarch,
ascending from the furnace… of Ghananya, Misael and Azaria…
the smell of the generation of the religious persecution”.
There it equals ‘foresaw’. Here it perhaps denotes the idea
that any intrusion of a lower, unclean element or being into the
higher heavens is immediately sensed and guarded against.
What smell of a woman-born… (ACDEL), what is a woman-born
between (among) us (B) Cf. TB. Shabbat, 88 b: “R. Yehoshua
ben Lewi said: in the hour when Moses ascended on high, the
ministering angels said before the Holy One, blessed be He:
Master of the World, what is a woman-born among us”, i.e.
‘what has he to do here?’ The expressions ‘one born of woman’
and ‘taste of a drop of semen’ are of course used in a
contemptuous sense, denoting the extreme insignificance of
man in the eyes of the high angels, what taste of a white drop
(A) etc. There is a play here on the two-fold meaning of the word to ta‘am, viz. ‘taste’ and ‘reason,
ground’ (‘ what is the
reason that one conceived of a white drop should ascend… ‘)
those who ‘divide flames of fire.’ The expression is deduced
from Ps. xxix. 7 and denotes the angel-princes. In Alph. R.
‘Aqiba BH. iii. 45, it is used of the ‘Voice’.
(3) My servants, my hosts, my Kerubim etc. Cf. ch. i. 8. A
close parallel is the answer attributed to God acc. to Plek. R.
xxix. 2 (on the protest of the angels against the revelation of
the ‘secret’ to the Yorede Merkaba): “My ministering angels,
my servants, be ye not displeased on account of this etc.” he is
equal to all of them in faith, righteousness and perfection of
deed states the justification for the translation of Enoch: his
merits, his perfection. This is not explicit in ch. iv, but might
have been understood. Enoch is worth as much as the whole
generation.

I have taken him for a tribute (or: he is my reward,
remuneration; YR.). There is a covert allusion here to the
destruction of the rest of the generation, hence to the Flood:
Enoch is the only one preserved from the ruin of the first
generation, God’s only remuneration for all his labour. Also in
the tradition represented by chh. v, vi, Enoch was connected
with the Flood (as is explicitly stated in the parallel ch. xlviii c
i, several times referred to). The original tradition seems to
have been somewhat like this: Owing to the general downfall
of the first generation, caused by the idolatry arising among
men with Enosh and his followers an idolatry inspired by the
demons or fallen angels Shekina was removed from earth, and
on the removal of the Shekina followed the destruction of the
entire race in the waters of the Flood. One righteous man,
Enoch, was exempted from the general fate of his
contemporaries: he was taken up to the heavens together with
the Shekina. The aspect in which Enoch’s translation is seen
here is his being the tribute from the first generation, God’s
remuneration the Creation of the first generation had not been
in vain. In ch. iv it is seen from the aspect of the function
assigned to Enoch of being a witness before coming
generations, in the world to come, to the sinfulness and
corruption of the generation that was ultimately destroyed in
the waters of the Flood.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 7. (1)

(1) B places this chapter at the end of ch. xiv.
(2) BCL : ‘the glory of Shekina’.
(3) B’ the chariots of the mighty ones of anger’ L: ‘the chariots
of the mighty ones’ C: ‘the great chariots of anger’
(4)C: ‘Accusers’ ‘Satans’.
(5) lit. ‘the Kerubim of firebrands’ and the ‘Ophannim of
(burning) coal and the servants of flame and the Chashmallim
of spark and the Seraphim of lightning’.
Another short version of the translation of Enoch, connecting it
with the generation of the Flood but also containing traces of
its relation to the removal or lifting up of Shekina (‘on the
wings of the wind of the Shekina’). lifted me on the wings of
the wind of Shekina. The wings of Shekina, a common
metaphorical expression, often used as denoting proselytism;
cf. Abelson, op. cit. p. 90.

Here it rather expresses the
protection given to Enoch from the Godhead (against the fury
of the angels?), TB. Shabbat, 88 b: “when Moses was to
ascend on high… God spread over him of the splendour of His
Shekina, that the angels might not be able to burn him”. For
‘wings of the wind’ cf. chh. xxxiv. i, xxxvii. z. Cf. 2 En. iii. i
(Enoch raised upon the wings of the angels, upon the clouds
etc.). acc. to Mysteries of St John and the Holy Virgin, 6 b, St
John is, raised “on the wing of the light of the Cherub”. Cf. ch.
vi. I (BCL). where are the… Throne… the Merkaba, the troops
of anger etc., the most prominent of the glories contained in
the highest of the heavens, the ‘Araboth Raqia’. Cf. Mass.
Hek. v (“in the seventh Hall of ‘Araboth Raqia’ are the
Throne… the Chariots of the Kerubim… Seraphim, ‘Ophannim,
Chayyoth, the Chashmallim of splendour and majesty, etc.”). A
parallel is ch. xlviii C4, but notice the difference: there Enoch-
Metatron is represented as appointed over and a minister of all
the different classes of high angels, as well as of the Throne.
Here he is represented as attendant of the Throne only (cf.
however, x. 3). See ch. xv. i. the fiery Shin’anim.

The name Shin’anim is deduced from vs.
18 of the mystical Ps. Ixviii. The Shin’anim as a class of angels
occurs frequently in enumerations of angelic orders.
the flaming servants. Cf. on ch. vi. 2.
the flashing Chashmallim. One of the ten classes of angels, in
common with the Shin’anim. Cf. also ch. xlviii c and Mass.
Hek. v, referred to above. The name is derived from the
Chasmal of Ezek. i. 4. Cf. on ch. xxxiv. i. The Chashmallim
are in Chag. 13 b explained as “the angels (Chayyoth) who are
sometimes silent (chash) and sometimes speak (mallei): they
are silent when the Word emanates from the Holy One, blessed
be He, they speak when He has ceased speaking.”
to attend the Throne of Glory day after day. This is a
traditional function of Metatron, the Prince of the Presence. Cf.
ch. xlviii C 4. Hek. R. xi: “when the angel of the Presence
enters to exalt and magnify the Throne of Glory and to prepare
the seat for the Mighty One in Jacob”. Hek. Zot. (Bodl. MICH.
9 fol. 67 b): “Metatron is the president of the Divine Thrones of
Glory (of Dan. vii. 9)”. But Metatron has also a Throne of his
own : chh. x. 1-3, xvi. 1,2, xlviii C 8.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 8

(1) Following is the order of the attributes in the other
readings:
B (10): wisdom … understanding… life… subtlety grace and
loving-kindness… love… Tora… maintenance… meekness…
fear of sin
C(12): loving-kindness… understanding… life… subtlety…
Shekina… power and might… grace and loving-kindness…
love… instruction (Tora)… maintenance… fear of sin…
meekness
E(12): wisdom… understanding… subtlety… life… peace…
Shekina… power and might… strength… grace and lovingkindness…
love… meekness… fear of sin YR. i. 54 b (12): wisdom… understanding… life… subtlety…
Shekina … power and might… grace and loving-kindness…
love… Tora… maintenance… meekness… fear of sin
L (12): wisdom… understanding… life… subtlety… Shekina…
might… grace and loving-kindness… love… Tora…
maintenance… meekness… fear of sin
D (15): wisdom… understanding… life… subtlety… peace…
Shekina… power and might… strength… grace and lovingkindness…
love… Tora… maintenance… mercy… meekness…
fear of heaven .

(1) The Holy One, blessed be He, opened to me three hundred
thousand gates of Understanding etc. The gates are the gates
of the treasuries of the heavens (‘Araboth). Metatron is
appointed over the stores of ‘Araboth acc. to ch. x. 6, xlviii c
3. The treasuries are the treasuries of wisdom, understanding
etc. i.e. the attributes by which the world is sustained. The
abstract qualities here enumerated are to a large extent
identical with those named as the agencies by which God
created the world in, e.g. TB. Chag. 12 a (“wisdom,
understanding, knowledge, strength, might etc.”), Ab. R.
Nathan, xxvii, xliii. Cf.ch.xli.3: “wisdom, understanding,
knowledge etc. by which the world is sustained”; and Alph. R.’
Aqiba, BH. iii. 20: “God supplies the world day by day with
gifts, without which the world could not subsist for a single
day: spirit and soul, knowledge and wisdom and subtlety,
counsel and might, and the different senses”. The idea is, that
the abstract qualities on which the world is founded and by
which it is sustained emanate from God.

Yet we are here in no
way nearer the conception of the ‘Ten Sefirot’ than in the
passages cited from TB. Chag. 12 a etc. For wisdom and
understanding reasured in heaven cf. 4 Es. v. 9, “then shall
intelligence hide itself and wisdom withdraw to its chamber”,
where the essential idea of the present representation is
already extant: wisdom and intelligence as at work in the world
have their home in ‘chambers’ (i.e. in heaven) from where
they have emanated and whither they return. Cf. also ch.
xlviii D 2, and for the ‘opening of the gates of the treasures’
Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, letter Aleph: “5000 gates of wisdom were
opened to Moses on Sinai corresponding to the five books of corresponding to the eleven writings”.
three hundred
thousand gates of Life.

The ‘treasuries of life’ in heaven are frequently referred to. Cf.
e.g. Chag. 12 b: “in ‘Araboth Raqia’ are… the treasuries of
life… “; ch. x. 6 here.
three hundred thousand gates of Tora. Cf. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba,
BH. iii. 43, 44: “The Holy One, blessed be He, appointed
Moses over all Israel, and over all the treasuries of Tora, and
over all treasuries of wisdom, and over all treasuries of
understanding”. It is interesting to note, that acc. to this
conception there is a special treasury of Tora (= the Celestial
Tora?) besides the treasuries of wisdom and of understanding.
acc. to another conception the Tora is itself formed of the
elements of wisdom and understanding, the ‘secrets of the
treasuries’; cf. on ch. xlviii D 2, 3.
gates of maintenance (Parnasa). Even the maintenance and
sustenance of the needs of the world has its source in heaven.
Cf. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, letter Zain: “Zain, that is the Name of the
Holy One, blessed be He, for he feeds and maintains
(mepharnes) all his creatures, day after day, as it is said (Ps.
civ. 28): ‘thou openest thine hand, they are filled with good’.
From the ‘maintenance’ Parnasa, stored in heaven, the seventy
princes of kingdoms take and “throw down to the nations of
the world their maintenance” acc. to the Lesser YR., sub voce
Nedibim et freq. “Metatron distributes Parnasa among all the
companies of angels” (YR. i. 56, quoting Pardes).

The opening the treasuries or gates to Metatron presumably
connotates not only the bestowal upon him of their contents
(as in vs. 2) but also that they are put in his charge and to his
distribution. As Prince over the Princes he has to distribute
their contents among the angels, and perhaps also as
functional Prince of the World to the earth and nations.
added in me wisdom unto wisdom etc. The attributes here
enumerated are on the whole identical with those of vs. i .
Hence the idea probably is that the contents of the opened
treasuries were conferred upon Metatron. more than all the
children of heaven. The unique position of Metatron is here
emphasized.

the Law, and 8000 gates of understanding, corresponding to
the eight prophets and 11,000 gates of KNOWLEDGE

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 9.

(1) so BCL. A: ‘one thousand, 305 thousands’ DE: ‘one
thousand, 365 thousand’
(2), BC: ‘elated’ 2 C adds: ‘and honour unto all honour,
majesty unto all majesty, glory unto all glory and greatness
unto all greatness’
(3) so BCDEL. A: ‘filled the world’
(4) so BCL. A: ‘praise, lights of the universe’
Ch. ix. i so BCL. A: ‘one thousand, 305 thousands’ DE: ‘one
thousand, 365 thousand’ 2, BC: ‘elated’
The subject of the present chapter is the metamorphosis
through which Enoch was made into a high angel. This
metamorphosis is viewed from another aspect in ch. xv. Here
the different angelic attributes conferred on Metatron are:
immense height of stature, wings, eyes covering the whole of
his body, and light.

(1) blessed me with 5360 blessings. This connects the present
chapter with its antecedent: the blessings are presumably
conceived of as contained in the heavenly treasuries, opened
to Enoch and the contents of which are bestowed upon him.
The treasures of blessing(s) are mentioned as contained in the
‘Araboth, e.g. TB. Chag. 12 b. The number 5360 is intended
to reflect the number 365.

(2) I was raised to the size of the length… of the world. The
immense size of the high angels is a constantly reiterated
theme. Cf. ch. xxi. i: “each of the Chayyoth is as the space of
the world” (cf. Chag. 13 a), chh. xxii. 3, xxv. 4, xxvi. 4. The
idea prevails: the greater an angel is (in rank) the larger his
size. Cf. the versions of the Rev. of Moses (Ma’yan Chokma,
BH. i. 58, etc., YR. ii. 66 b-6y b, Zohar, ii. 58 a): “Hadarniel
is greater than Qemnel by 60 myriads of parasangs, Sandalfon
is higher of stature than Hadarniel by 500 years’ journeying
distance”. Thus, in the other Enoch-Metatron piece of the
present book, ch. xlviii C 5, the size of Metatron is seen from this comparative aspect: “I made him
higher of stature than all.
The height of his stature surpasses all others by ten thousand
parasangs”. The similar tradition preserved in Zohar, e.g. i.
21 a: “Metatron is glorified more than the highest angels (the
Chayyoth) and higher than these by 500 parasangs”.

(3) 72 wings. The number seventy-two is frequently used in
the present book. It generally seems to imply reference to the
rule of the world: the seventy-two princes of kingdoms, cf.
note on ch. xvii. 8. Metatron is in the present section the
ruler of the seventy-two princes of kingdoms: chh. x. 3, xiv. i,
xvi. i and 2. It is possible that the seventy-two wings here
extending over the whole world symbolize Metatron’s rulership
over these. 36 on each side may be compared with ch. xvi. i:
‘the princes of kingdoms were standing… on my right hand and
on my left’.
(4) 365 eyes. For the number 365 (= the number of days of
the solar year) as mystical number cf. chh. v. 4, xxi. 3 (‘the
size of each wing of the Chayyoth as 365 wings’), xxxiii. 4
(‘the breadth of each of the fiery rivers is 365 thousand
parasangs’). The body of an angel-prince covered with eyes
(round about) is a regular feature of the descriptions of angels:
cf. chh. xxii. 8 (‘his body is full of eyes’, of Kerubiel), xxv. 2,
where the number of eyes assigned to the angel-prince in
question {‘Ophanniel) is devised on the basis of calendary
calculations (‘8466 eyes corresponding to the number of hours
of a year’), xxvi. 6. Cf. notes ad loca. each eye was as the
great luminary. An identical statement about the eyes of
Seraphiel, ch. xxvi. 6.

(5) fixed on me all kinds of splendour, brilliance etc. of the acc. to Chag. 12 a the first Adam
reached from one end of the
world to the other. This connection, which like the
identification of Metatron with the Prince of the World (existing
from the Days of Creation), was perhaps suspended in
consequence of Metatron’s identification with Enoch, reappears
in later cabbalistic literature: the statement that Enoch-
Metatron is the Neshama of the first Adam, who left him before
the sin of Adam (just as the universal size of the first Adam is
represented as diminished through Adam’s sin: TB. Chag.
12a) is frequent. The difficulties arising from Metatron’s
identification with Enoch were now overcome through the new
conceptions brought in with the doctrine of metempsychosis
and related speculations.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 10.

(1) so ins. DE.
(2) C ins. ‘make of the’
(3) BCL om.
(4) DE om.
(5) C: ‘splendour and brilliance from all lights’ cf. ch. ix. 4.
(6) ABD ins. ‘concerning me’
(7) so C.
(8) C om.
(9) L ins. the gloss: ‘ the angels’
(10) so with BCDL(E). A: ‘by the name of H their King’ E: ‘H by
the name of the World ‘ (corrupt for: ‘ H, by the name of the
King of the World’?)
(11) D om.
(12) BCL om.

(13) lit. ‘every word that he shall speak to you’
lights (luminaries) of the world. Cf. in the angelological
descriptions: chh. xxii. 4, xxv. 6, xxvi. 2, 4. Cf. also Mass.
Hek. iv: “On every door in the Hall(s) of ‘Araboth there are
fixed 365 thousand myriads of different kinds of lights like unto
the great luminary”.
The repeated references by comparisons to the ‘world’ in the
present chapter, vss. 2, 3, 5, and the possible allusion to the
seventy-two princes of kingdoms or to the rule of the world in
vs. 3 (cf. above) might conceivably be traces, if not
intentional symbolical expressions, of Metatron’s function as
the Prince of the World. Vs. 2, ‘I was raised to the size of the
world’, might also be a remnant of Metatron’s connection with
the speculations on the Primordial Man, the ‘Adam Oadmon.

(14) so acc. to BCL. EL lit.’ I have committed him (sing. = the
Prince of Wisdom and of Understanding)’ C: ‘I have committed
them (plur.) ‘A: ‘are ministers to him’
(15) L om.
(16) E: ‘are’
(17) B ins. ‘in my world’
This chapter presents Metatron as adorned with special
attributes, distinguishing him from the other angels: a throne
and a curtain, both reflections of the Throne and Curtain of the
Godhead. He is furthermore explicitly pronounced a ruler over
the princes of kingdoms and the children of heaven, a rulership
denned as a vice-regency for the Holy One. The chapter really
forms an explanation of the names ‘Metatron’ and ‘Prince of
the Presence’.

(1) He made me a Throne. This is in itself no feature confined
to the descriptions of Metatron. Instances are frequent of
thrones assigned to angels or meritorious dead, i En. cviii. 12
(“I will bring forth in shining light [cf. here] those who have
loved My holy name, and I will seat each one on the throne of
his honour”). Cf. CHARLES, ad locum, Rev. iv. 4. In the
‘Apocalyptic Fragment’ preserved e.g. in BH. v. 167-169
David has a “Throne of fire” erected for him over against the
Throne of His Creator. acc. to Gedullah Moshe Moses sees in
the seventh heaven ” 70 thrones fixed, of precious stones,
pearls, gold etc… there are thrones for the scholars of the Law,
for the chassids, the just etc. of different splendour acc. to
merit of the occupants”. And acc. to Alph, R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii.

34, the righteous in the world to come will each be seated
before the Glory of the Holy One, on a throne of gold “like a
king”. For thrones assigned to angels cf. Mass. Hek. vii, acc.
to which seven angels as court-officers are sitting upon seven
thrones before the Curtain. Cf. Rev. xx. 4 (“I saw thrones,
and they sat upon them”, acc. to Bousset, Comm. ad loc.
probably Christ and the angels as ‘Gerichtsbeisassen’). The
view predominant in Rabbinic seems to be that ‘there is no
sitting in heaven’: TB. Chag. 15 a. Assigning a seat or a
throne to any angel-prince or to any one beside the Holy One,
might endanger the recognition of the absolute sovereignty
and unity of the Godhead. Cf. ch. xvi. acc. to the passage Chag. 15 a, just referred to, the privilege
of ‘sitting’ was

accorded to Metatron in his character as ‘scribe’: he was
allowed “to sit and write down the merits of Israel”. Here, no
doubt, the assigning a Throne to Metatron is meant to denote
his unique position: his character of God’s representative or
vice-regent. This is borne out by vss. 3 and 4 and also by
what immediately follows: the Throne is similar to, me’ en, that
is ‘the counterpart of, the Throne of Glory. The character of
Metatron ‘s throne as an image of or counterpart of God’s
Throne is particularly emphasized by the additional feature:
Metatron receives a curtain similar to the Curtain of the Throne
of Glory. For the conception of the Curtain cf. note on ch. xiv.
i.

The Curtain regularly represents the recording of the Divine
decrees with regard to the world, the secrets of the world’s
creation and sustenance, etc., in short the innermost Divine
Secrets; cf. note referred to.
(2) He placed it at the door of the Seventh Hall and seated me
on it. This is an often-repeated statement. It is in ch. xlviii C 8
made to denote his function as judge and ruler over the
princes and the children of heaven, as even here, acc. to
verses following. In Rev. Moses (YR. ii. 66 b, Sinni, 93 c d,
Gaster, RAS’s Journal, 1893) it is said: “Metatron, Prince of the
Presence, stands before the door of the Hall of the Holy One,
blessed be He, and he sits and judges all the hosts on high like
a judge standing before the King”. The contradiction between
the two statements ‘sits’ and ‘stands’ in this passage is
probably due to the influence of the tradition mentioned
above, that there is no sitting in heaven, responsible also for
the account of Metatron being divested of his privilege of
yeshiba in Chag. 153 and ch. xvi here. On his throne at the
door of the seventh Hall Metatron faces all the hosts of the
heavens, over which he has jurisdiction.

(3) the herald went forth into every heaven. The conception of
the heavenly herald announcing important decrees of the Most
High in the heavens is attested also in Hek. R. vi (BH. iii. 88,
as ch. iv): “the herald went forth from the ‘Araboth Raqia 1
etc.” and in Rev. Mos., Yalqut Re’ubeni, ii. 66 b: “Gallisur
stands behind the Curtain and gets knowledge of the decrees
of the Holy One and heralds it… and the herald commits it to
Elijah and Elijah stands as herald on the mount Horeb”. This is
Metatron, my servant. HERE THEN IS THE POINT in the course
of the exposition of the present chapter WHERE ENOCH IS PROCLAIMED AS METATRON. It is
significant that

THIS PROCLAMATION IS MADE TO COINCIDE WITH HIS BEING SET UP
ON A THRONE as a ruler over the princes and angels. See
Introduction, section 12 (5). my servant, i.e. ‘Ebed. ‘Ebed or
God’s Servant is an old-established name of Metatron. Cf.
chh. xlviii c i, xlviii D i (no. 17) and note. It seems to have
been especially associated with the Prince of the Presence
conception. Cf. Hek. R. xiii, BH. iii. 93:” Surya, ‘Ebed, the
Prince of the Presence” (Surya is a common equivalent of
Metatron as the Prince of the Presence, cf. no. 84, ch. xlviii.
i). In Hek. Zot.(Bodl. MICH. fo\. 700) the attribute ‘ my
servant’ is applied to Metatron as God’s representative or viceregent:
“when I (the Holy One) leave the Throne of Glory to go
down among the children of men”. In Hek. R. BH. iii. 104,
Metatron is called ‘”Ebed-YHWH, long-suffering and of great
mercy”. It is probable that the “Ebed’ is derived from the
picture of God’s servant in Is. xlix. i, etc. I have made him
into a prince and a ruler over all the princes of my kingdoms (=
my princes of kingdoms). Here, as in ch. xvi. i, 2,

Metatron is
explicitly stated to have special authority over the princes of
kingdoms. This is a feature in the Prince of the World tradition:
ch. xxx. 2. In the shorter Enoch- Metatron piece, ch. xlviii c,
vs. 9, Metatron’s character of ruler over the princes of
kingdoms and thereby as functional Prince of the World is
better preserved than here: he is there depicted as ruler over
the nations of the world ‘who smites kings and sets up kings’.
Here his rulership is viewed mainly or exclusively from its
celestial aspect, he is the ruler over the princes of kingdoms as
inhabitants of the heavens, in common with all the children of
heaven. Except the eight great princes… who are called YHWH
by the name of their king. ‘Called by the name YHWH’ (cf. on
chh. iii. 2, xxix. i) probably means that these angels have the
Tetragrammaton as part of their names,

as ‘Anaphiel H of ch.
vi. i, the higher ones of the angels enumerated ch. xviii, and
the Merkaba princes chh. xix, xx, xxii, xxv, xxvi, xxvii. Which
these angels are who are exempt from the jurisdiction of
Metatron is not stated here. One might from ch. vi. i
conjecture that ‘Anaphiel was regarded as one of them. A
parallel can be brought from Hek. R. xxii, BH. iii. 99. This
parallel is indeed so close that it can with some degree of
certainty be assumed to represent the same tradition as the
present passage. The guardians of the seventh Hall are
enumerated “and each of them, his name is called by the
name of the King of the World” (in the enumeration this
statement is shown to signify the form of names of which the
Tetragrammaton forms the latter part: SSTIEL YHWH, N (ZURIEL YHWH, etc.). The greatest of
them is ‘Anaphiel H (in whose
charge the ring with the seal of heaven and earth is
committed, cf. on vi. i):

“before him all on high kneel down,
fall on their faces and pay homage to him when they see him.
And those angels, standing before the Throne of Glory, who do
not prostrate themselves before the Prince of the Presence,
they prostrate themselves before ‘Anaphiel YHWH”. ‘Those
angels’ are evidently the angels in Hek. R. made into ‘the
guardians of the Seventh Hall’. The names of these angels are
only seven in the enumeration, but acc. to the general scheme
of Hek. R. (see chh. xv, xvii, etc.) the number of the
guardians of each Hall is ‘eight’: likewise in Mass. Hek. iv
(“there are eight guardians of the door of each of the seven
Halls”). Hence also Hek. R. xxii might originally have had:
“eight great princes, called H”. This clause is most probably
additional here, cf. Introduction, section 8(u).
(4) Every angel… who has a word to speak in my presence,
shall go… to him. HERE THE EPITHET ‘PRINCE OF THE
PRESENCE’ is EXPLAINED.

(5) And every command that he utters to you in my name do
ye observe and fulfil. THIS IS CLEARLY A PROCLAMATION OF
METATRON AS GOD’S VICEREGENT. Ex. xxiii. 21 may have
been suggestive (Ex. xxiii. 20-22 are traditionally referred to
the Prince of the Presence): “Beware of him and provoke him
not: obey his voice”. Here Metatron’s jurisdiction extends only
over the angels, ctr. ch. xlviii C 9. But his connection with the
affairs of the ‘world’ is implied by the following, for the Prince
of Wisdom and the Prince of Understanding have I committed
to him to instruct him in the wisdom of heavenly things and of
earthly things. ‘The Prince of Wisdom and Prince of
Understanding’:
cf. ch. xlviii D i (no. 105) and 2 (‘all the treasuries of wisdom
are committed in his hand’). The functions of the Prince of
Wisdom are then naturally merged into the conception of
Metatron: Metatron is the Prince of Wisdom. Cf. on ch. xviii.
ii, 16. Metatron instructed in the ‘secrets’ is the subject of the
following chapter. There it is God himself who instructs him.
Cf. in 2 En. xxxiii. n, 12: “two angels Ariukh and Pariukh
appointed by God as guardians of the Enoch-literature”.

(6) I have set him over all the treasuries of… ‘Araboth. Cf. ch.
viii. acc. to the present chapter Metatron’s initiation in the
wisdoms of heaven and earth and his disposal over the treasuries is a necessary condition for (and
corollary of) his
office as God’s representative. Stores of Life: ch. viii. i, 4 Ez.
viii. 54, Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 26, 44.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 11.

(1) BCL: ‘ the Holy One, blessed be He, revealed to me, the
spring (well) of
(2) so BEL (L om. ‘ Perfect ‘) A : lacuna. C reads : all the
secrets of understanding and all the depths of the mysteries of
the Tora’
(3) BCL om.
(4) BC: ‘orders’
(5) C: ‘the Creator of the work(s) of the Beginning’
(6) lit. ‘much BCL om. DE: ‘from that time onward’
(7) perhaps to be emended with C: ‘the deep secrets and the
wonderful mysteries’
(8) B ins. ‘I knew, and before he did think’
(8a) L: ‘I knew’ and om. ‘in secret’
(9) DE corr. from ‘before a man did think etc.’ to the end of the
chapter.

(10) B adds: ‘ from the Creator of the World alone.’
That METATRON is IN POSSESSION OF ALL SECRETS AND
MYSTERIES is an essential feature of the traditions concerning
him. Cf. the other Enoch-Metatron piece of the present book:
ch. xlviii c 7 (and 4). He is called the ‘Knower of Secrets’ ib.
and Hek. R. (“wise in the secrets and Master of the
mysteries”). The same is implied in chh. viii, x. 5 . As a ‘
knower of secrets’ he is also the ‘ revealer of secrets’. This is
the eighty-eighth of the names in ch. xlviii D i and the sixty-seventh in the treatise Names of
Metatron, Bodl. MICH. 256,
foil. 29 3-44 a.

He is the Prince of Wisdom and the Prince of
Understanding: ch. xlviii D i (105), 2, 6. He reveals the ‘secret’
to Moses: ib. 7. He is the guide and revealer of secrets to R.
Ishmael acc. to the frame of the present book, to R. Ishmael
and R. ‘Aqiba (e. a.) acc. to Hek. R. (in the form of ‘Surya’),
Hek. Zot., Shi’ur Qoma, the Apocalyptic Fragment, BH. v.
167-169, and in various scattered fragments (see
Introduction). Also called ‘guide of all treasuries’, e.g. BH. ii.
117. Besides it needs hardly to be pointed out that the
revelation of secrets to Enoch and Enoch as possessor of and
revealer of heavenly secrets is a prominent trait of the i and 2
En. Cf. also CHARLES, i En. xlix. 3, 4.

(1) Henceforth the Holy One… revealed to me. acc. to vs. 5 of
the preceding chapter the angel(s) called the Prince of Wisdom
and Prince of Understanding are the instructors of Enoch-
Metatron. Here it is the Holy One himself who reveals the
secrets to him. An important parallel to this is found in 2 En.
xxiii, xxiv. In ch. xxiii the angel Vretil tells Enoch of ‘all the
works of heaven and earth, etc. etc.’, in ch. xxiv again it is
God himself who reveals to Enoch ‘the secrets of Creation’.
The reason of the change is there to be seen in the explicit
statement that these latter secrets are not even revealed to
the angels and could therefore be handed over to Enoch only
by God himself. It is probable that a similar idea has been at
work here. It is at least certain that Metatron was thought to
receive more of the ‘secrets’ than the angels in general; cf. ch.
viii. 2 end:

‘I was honoured and adorned with all these… things
more than all the children of heaven’, referring inter alia to
‘wisdom, understanding, knowledge’.
all the mysteries of Tora and all the secrets of wisdom and all
the depths of the Perfect Law. The mysteries of the Tora is a
technical term, denoting THE INNER ESSENCE OF WHICH THE
TORA ITSELF IS AN EXPRESSION, FORM, PHENOMENON. They
are not to be defined as the sum of mystical interpretations of
the Tora: the mystical interpretation aims at finding these
secrets by the study of the Tora, in which they are embodied
(cf. e.g. Baraita of R. Meir, Pirqe Ab. vi: “Whosoever is busy
in the Tora for its own sake… to him the mysteries of Tora are
revealed”).

They are in fact the ‘mysteries of mysteries’, the fundament
not ‘only’ of the Tora but of the universe, of heaven and earth:
cf. ch. xlviii D 8 and note ad locum. In the term are thus comprised also the following: the secrets
of Wisdom and the
depths of the Perfect Law and also the Secrets of Creation.
See Introduction, section 14 (1). Cf. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii.
43, 44, acc. to which God revealed to Moses (since Moses
received the Tora on Sinai he was also thought to have
received the ‘Secrets’ either directly from God or through
Metatron; cf. ch. xlviii D 3, 7 seq.) ‘the Tora… and opened to
him the treasuries of Wisdom, which the Holy One… revealed
to him, that he might see by His Wisdom all the orders of
Creation’ Perfect Law. The expression is derived from Ps. xix.
8. Cf. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 14: “But for the Perfect Law
(Tora Temima) the whole world would not subsist” and vice
versa.
all living beings’ thoughts of heart…

(2) Before a man did think, I knew, etc.
(3)… no thing… on high nor… in the deep hidden from me.
Metatron seems here to be invested with the attribute of
omniscience proper only to ‘the Maker of the World’. All past,
present and future events are recorded with God (on the
Curtain cf. on ch. xlv. i). These were also shown to Moses
acc. to the passage Alph. R. ‘ Aqiba, BH. iii. 44, referred to
above.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 12.

(1) soBCL. lit.’ highness’ A corr.
(2) so C. ABDELom.
(3) B ins. ‘beauty, splendour and majesty and’
(4) supplied from C.’
(5) DE om. 6 CL add: ‘and wrapped me (in it)’
(6) CL Add: ‘and wrapped me (in it)’
(7) B: ‘shining as’
(8) B: ‘from one end of the world to the other, and in the seven
heavens and in the four quarters of the world’
(9) lit. ‘ he wreathed it’ C: ‘they put that crown’

(10) BC: ‘they called me (by the name of)’ ii BCL:’the’
Continued description of Enoch’s exaltation, ending with the
climax: ENOCH-METATRON CALLED THE LESSER YHWH. A very
close parallel to this chapter is found in 2 En. xxi. 5-11, xxii.
5. Vide Introduction, section 7 (b).
(1) The Holy One… made me a garment of glory. Cf. 2 En.
xxii. 8 (Ivi. 2): God bids Michael clothe Enoch with ‘the
raiment of glory’. ln early traditions the ‘garment of glory’
(‘raiment of honour’, etc.) represents the light-substance in
which the inhabitants of the high heavens appear; the ‘glory’ is
light, splendour, probably conceived of as a reflection, outflow
of the Divine Glory, the Splendour of Shekina. The putting on
‘the raiment of glory’ is a necessary condition of entering the
highest heavens, God’s abode of light. Hence it is also a mark
of the holy, celestial nature of its bearer. Cf. how acc. to Asc.
Is. ix. 2-11 (vii. 25) Isaiah can only ascend to the highest
heaven after having received the garment of glory. ‘Garments
of glory’ are designed for the righteous and elect: i En. Ixii.
15, 16. Similarly Esdras ii. 39 (“those which are departed from
the shadow of the world and have received glorious garments
of the Lord”), explained ib. iv. 45 (“they that have put off the
mortal clothing and put on the immortal”), i En. cviii. 12 (vide
CHARLES’ notes ad loca cit.), 2 Cor. v. 3 seq., Rev. iii. 5, iv.
4, vi. ii vii. 9, 13, 14, Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 28 and 34 (the
righteous will be sitting on thrones before the Glory in royal
garments and royal crowns).

The garment of glory and robe of honour is here assigned to
Metatron as distinguished from the other angels: ‘by reason of
the love with which [He] loved me more than all the children of
heaven’. The writer has Metatron’s rulership, his vice-regency
in view. THE GARMENT AND ROBE ASSIGNED TO HIM ARE TO
BE UNDERSTOOD AS SYMBOLS OF HIS DERIVED KINGSHIP.
This is apparent from the following context: Metatron crowned
with a crown of kingship and especially by his pronouncement
as the Lesser YHWH acc. to Alpha Beta de Metatron (Add.
15299, fol. 8 1 b) Metatron ” is clad in eight garments, made out of the splendour of Shekina (ib. 8
1 a: when the righteous
parts from this world the Prince of the Presence conducts him
to the Garden of Eden and there he clothes him in eight
garments from the splendour of Shekina)”. THE GARMENT(S)
OF GLORY ARE A DISTINCTION ASSIGNED ALSO TO MESSIAH
acc. to Pirqe Mashiach, BH. iii. 73 (“God will clothe Messiah in
splendour and majesty… and garments of glory”).
(3) And he made me a royal crown. ‘Crowns’ often termed
‘Crowns of Glory’ are frequently, one might say regularly,
ascribed to angel-princes. Cf. in the present book chh. xvi. i,
2 (princes of kingdoms), xvii. 8 (item), xviii. 1-22 (all the
angels and princes); in the angelological section, the Merkabaangels
and the princes set over them: chh. xxi. 4, xxii. 5,11,
xxv. 6, xxvi. 7, 8, further xxxix. 2, xl. 2, xlviii c 4. The Divine
Names, ch. xlviii B i. Cf. Rev. iv. 4.

The righteous are to
receive crowns in the world to come or in the after-life, e.g. 2
Esdras ii. 45. Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 34, and ib. 36, God is
represented as crowning the letters on the Merkaba with a
crown of kingship and a crown of glory. In the present book
‘the crown of kingship’ is the special emblem of Metatron and
of the seventy two princes of kingdoms (whose ruler he is): ch.
xvii. 8 (cf. xvi. i, 2); in ch. xviii all the angel-princes are
depicted with ‘crowns of glory’ except the ‘seventy-two princes
of kingdoms’ who have ‘crowns of kingship’. They are the
celestial rulers over the nations of the world. The royal crown
here is apparently meant to distinguish Metatron as
representative ruler. The following chapter makes it clear that
METATRON’S CROWN WAS CONCEIVED OF AS A COUNTERPART
OF ‘KETHER NORA’ OF THE HOLY ONE AS KING OF THE WORLD
(cf. ch. XXIX. i). its Splendour Went forth etc. Cf. ch. xxv.
6.

(5) And He called me the Lesser YHWH … “For my name is in
him.” The tradition that Metatron bears the name of his Master
is attested in TB. Sank. 38 b, with the same scriptural support
as here, viz. Ex. xxiii. 21. The passage is frequently referred
to Metatron. The reference has been interpreted from the
equal numerical value of Metatron and Shaddai (the name of
God Almighty). The original meaning was, however, as here,
that METATRON ACTUALLY WAS CALLED BY THE DIVINE NAME
OR NAMES. Such seems to be the import even of TB. Sank.
38 b, since there Ex. xxiv. i is referred to Metatron: “And He
said unto Moses, Come up unto YHWH”; ‘Come up unto YHWH’
is to be understood: ‘Come up unto Metatron’. A very
important parallel is found in Apocalypse of Abraham (ed. BOX), ch. 10: “I am called Jaoel by Him
who moveth that which
existeth with me on the seventh expanse upon the firmament,
a power in virtue of the ineffable Name thai is dwelling in me”.

Jaoel is made up of the Divine Names, and therefore ‘God’s
Name is in Him’. For Metatron called ‘the Lesser YHWH’ cf.
BH. ii. 61, 114, 117, and also 3 En. xlviii c 7, xlviii D i (no.
102: ‘the Lesser YHWH, after the name of his Master, “for my
name is in him (Ex. xxiii. 21)'”; ib. no. 14, YHWH is included
as one of the names of Metatron). Sepher ha-Qoma (‘Inydne
Merkaba) , Bodl. OPP. 467, fol. 61 b (where the variant
reading, however, differs): “The Explicit Name, which is
Metatron, the Youth” (var. “the explicit name which Metatron
announces”). In the commentary on Sepher ha-Qoma (Bodl.
OPP. 658, fol. 110a): “for Metatron’s name is YHWH the
Lesser”. Add. 27142 quotes from Hekaloth (et al.) “And he
(Metatron) is the crown of the attributes of the Holy One, and
his name is as the name of His Master: THE LESSER YHWH.”
Add. 15299, fol. 1343 (Widduy Yaphe): “all the princes that
are standing beneath the Lesser YHWH”. Cf. Zohar, i. 21 a.
The ascribing to Metatron of the name YHWH ha-QATAN is very
near to ascribing to him an intermediary Function of Deity. But
it here denotes his function of being God’s representative. As
His representative the Most High has conferred upon him part
of His essence which is in His name. Cf how acc., to later
traditions Metatron is regarded as part pf the Shekina, ‘the
body of Shekina, “the Shekina is called by his name Metatron”
(YR. i. 57 a). Further on the significance of the name ‘the
Lesser YHWH’ see Introduction, section 8.
(Add. 27199, fol. 114 a:

:חקוק בלבו שם הגדול כי שמי בקרבו

speaking of Metatron.) The expression ‘the little lao’ is found
in Pistis Sophia (ed. Homer), page 6 (i2.b) (ed. Schmidt, pp.
7, 8). Cf. Introduction, 8 (p) and n Ha (a).

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 13.

(1) so with BDEL. A: ‘love of the Holy One, blessed be He, and
the’
(2) L om.
(3) ins. with BDEL. A om.
(4) BL om.
(5) B ins. ‘ the sun and the moon’
(6) L om.
(7) L om.
(8) so with BDE. A: ‘upon all’
(9) L: ‘flew off’
(10) BDE: ‘figures like unto’ or ‘figures of aspects as’
(11) DE om.

(12), B as in (10).
(Cf. the parallel chapter xli.) ON THE CROWN WITH WHICH THE
HOLY ONE CROWNED METATRON ACC. TO THE PRECEDING
CHAPTER VS. 3, HE WRITES THE MYSTICAL LETTERS “BY
WHICH HEAVEN AND EARTH ETC. WERE CREATED”. This is
indicated as a distinction assigned to Metatron over ‘all the
children of heaven’ (cf. ch. xii. i). The idea is presumably to
denote that Metatron’s crown is the counterpart of the Crown
of the Most High, just as Metatron’s throne and curtain (ch. x.
i) are the counterparts of the Divine Throne and Curtain resp.
acc. to Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 13 and iii. 50, the “22 letters
by which the whole Torah was given to the Tribes of Israel …
are engraved with a naming style on the Fearful Crown (cf. ch.
xxix. i)”. And the latter passage continues: “and when the
Holy One, blessed be He, desired to create the world, they all
went down and stood before Him”. Mass. Hek. vii: “the crown
with the Explicit Name is on His (fore)head”.

(1) the letters by which were created heaven and earth. Which
are these letters? In three different ways the conception of
‘Creation by letters’ is expressed:
(1) the world was created by the letter Beth, being the first one
of the letters of the Tora (Bereshlth): Gen. R. i. 14, TJ. Chag. 77 c, Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 5: for on
the Tora the Creation
was based;
(2) the letters of the Divine Name are the constituents of the
world (Zohar, ii. 76 a b), especially the letters of the YHWH
and ‘EHYE, viz. י, ו, ה, א . But also in particular the letters Yod
and He (common to both these names and found in the name
YAH). The biblical assage Is. xxvi. 4 (cf.. ch. xlii. 4) is used
as support, interpreted thus: “By Yod He He created the
worlds”. The ‘worlds’: “the world to come with Yod, this world
by He” or vice versa ( YR. i. 8 b). From the word
behibbare’am, read be He bera’am (by He did He create them),
in Gen. ii. 4, support is brought for the statement: ‘by He
heaven and earth were created’. The first word of the Tora
(Bereshith, read Bara Sheth (He created (by) six) together with
the passage Is. xxvi. 4 already mentioned (interpreted: By YH
YHWH he created the worlds) are used as support for the
creation of heaven and earth and the world by the six letters:
ה, ו, ה, י, ה, י (Ma’ase Bereshith, S. Raziel, Or. 6577 foil. (19
b, 20 a b). Cf. for further references: TB. Men. 29 b, TJ.
Chag. 77, Gen. R. xii. 2, 9, Mass. Hek. vii, Alph. R. ‘Aqiba,
BH. iii. 23, 24, 53, 55, 56, YR. i. 4 b, 8 b.

(3) The world was created by the twenty-two letters (which of
course are also regarded as constituting the Divine Name).
Pirqe R. Ishm. (Bodl. MICH. 175, foil. 20 3-26 a, ch. xxi
cont.) the statement to this effect is based likewise upon Is.
xxvi. 4. The creation of everything in heaven and on earth by
means of the twenty-two letters is notedly the fundamental
doctrine of the S. Yesira: “By means of the 22 letters, by
giving them a form and, a shape, by mixing thern and
combining them in different ways, God made the soul of all
that which has been created and of all that which will be” (ii.
2, cited by Abelson in Jewish Mysticism, p. 104). Cf. ib. p.
100 from Ber. 55 a: “Bezalel knew how to join together the
letters by means of which the heavens and earth were
created”). Cf. also the “Sa’adya” commentary on S. Yesira, ii.
2. As no special letters are named here and no reference is
made to the ‘name’, also because the wording suggests a
plurality, THE ‘LETTERS’ ARE PRESUMABLY IN THE PRESENT
CHAPTER TO BE UNDERSTOOD AS THE 22 LETTERS. In ch.
xlviii D 5 the conferment upon Metatron of the twenty-two
letters is explicitly stated.

(2) And every single letter sent forth etc. Cf. ch. xxxix. i and
ch. xlviii B i , from which it appears as if the reading of L might
probably be original: ‘flew off’. Cf. notes ad loca. On ‘the
mystical letters’ vide Introduction, section 14 (i). The idea of
creation by letters (of the Name) is to be traced back in the
Enoch literature to i En. Ixix. 14-25: “the hidden Name
(enunciated) in the oath… and these are the secrets of this
oath:… through it the earth was founded… the sea was
created… the depths made fast… the sun and moon complete
their course” (Charles’ ed.).

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 14.

(1) L om.
(2) so with BL. A: ‘the princes of the ‘Er’elim and the princes of
the ‘Elim Tafsarim and the princes of the ‘Er’ellim ‘ DE: ‘the
princes ‘Elim and the princes ‘Tafsarim’
(3) E om.
(4) L om.
(5) DE ins. ‘the Evil One’
(6) BL: ‘angels’
(7) B om.
(8) D: ‘the angel of the storm-wind, the angel of the
earthquake’ B: ‘ the angel of the earthquake and the angel of
commotion and the angel of hail ‘ L: ‘and the angels of the
earthquake and the thunder’
(9) L ins. ‘the lightning and’ (cf. 7)
(10) L om.
(11) L om. from ‘who rule… ‘ vs. 3 to vs. 5.
(12) B om.
(13) B om. vs. 4.
(14) L om.

(15) here follows in B a recension of ch. vii, in L a version of
ch. xv B.
In the form of a narrative of how different princes and angels
trembled before Metatron, when they saw him crowned by the
Most High, the PRESENT CHAPTER GIVES AN EXPOSITION OF
THE VARIOUS ANGELIC POWERS UNDER METATRON’S
AUTHORITY. These comprise mainly: (1) the princes of
kingdoms, including Sammael (‘who is greater than all of
them’); (2) the princes (of) the ‘Elim, ‘Er’ellim and Tafsarim; (3)
the so-called’ rulers of the world’, i.e. (a) the angels appointed
over the elementary powers of the world, fire, ice, wind,
lightning, thunder, snow, rain, (b) the angels appointed over
the heavenly bodies, including the angels of ‘the day’ and ‘the
night’. It will be noticed that these angels and angelic
functions fall within the traditional dominion of the ‘ Prince of
the World’: METATRON is HERE (cf. on chh. ix. 5, x. 3)
DENOTED AS VIRTUAL PRINCE OF THE WORLD, HAVING
AUTHORITY OVER THE 72 PRINCES OF KINGDOMS (cf. ch.
XXx) AND OVER THE ‘RULERS OF THE WORLD’.
(1) all the Princes of Kingdoms. Metatron is particularly
depicted as the ruler over the princes of kingdoms; cf. chh. x.
3, xvi. i, 2, xlviii c 9, and on iii. 2. For the conception of the
princes of kingdoms the representatives of the nations of the
world see on ch. xvii. 8 and cf. chh. xviii. 2, xxx. 2.

who are
in the height of ‘Araboth Raqia’, the highest of the heavens.
The princes of kingdoms are usually represented as having
their place in the highest of the heavens, near the Throne of
God. They form the Celestial Beth Din, the Divine Council (ch.
xxx). See on ch. xvii. 8 (in Raqia’) and xviii. 2 (in the
‘Araboth Raqia’, but in rank under the guardians of the Halls of
Araboth). ‘Elim, the princes of the ‘Elim. A class of angels
mentioned also chh. xv B I and xix. 6 (in the reading of B).
The name is derived from Ex. xv. n and Ezek. xxxii. 21.
Mekilta on the former passage explains “Elim” as “those who
minister before the Holy One in the high heavens”, thus
denoting them as angels. The ‘Er’ellim and ‘Tafsarim, also in
ch. xxxiii. 7. The ‘Er’etlim, denoting angels (in general?) in
Ket. 104 a and Yer. Kil. 32 a, are derived from Is. xxxiii. 7.
They are one of the ‘ten classes of angels’ (under the rulership
of Mikael, Mass. ‘Asiluth, Zohar, Ex. xliii; Maimon, Y. Ch. Y. T.), also mentioned as one of the first
classes of angels in YR.
i. 13 a (from Midrash Konen) and i. 31 a (from ‘Or ha-
Chayyini) . The Tafsarim (Jer. li. 27, Nah. iii. 17) occur here
and in ch. xxxix. 2 only. For the hosts of every heaven (om.
by L) cf. xvii. 2.

(2) Sammael, the Prince of the Accusers, who is greater than
all the princes of kingdoms. For Sammael cf. on ch. xxvi. 21.
He is here put in relation to the princes of kingdoms, probably
regarded as the chief of these princes. As ‘the prince of Rome’
ch. xxvi. 12 he is naturally included in this category, and as a
representative of Rome, Israel’s greatest oppressor, he also
becomes the representative of all the Gentile nations and the
leader of the princes who accuse Israel represented by Mikael)
on high. From this point of view one trend of traditions regards
the princes of kingdoms, under Sammael, as evil, demoniacal
powers. In the present book the tendency is contrary: in ch.
xxx the princes of kingdoms, under the Prince of the world,
together plead the cause of the world before God in a universal
sense, and here they are all subjected under the rulership of
Metatron whose authority supersedes that of Sammael.

(3) The angels of the elementary forces of fire, hail, wind,
lightnings, etc., are comprised with those of the heavenly
bodies under the category of ‘ rulers of the world’ (‘who rule
the world under their hands’). Cf. 2 En. iv-vi where the first
heaven is said to contain “the rulers of the orders of the stars”
together with the angels guarding “.the treasuries of snow, ice,
clouds and dew”. The names and characteristics of the angels
of i En. vi. 7 and viii show a combination of elementary and
sideric-planetary powers: Kokabiel, evidently = Kokbiel of vs.
4 (planets or stars), Shamsiel (= Shimshiel of vs. 4: the sun),
Sariel (the moon) and Ezeqeel (= Ziqiel of vs. 4: the sparks or
lightnings); cf. Zaqiel, Baraqijal (= Baraqiel: lightnings),
Jomjael (= Yomiel?, prince of the day, here Shimshiel). For the
close connection of the gods, angels or rulers of elementary
and planetary phenomena attested in Persian religion,
Mithraism and Gnosticism cf. Bousset, Hauptprobleme der
Gnosis, pp. 223-237. Cf. Diels, Elementum, pp. 41 seqq.,
pointing out that the στοιχεια, ‘elements’, of N.T.-time
comprise elementary powers and planets (Gal. iv. 3, 9, Col. ii.
8, 20 etc.) For planetary angels, spirits or demons cf. i En. Ix
15-22, 2 En. xv, xvi. 7,Jub. ii. 2, 4 Ez. vi. 41, 2 Bar. vi. i,
item i En. Ixi. 10 (“principalities … and the powers of earth
and water”), ib. Ixvi. 2 (“angels … over the powers of the waters”), ib. Ixix. 2 (Kokabel, Baraqel, cf.
vi, viii referred to
above), ib. vs. 22 (” the spirits of the water and of the winds
“).
(4) Gabriel the angel of the fire. This seems to be a remnant of
a tradition, connecting the archangels or the four ‘Presences’
with the elements and planets. Such a tradition is preserved in
Tiqqune Zohar, no. 70 (“Mikael is appointed over the water or
seas, Gabriel over the fire, Uriel over the wind, Raphael over
the ‘dust of the ground’, the earth”). For Uriel as the angel of
the fire, see BOX, Ezra-Ap. pp. 20, 21. Shimshiel, the angel
over the day. The name is derived from Shemesh (sun).
Shemesh and Yom are often equivalent (cf. TB. Ab. Zar. 4 b,
5 a, Rashi).

The name Yomiel which would have been more
strictly in accordance with the scheme of the preceding angelic
names (each derived from the name of their function or of the
element over which they are appointed) occurs already in i En.
vi. 7 (‘Jomjael’ cf. above). In Hek. Zot. Bodl. MICH. 9, fol.
68 a, ‘ Yomael’ is one of seven angels connected with the
seven heavens. Cf. note on ch. xvii. 3. Cf. also Shamsiel, i
En. viii. 3 (who taught men “the signs of the sun”). For
Galgalliel, ‘Ophanniel, Kokbiel, Rahatiel, as angels over sun,
moon, planets and constellations, see the identical
representation in a fuller form in ch. xvii. 4-7. Cf. ch. xlvi. 3
(Rahatiel). ‘Ophanni’el as the prince of the Ophannim, see ch.
xxv (which preserves traces of the connection of this angel
with “the globe of the moon”). Vide the consummate
exposition of the angelic names in the parallel passage of i En.
vi (with variant readings) given by CHARLES, in The Book of
Enoch, Oxford, 1912, pp. 16, 17 !
(5) crown of glory… Metatron’s crown is here called ‘crown of
glory’, in contrast to the preceding where it is always referred
to as ‘crown of kingship’.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 15A.

(1) so A. D: ‘in joy’ BCL om.
(2), C ins. ‘by consequence’
(3) CSYR: ‘arrangements’
(4) BCL om.
(5) B: ‘sparks of CL om.
(6) so B. A: ‘dividers’ (cf. on ch. vi. z).
(7) so with (B)CDbEL. A corr.
(8) so with BDE. A corr. L: ‘were blown, roused’ instead of
‘were blowing’ C om. ‘were blowing’
(9) BCDEL: ‘thunder upon thunder’
(10) CL end here. Cf. 16 on ch. xiv and i on ch. xvi.
This chapter in common with ch. ix treats of the
metamorphosis through which Metatron-Enoch was made into
an angel. His body and substance are wholly changed into fire.
For fire as the regular substance of the angels, see
Introduction (Angelol., Nature, etc., of the angels). The Tos.
(Yeb. 16 b) record the piyyutic statement: “Metatron, the
Prince, who was made from flesh into fire”, meaning “Enoch is
Metatron”. See YR. i. 54. b.

(1) my limbs into wings of burning fire. Cf. ch. ix. 2.
(2) on my right were divisions of fiery flames etc. High angelprinces
surrounded by fire, thunder, tempest and storm-wind is
a frequent representation of the angelological section, chh.
xviii-xxvi. Cf. e.g. chh. xviii. 25, xxii. 9, 13, etc., xxxiv,
xxxvii.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 15B.

(1) L: ‘above’
(2) L om.
(3) L: ‘they opened to him the habitations of the chashmal’
(4) lit. ‘companies of
(5) L om. corr.
(6) L om.
(7) L ins. ‘he asked mercy’
(8) L ins. ‘of Israel’
(9) L: ‘his prayer’
(10) L: ‘it’
(11) L om.
(12) ins. with L. B om.
(13) L om.
(14) L: ‘thy need’

(15) the additions following upon this are in B definitely stated
not to belong to ‘ the Baraita ‘
THIS ADDITIONAL PIECE which is embodied in B and L in a
disconnected Style PRESERVES A FRAGMENT OF AN
‘ASCENSION OF MOSES’ (vSS. 2 Seqq.). This ‘Ascension of
Moses’ was connected with the Metatron-tradition, in so far as
Metatron plays the role of an intermediary between the Deity
and Moses (cf. ch. xlviii D 7): vss. 4 and 5. Cf. also the
Gedullath Moshe and the quotation from Pirqe Hekalot by .R.
Ishmael in YR. ii. 66 a (“Said to me Metatron, the Prince of the
Presence: When Moses ascended on high, the Holy One,
blessed be He, gave me command and conferred on me from
his Shi’ur Qoma (stature) seventy thousand myriads by
seventy thousand myriads of parasangs …”). (1) Metatron is
standing before the Most High: ‘Prince of the Presence’.
(1) he goes in under the Throne of Glory, the place of the
treasuries and also of the ‘Tabernacle of the Youth’. he has a
great tabernacle on high. The Tabernacle (Sanctuary) of
Metatron under the Throne: Sepher Qoma (Bodl. OPP. 467,
fol. 61 a),

“Metatron goes in under the Throne to say the
‘Blessed”, acc. to Hilkoth Metatron, Add. 27199, fol. 114 a,
item “to prostrate himself before the Holy One” (commentary
on Sepher ha-qQoma, Bodl. OPP. 658, fol. 101 a). “The Tabernacle of the Youth whose name is
Metatron” was
completed by the ministering angels simultaneously with the
completion of the Tabernacle on earth acc. to Num. R. xii. 15
(with reference to Nu. vii. i). Cf. Zohar, ii. 1593 and
Introduction. Metatron is the High Priest on high (Shemoth
sJiel Metatron, Bodl. MICH. 256, fol. 29 a), thus occupying the
position elsewhere assigned to Mikael. Cf. Zohar, iii. 50 a:
two Altars on high. The priest of the inner Altar is כהנא עלאה
מכלא and of the outer Mikael, שרא רבא and he brings forth
the fire of deafness etc. Literally the same is said in S.
ha-‘qQoma (Bodl. OPP. 467, foil. 61 a b) with the addition
“(from the mouth of the Holy One) and the Explicit Name that
the Youth Metatron recites (i.e. in the Tabernacle)”.

(2) he fasted 121 fasts, i.e., probably, 121 days. The sudden
introduction of the theme of the revelations to Moses is
perhaps to be accounted for by the traditional association of
the Tabernacle on high with the Tabernacle completed by
Moses and by Metatron’s function as revealer of the ‘secrets’ to
Moses. Cf. ch. xlviii 03,7. the habitations of the chashmal.
chashmal, derived from Ezek. i. 4, is interpreted either as an
angelic name (chashmal, chashmallim, cf. note on ch. vii) or
as a celestial Matter. In any case the ‘abodes of the chashmal’
here mean the highest or central place in heaven. acc. to
Gikatillas, Sod ha-Chashmal, the prophet (or the seer) after
having entered the successive Halls at last arrives at the ‘Hall
of the Chashmal’, the Chashmal being the equivalent of the
‘Chayyoth of fire ‘(Arze Lebanon, 40 a b. Cf. 41 a: “the inner
chashmal and the outer chashmal etc.”). the heart of the Lion,
the Lion = one of the four Chayyoth, Ezek. i. 10. they desired
to burn him. Cf. the Rev. of Moses, e.g. YR. ii. 66 b

(“I Moses saw the company of the angels of dread who surround
the Throne of Glory … and they all desired to burn me”): it is a
symbol of guard. Cf. i. 3, 4. opened the windows that are
above the heads of the Kerubim. These are the windows
through which the prayers of men are let into the Presence of
the Godhead. In the Widduy Yaphe the supplicant prays that
the Kerubim who are by the side of the Chayyoth and the
Throne of Glory may open “the windows that are in the ‘Throne
of Glory… in the habitations” and let in his prayer before Him
who sitteth on the Kerub, etc. 1800 advocates, i.e. angels
who plead in favour of Israel. The kerub is advocate already in
TB. Chag. 13 b. the prayers of Israel … as a crown.

This represents the frequent idea of the prayers wreathed into
diadems on the head of the Most High. Usually the angelprince
Sandalfon is assigned the function of receiving the
prayers of the righteous and making them into crowns for ‘his
Creator’. Here this function is ascribed to the advocating
angels under Metatron. (Sandalfon is nowhere mentioned in
the present book.) (Cf. Chag. 13 b, Rev. Moses YR. ii. 66 b,
Zohar, ii. 58 a, i. 167 b.) acc. to Yalqut Chadash, mal’akim,
no. 25, “Metatron brings the prayers of Israel before the Holy
One, blessed be He”. Ib. ib. no. 9, “There are three who
receive the prayers: ‘Akatriel (cf. vs. 4), Metatron and
Sandalfon”, of these three, acc. to ib. ib. no. 38, ‘Akatriel
receives the prayers of the ‘nĕshāmā’ (the spirit, the highest
part of man), Metatron those of the rudch (the soul, as it is
perhaps best translated), Sandalfon those of the nefesh (the
mental or vital part of man). And ib. ib. no. 95, Metatron
receives the prayers and ascends through 900 of the 955
heavens (cf. ch. xlviii A i), handing them over to Akatriel. A
class of angels receiving the prayers, as here, is also
represented in Masseket Asilut, ch. v (Jellinek, Ginze
Chokmath ha-qQabbala), “in the world of ‘Asiyya are the
‘Ophannim and (the angels who) receive the prayers and
requests …”

(3) And they said “Hear, O Israel etc.” This seems to indicate
that the fragment was connected with a midrashic exposition
of the ShSma’. It is difficult to determine the different subjects
of the sentences of the present verse. ‘They’ and ‘their’
probably refer to the advocating angels mentioned in the
preceding verse, except in they give all this honour etc. which
is equivalent to ‘ is given all this honour …’and in they
answered which should be emended’ he (Metatron) answered’.
(4) In that moment spake Akatriel Yah Yehod Sebaoth. Akatriel
Yah Yehod Sebaoth is here in all probability a name of the Most
High, not of an angel: cf. ‘prayer that he prayeth before me’
and vs. 5: ‘(Metatron says, probably with reference to the
words attributed to Akatriel in this verse,) now God delights in
thee’. Akatriel as a name of God occurs in the well-known
passage Ber. 73. Akatriel (“the crown of God”, “God
crowned”) is cabbalistically the name of the Godhead as
manifested on the Throne of Glory. He is identical with the
Kerub ha-mMeyuchad (Or. 5510, fol. 127 b) and represents
the sefira Keter. Akatriel is, however, also a frequent name of
an angel, in this case usually without the appendix Yah Yehod
Sebaoth; cf. quotations in note on vs. 2 above. It may be apposite here to give the view of Cordovero
(Pardes, quoted
YR. i. 90 a): he maintains that Akatriel even in Ber. 7 a refers
to an angel, not to God: “said R. Ishmael, I saw Akatriel Yah
YHWH Sebaoth etc. This means the angel who receives the
prayers, and not the King of the Glory, for if so, he (R. Ishmael)
would not have said ‘I saw ‘God forbid! As is known, Akatriel is
a prince on high and not God. And the ‘Yah Yah Sebaoth’
means nothing more than that he is like other angels who are
called by the name of their Master (cf. on xxix. i, x. 3, iii. 2)”.
Hear thou his prayer and fulfil his desire. HENCE METATRON is
CONCEIVED OF AS GOD’S REPRESENTATIVE NOT ONLY TO THE
ANGELS BUT ALSO TO MAN. The underlying idea is here
probably Metatron’s identification with the ‘angel’ of Ex. xxiii.
20 seqq.

(5) For thy face shines from one end of the world to the other.
Cf. Ex. xxxiv. 29. Moses has obtained from the ethereal light
or splendour of the Divine Glory. For ‘the oath’ cf. i En. Ixix.
14-25. The oath contains Divine letters, i.e. letters of the
Divine names. Cf. Introduction, section 14 (i).

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 16.

(1) Probably additional
(2) so BDL. A: ‘the’
(3) L ins. ‘all’
(4) BDL om.
(5) DL: ‘Elisha ben Abuya who is (also called) Acher ‘B: (instead
of ‘Acher came’) ‘came Elisha ben Abuya and he was standing
behind (corr. reading for ‘Acher’) YHWH’
(6) so DL (cf. on vs. 3 of ch. xii, chh. xvii. 8, xviii. 3 beg.).
AB: ‘wreathing crowns’ (cf. also vs. i here: ‘divided… crown…
until etc.’)
(7) BDL om.
(8) No. 8 MISSING.
(9) BDL: “Anaphiel YHWH’
(10)-10 DL: ‘MAQOM’ (the Divine Majesty)

(11) lit. ‘struck me with sixty lashes of fire’ B: ‘(and) brought
with him sixty lashes and hosts of fire’.
The present chapter is a different version of the well-known
narrative in Chag. 15 a (cf. Tos. Chag. 2, 3, Yer. Chag. ii. i,
fol. 77 b). The main DIFFERENCES between the two versions
are: (1) in Chag. 15 a Metatron’s privilege of ‘sitting’ in the
heavens is explained from his being the scribe, recording the
merits of Israel, here the view of the preceding chapters is
accepted (ch. x. 2 seqq.) acc. to which Metatron was seated
on a Throne of his own as judge and ruler over the angels, in
particular the princes of kingdoms, (2) in Chag. the reason for
or justification of the punishment administered on Metatron is
that he did not rise when he saw Acher beholding him (so as to
prevent the misapprehension as to the Unity of the Godhead;
this is omitted here, (3) the execution of punishment is in
Chag. attributed to a plurality of angels, not further defined,
here the angel ‘Anaphiel, known from ch. vi. i and allied
traditions (see on ch. x. 3) as having occupied a position
above Metatron, is used for this purpose. (A: ”Aniyyel’.)

(1) At first I was sitting upon a great Throne at the door of the
Seventh Hall. Cf. ch. X. 1-3. THE OPENING GIVES THE
IMPRESSION THAT THE CH. IS AN INDEPENDENT FRAGMENT.
INDEED VS. I REPEATS THE DETAILS OF CHH. X, XLVIII C 8, 9,
WITH THE EXPLICIT ADDITION THAT THE DISTINCTIONS IN
QUESTION, CONFERRED UPON METATRON, WERE ONLY
TEMPORARY (‘AT FIRST’, ‘IN THE BEGINNING’). The role here
assigned to Metatron is markedly primarily the rulership over
the princes of kingdoms. Over these he presides in the
Celestial Court, passing judgement upon the heavenly
household but also as conferring upon them their authority and
emblems of rulership: again a trait of the Prince of the World
conception, presiding in the Celestial Court or council.
Metatron is depicted in a position similar to that of God
presiding in the Celestial Beth Din in chh. xxviii c 7-9, xxx.
The conception is implied in ch. x and ch. xlviii C 8, 9.
Metatron’s presidency in his yeshiba is apparently pictured
after the pattern of God’s presidency in the highest Beth Din,
and naturally so, Metatron being God’s representative and vice-regent, by authority of the Holy One,
blessed be He. It is
emphasized that Metatron’s presidency in the yeshiba and his
rulership are derived from ‘his King’.

(2) when Acher came to behold the vision of the Merkaba.
Acher, as Elisha ben Abuya was called after his ‘fall’, is a wellknown
figure of Rabbinic (in modern time characterized as ‘the
Faust of the Talmud’): see, besides Chag. 15 a and Yer. Chag.
77 b, Rut. R. vi, Eccl. R. to vii. 8, 26 (P. Aboth, iv. 25),
further Graetz, Gnostizismus u. jfudentum, pp. 62-71, Chains,
v. 66-72, Smolenskin in Hash- Shachar, v. 66-72,
Steinschneider, Elisha ben Abuya, Bacher in Agada der
Tannaiten (R. Meir, etc.) came to behold the vision of
Merkaba: acc. to the Talmud-passages he was one of the four
who ‘entered Paradise’ in their lifetime, an expression
evidently denoting mystical experiences and speculations on
the ‘Ma’ase Merkaba’, here he is simply denoted as one of
those who beheld the vision of the Merkaba (as R. Ishmael, ch.
i. i seq.).

(3) Indeed, there are two Divine Powers in heaven (cf. Chag.
15 a: “are there, God forbid, two Divine Powers?”). Acher is
described as giving vent to the most abominable heretic view,
that denying the absolute Unity of the Godhead. The Talmudic
tradition emphasizes Acher’s aberration into heresy, and also,
as it seems, that his heresy was caused by his mystical
speculations. Acher, after having entered Paradise ‘cut the
plantations’, i.e., probably, seduced scholars from the right
faith. (Cf. also the Tosaphists ad locum, Chag. 15 a).
(4) Bath Qol went forth… and said: “Return, ye backsliding
children, except Acher!’ (identical with Chag. 15 a). Acher was
to be excluded from the opportunity of forgiveness through
repentance, offered to all other children of God.
(5) Then came ‘Anaphiel (BDL) H etc. Cf. ch. vi. i and on ch.
x. 3. The chapter accepts the tradition acc. to which ‘Anaphiel
is assigned a position higher than that of Metatron. Hes given
six epithets, exactly as in Hek. R. xxii. i. In Chag. 153 the
executors of the punishment are not defined (“they brought
out Metatron and struck him… “). Cf. introd. of notes on the
present chapter. For the punishment of angels with lashes of
fire cf. Yoma, 77 a (Gabriel), made me stand on my feet, i.e.
Metatron was deprived of his privilege of sitting on a throne.

Tosaf. Chag, 15 a, explains:
:להודיע לו שלא היה לו יכולת יתר מאחרים

Note. The position of ch. xvi within the present ‘Enoch-
Metatron piece’ of the Hebrew Book of Enoch is discussed in
the Introduction, section 8 (v).

THE ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION. (Chapters 17, 22, 25,
and 28.)

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 17.

(1) Chh. xvii-xxi om. by B. Extant in D and A only. Cf. ch.
xv. 10, ch. xvi. i.
(2) D om.
(3) Db om.
(4) Db: Shataqiel’
(5) D: ‘Baradiel ‘
(6) D: ‘Baraqiel’
(7) D om.
(8) D: ‘SidrieP
(9) ins. with D. A om.
(10) D: ‘Galgiel’
(11) so D. A’, ‘bring down’
(12) D adds: ‘365,000 parasangs every day’
(13)3 so with D). A corr.
(14) D:’68’
(15) D om.
(16) so D. A:’bring down’

THE ANGELOLOGICAL SECTION: chh. xvii-xxii, xxv-xxviii. 6.
With the present chapter begins a section treating exclusively
of the different angels, princes and orders of angels which may
conveniently be called ‘the angelological section’. It comprises
chh. xvii-xxii, xxv-xxviii. 6, containing at least THREE
DIFFERENT EXPOSITIONS : ch. xvii (A 2), ch. xviii (A 3) and
chh. xix-xxii, xxv-xxviii. 6 (A i). On the angelology of this
section, see Introduction, section 13 (i A, B, c).
Chapter 17 presents an angelological system from the highest
to the lower orders. The highest are the seven princes over
the seven heavens, i.e. the seven archangels. Next to these
come the princes appointed over the heavenly bodies, four in
number. Each of these princes have under them myriads of
angels.

(1) seven are the princes… who are appointed over the seven
heavens… Mikael etc. It is noticeable that order and forms of
the names of the princes of the seven heavens, the
archangels, are not identical with those of vs. 3. Besides, the
readings of A and D differ. In fact, great uncertainty seems to
have prevailed from the very earliest as to the names of the
seven archangels. No two sources extant, from i En. xx to
mediaeval Qabbala, present exactly the same order and
names of these angels. Cf. further on vs. 3.

(2) each one of them is accompanied by 496,000 myriads of
ministering angels. The number 496,000 (myriads) generally
refers to the ministering angels as performers of the
Qedushsha (cf. chh. xxxv. i, xl. 3). 496 is the numerical
value of Malkut (Kingdom): the song-uttering angels proclaim
God’s sovereignty, ‘take upon themselves the yoke of the
Kingdom of heaven’ (ch. xxxv. 6). The hosts of song-uttering
angels are usually depicted as under the authority, not of the
seven archangels ‘princes of the host’ but of the four ‘princes
of the army’ (ch. xxxv. 3), ‘the four presences’ (i En. xxxix f.,
see on xviii. 4): MIKAEL, GABRIEL, ‘URIEL (Nuriel) and
RAPHAEL. The conception of the four presences is closely
connected with that of the seven archangels. Each one of
them is the prince of the host of one heaven.

(3) Mikael… is appointed over the seventh heaven, Gabriel, the
prince of the host, is appointed over the sixth heaven etc. The
expression ‘princes of the hosts’ is used of Mikael and Gabriel
in Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 48. Metatron is called ‘one of the
princes of the host’ in Shi’ur Qoma (Bodl. MICH. 175, fol. 18
b). The term is probably derived from Josh. v. 14 (“the
captain of the host of the Lord”, “the prince of the host of
YHWH”) which is referred either to Metatron or to Mikael or to
Gabriel (cf. Siuni, 53 b-d). The idea of the multitudes of
angels as divided in hosts, distributed through the seven
heavens underlies ch. xviii. i (cf. also ch. xiv. i). The
tendency of arranging the orders of the angels according to
the system of the seven heavens appears already in the
Pseudepigrapha, although the traditions are somewhat
confused. Test. Levi, iii. assigns different classes of angels to
each of the seven heavens (1st heaven: “the spirits of the
retributions for the vengeance”; and heaven:
“the hosts of the armies which are ordained for the day of
judgement”; 3rd heaven: acc. to rec. 3 (βAβS) = 2nd heaven
(a); 4th heaven: “thrones and dominions in which always they
offer praise to God”; 5th: “angels who bear answers (prayers)
to the angels of the presence”; 6th:

“the archangels who
minister and make propitiation to the Lord”; 7th: “the Glory of
God and the angels of the Presence” (βAβS).) See CHARLES, A
and P, ad loc. acc. to 2 En. iii-ix, to the first heaven are
located the rulers of the stars and the angels set over the
treasuries of ice, snow, clouds, etc., to the 4th the sun and
moon and the angels over them together with “an armed host
of angels praising God”, to the 5th the Grigori (Watchers), to
the 6th “seven bands of angels… who make the orders and
learn the goings of the stars and the alteration of the moon
and the revolution of the sun… (who are) appointed over
seasons and years etc.”, to the 7th “fiery troops of great
archangels etc.” In 3 Bar. the angels attending the sun, moon
(and the stars ch. ix. i) are assigned to the 3rd heaven, in the
5th heaven (ib. xi. i seqq.) is Mikael “who holds the keys of
the Kingdom of Heaven”. In Ascension of Isaiah similarly the
seven heavens are depicted as containing different hosts of
angels, each surpassing the lower one in glory. (Vide
CHARLES, Asc. Is. in T.E.D.)

The seven archangels (holy angels who watch) are enumerated
in the well-known passage, ch. xx of i En., together with the
dominions of their rulership: Uriel, Raphael, Ragnel, Mikael, Saraqael, Gabriel, Remiel. In none of
the adduced passages
the present conception of the archangels as rulers each over
one of the seven heavens, is developed: the archangels are
generally assigned to a specified heaven (the 6th or 7th, cf. the
references to Test. Levi and 2 En. above). Parallels to the
present picture are, however, found in Pirqe R. Ishmael (Bodl.
MICH. 175, foil. 20 seqq.), ch. xxi cont. and Hek. Zot. (Bodl.
MICH. 9, foil. 67 b, 68 a), although with different names and
order. In the former passage, which is closely dependent upon
the representation of Chag. 12 b, the names of the princes of
the respective heavens are: Wilon-QEMUEL (and the angels of
destruction, cf. Test. Levi above and Gedullat Moshe), Raqia’-
Gallisur, Shechaqim-SHAPHiEL, Zebul-MiKAEL (in accordance
with Chag. 12 b), .Ma’on-GABRiEL, Makon-SANDALFON,
‘Araboth-no name given. In Hek. Zot. the seven angels
“praising the Holy One, blessed be He, in each heaven” are:
1st heaven, MIKAEL; 2nd, GABRIEL; 3rd, SODIEL; 4th,
‘AKATRIEL; 5th, RAPHAEL; 6th, BODIEL; 7th, YOMAEL. A trace
of the tradition locating the archangels, each to one of the
seven heavens, is perhaps recognizable also in Test, of
Solomon, vss. 59 seqq. (ed. Conybeare, JQR. vol. xi. 1-45),
“RAPHAEL… BAZAZATH who has his seat in the second
heaven… RATHANAEL who sits in the third heaven… IAMETH…
“.

The close connection with the rulers of the heavenly bodies in
which the archangels as princes of the seven heavens are
represented in the present chapter is perhaps indicative of the
range of ideas from which the conception has emerged: the
planetary or sideric speculations. The important role played by
these speculations is discernible also in the pseudepigraphal
passages referred to above. It is possible, that the idea of the
seven archangels as rulers over the seven heavens was
brought about through the conception of the heavens as
planetary spheres, the archangels being originally the princes
of the seven planets. The conception of the seven heavens as
planetary spheres is attested in 2 En. xxviii. 3: “the seven
stars, each one of them in its heaven”. Cf. YR. i. 15 b, 16 b.
This idea was probably obscured by the parallel tendency of
assigning the heavenly bodies to a definite heaven, a tendency
at work in the pseudepigraphal works in question and in its
final form represented in the tradition locating the sun, moon,
planets and constellations to Raqia’, the 2nd heaven (in
Rabbinic, Chag. 12 b et al. and throughout the present book).
The tradition of the seven archangels with their suites as rulers
over the planets (including dominion over constellations and elements) might be traced in the
representation of 2 En. xix,
acc.

to which seven bands of angels “make the orders and
learn the goings of the stars”; cf. above. This conception
obtains in later sources: YR. i. 6 a: “MIKAEL is appointed over
Saturn, BARAQIEL over Jupiter, GABRIEL over Mars, RAPHAEL
over the sun, CHASDIEL over Mercury, SIDQIEL over Venus,
‘ANA’EL over the Moon”, ib. i. 16 a: “Mikael: the Sun, Gabriel:
the Moon, Qaphsiel: Saturn, Sammael: Mars, Raphael: Jupiter,
‘Ana’el: Venus”. A trace of the same idea is possibly to be
seen in vss. 35-41 of Testament of Solomon; seven archangels
rule over and frustrate the seven demons connected with ‘the
seven stars’ (the seven planets or the Pleiades, cf.
Conybeare’s note in locum). Of these seven high angels six
are named: LAMECHALAL, BARUCHIACHEL, MARMARATH
(Marmaraoth, vs. 94), BALTHIEL, ASTERAOTH, URIEL. Uriel is
the angel set over the stars acc. to i En. Ixxii-lxxxii. In i En. xx
Raguel is “one of the holy angels who takes vengeance on the
world of luminaries”.

As regards the names of the seven archangels it has already
been pointed out that all the different sources vary on this
point. To the passages given above may be added Test.
Salomon, vss. 73-81 : the names are there: MIKAEL, GABRIEL,
URIEL, SABRAEL, ARAEL, IAOTH, ADONAEL. From the different
enumerations can be seen that the names most frequently
recurring are those of the ‘four presences’, “Mikael, Gabriel,
Raphael and Uriel”, and of these Mikael and Gabriel are
common to most of the sources. (Cf. how i En. Ixxxvii. 2, 3
clearly represents the seven archangels as consisting of four,
i.e. Presences and three with them.) Of the rest some are
evidently derived from the old lists of superior angels, of which
parts are preserved e.g. in i En. vi, viii, Ixix (as Watchers,
Fallen Angels), Ixxxii. 10-20 (leaders of the stars, rulers of
seasons and months). Baraqiel (D) here is the Baraqijal of i En.
vi, Baraqel, ib. Ixix. 2. Cf. Barakiel (A) with Berkael i En.
Ixxxii. 17, Badariel (A) with Batael i En. vi. 7, Batarjal ib. Ixix.
2. The names are older than the conception of the seven
archangels. But it is significant that such names are chosen as
originally represent the angels ruling over the heavenly bodies
and over the elementary powers, in Wilon which is in
Shamayim, ‘which is in Shamayim’ is a gloss. ‘Shamayim’ is
the Hebrew synonym of Wilon (velum) as name of the first
heaven.

(4-7) Under them are Galgalliel … ‘Ophanniel … Rahatiel …
Kokbiel, with subservient angels. The heavenly bodies are divided in the four categories of sun,
moon, planets and
constellations as in Chag. 12 b, and, as there, are assigned to
the second heaven, the Raqia’. Each of these four categories
is assigned a special prince, who is accompanied by a number
of assistant angels. In the present system these princes and
angels are made to rank under the seven archangels as
princes of the seven heavens. As has already been pointed
out, it is highly probable, that the original representation was
one of the seven archangels as princes each over one of the
seven spheres as containing the planets with constellations.
The present systematization can be regarded as a modification
of this original view to the established notion of the Raqia’, the
second heaven, as the place of the heavenly bodies. The
names of the princes, GALGALLIEL, ‘OPHANNIEL, RAHATIEL,
KOKBIEL are uniform with those of ch. xiv. 4. Rahatiel also
occurs in ch. xlvi. 3 in a similar function.

‘Ophanniel is the
prince of the ‘Ophannim, ch. xxv. The names Galgalliel,
‘Ophanniel and Kokbiel are derived from Galgal (globe, i.e. of
the sun), Ophan (globe, i.e. of the moon) and Kokab (planet)
respectively. Rahatiel is, acc. to the intimation of vs. 6,
derived from rahat (to run). In TB. Ber. 32 b, Rahaton is the
technical term for divisions of angels who have immediate rule
over the stars and planets. Rahatiel is the prince over planets
and constellations or luminaries in general acc. to 5. Raziel, 19
b, 21 b (cf. also Qeneh Binah, 34 b, and S. ha-Chesheq, Add.
27120, fol. 14 b). Galgalliel and ‘Ophanniel seem to be
comparatively late devices. Kokbiel is of early origin, cf.
Kokabiel, i En. vi. 7, Kokabel, ib. viii. 3 (who “taught
constellations”), Ixix. 2.

For the conception of angels who ‘move the heavenly bodies’
cf. i En. Ixxii- Ixxxii (“the Book of the Heavenly Luminaries”:
CHARLES), URIEL being there the prince over the heavenly
bodies; Ixxii. 3 (“the leaders of the stars”), Ixxv. i (“the
leaders of the heads of the thousands who are placed over the
whole creation and over all the stars”), Ixxix, Ixxx. I (“the
leaders of the stars of the heaven and all those who turn
them”), 6 (“chiefs of the stars”), Ixxxii. 4 and esp. 10-20 (the
names of the leaders of the stars), 4 Ez. vi. 3, 2 En. xi. 3-5
(15 myriads of angels attend the sun during the day, and 1000
by night), Midrash ‘Asereth Ma’amaroth, BH. i. 64 (“365
angels are set over the sun, moving it from window to window
in Raqia’ “), 3 Bar. vi. I seqq. (the chariot of the sun drawn by
forty angels), vss. 13,16 (“for the sun is made ready by the
angels”), ib. vii. 4 (“I saw the shining sun and the angels
which draw it”), ix. i seqq. (the moon sitting on a wheeled chariot: “and there were before it oxen
and lambs and a
multitude of angels… the oxen and lambs… they also are
angels”).

The derivation of the numbers ninety-six and eightyeight
in vss. 4 and 5 resp. is not clear. The number seventytwo
of the angels assisting RAHATIEL, the prince of the
constellations, corresponds to the seventytwo divisions of the
zodiac (cf. the seventy-two princes of kingdoms, vs. 8, etc.).
KOKBIEL again, vs. 7, is assisted by 365,000 myriads of
ministering angels. Literally the same statement is made
about KOKBIEL in S. Raziel, 19 b. These angels “move the
planets (kokabim)”. It is noteworthy, that acc. to TB.Ber. 32 b,
referred to above, the different camps (of angels), in the last
instance sorting under the constellations, have each under
them “365,000 myriads of planets (kokabim) corresponding to
the days of the sun (i.e. the solar year)”. The latter parts of
vss. 5 and 6 are somewhat obscure. They might be remnants
of expositions of the courses of the heavenly bodies, such as
are given at length in i En. Ixxii-lxxxii (the ‘portals of the
sun’) ; ch. Ixxii, the moon; ch. Ixxiv, the portals of sun, moon,
stars and all the works of heaven; ch. Ixxv. 6 seqq., cf. ch.
Ixxviii. 7 seq, “and fifteen parts of light are transferred to the
moon till the fifteenth day (when) her light is accomplished (vs.
5 here)”. The conception of the ‘tent’ for the sun, etc., is
usually referred to Ps. xix. 5 (and 7).

(8) over them are seventy-two princes of kingdoms …lit.
‘above them etc.’ It is difficult to reconcile this vs. with the
preceding. To whom does ‘above them’ refer? To the 365,000
myriads of angels of vs. 7 or to the princes and angels of the
heavenly bodies in general? No doubt, as the context now
stands, the seventy-two princes of kingdoms are intended as
princes over the angels who ‘move the planets’, by analogy
with the seventy-two assistant angels of vs. 6. This would
seem to be additional, since the real counterpart of the
assistant angels of vss. 4, 5, 6 are in vs. 7, the 365,000
myriads of angels. The expression ‘above them’ is not
appropriate in the sense which it is here made to denote, the
right phrase would have been e.g. ‘over them are appointed’ (
ועליהם ממונימ ). The inception ‘above them’ rather
presupposes an exposition of the order of angelic classes,
proceeding from the lower to the higher ones, hence quite
contrary to that of the present chapter. The fragment is more
akin to the angelological section, chh. xix seqq., to which it
may even originally have belonged, since the beginning of that
section is missing in the present book. See note on ch. xix. i. By the compiler of the present
chapter the seventy-two princes

of kingdoms are made the riders over the planets. The
conception of the princes of kingdoms as rulers of planets and
constellations is frequently represented in later sources. Their
appellation properly refers to their function as angelic leaders
of the destinies of the nations, as representatives in heaven of
the kingdoms on earth. As such their number is usually given
as seventy (corresponding to the number of nations (tongues)
of the world, enumerated Gen. x). The idea of heavenly
guardians of the nations occurs in Dan. x. 20, 21, and is fully
developed in Sir. xvii. 17, I En. Ixxxix. 59 seqq. (in the
metaphor of the seventy shepherds), Targ. Yer. to Gen. xi. 7,
8, TB. Yoma, 77 a, Sukka, 29 a, Gen. R. Ixviii, Ixxvii, Ex. R.
xxi, Lev. R. xxix, P. R. ‘El. xxiv. They plead the cause of
their resp. nations before God, each suffers punishment with
the nation under his protection, they form the celestial Beth
Din etc. For this range of ideas see chh. xxx. 1,2, xlviii c 9
and note on xxx. 2.

The leader of the princes of kingdoms is
acc. to Midr. Abkir, Yalq. on Gen. no. 132, Targ. Ps. xxxvii.
7, 8, MIKAEL, prince of Israel; acc. to ch. xxx here, the Prince
of the World; and acc. to the Enoch-Metatron sections of the
present book, Metatron (chh. x. 3, xiv. i, xvi. i, 2, xlviii c 9,
cf. also xlviii D 5). In their aspect of leaders of the Gentile
nations they were sometimes regarded as evil agencies (so
already i En. Ixxxix. 65, 69, xc. 17, 22, 23, 25), and as their
chief was then named SAMMAEL, the prince of Rome (cf. chh.
xiv. 2, xxvi. 12). When associated with the idea of the
planets and constellations as determining or ruling the
destinies of the nations, it was only natural that the conception
should develop into that of the princes of kingdoms as riders
over the heavenly bodies just as the Prince of the World was
made the ruler of planets and constellations (cf. ch. xxxviii.
3). This development may have begun at an early time.

The seventy shepherds are already in i En. connected with the
rulers of the world, the Watchers or Fallen Angels who,
symbolized by stars, are judged together with the seventy
shepherds acc. to I En. xc. 24. (On the identification of the
princes of kingdoms with the Watchers see note on ch. xxix
intr.) For the Watchers as rulers of elements, constellations,
planets, etc., see i En. vi-viii, Ixix, note on vs. 3 above and on
ch. xiv. 3, 4. The connection of the ‘gods of the nations’ with
the planets is perhaps to be seen also in TB. Sukka, 29 a. acc.
to Ma’areket ha-‘Elohuth, 128 b, “the nations are allotted to the
Princes and Constellations”. YR., i. 15 a, gives the following
quotation from Tub-ha-‘Ares: “In the seven firmaments
(heavens), under them, are the seven planets … (Shesem Chanokol: Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Sun,
Venus, Mercury and Moon) and in these seven heavens are the Spirits of the
seventy nations, ten nations under each planet, and the twelve
constellations give abundance unto them”.

Probably under the influence of their sideric significance the
number of the princes of kingdoms was changed from seventy
to seventy-two (the number of the divisions of the zodiac). In
the present book they are mentioned as seventy-two in chh.
xviii. 3, xxx. 2 and here. Ch. xlviii c 9, on the other hand, has
‘seventy princes’. Cf. note on ch. xxx. 2 and also on ch. xlviii
B i . The two princes added were later understood as MIKAEL
and GABRIEL or as MIKAEL and SAMMAEL. acc. to YR., i. 18 a,
MIKAEL is the Prince of Israel and GABRIEL the Prince of all the
nations of the world. A curious effect of the alteration of
seventy into seventy-two is the gloss in the present verse :
corresponding to the 72 tongues of the world, which is of
course a mis-emendation of the regular expression
“corresponding to the 70 tongues of the world”.
all of them are crowned with royal crowns etc., to designate
them as rulers. Cf. notes on chh. xii. 3, xviii. i.

when he is travelling in Raqia’. This seems to indicate that the
princes of kingdoms were assigned to the second heaven, the
region of the heavenly bodies and thus would tend to show,
that the fragment itself, apart from the context, designates the
princes of kingdoms as sideric rulers. Usually the princes of
kingdoms are represented as being in the highest of the
heavens, by the Throne of Glory: chh. xvi. i, 2, xxx. i, 2. acc.
to ch. xviii. 3, being in rank above the princes of the heavens,
but below the guardians of the Halls, they are probably
conceived of as having their abode in the highest of the
heavens, but outside the Halls. acc. to the passage quoted
YR., i. 15 a, referred to above, each of the seven heavens
would contain a number of these princes. This is stated also in
Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, BH. iii. 36 (“then come all the princes of
kingdoms in every heaven”). Passages in the present book
mentioning the ‘princes of kingdoms’ are chh.: x. 3, xiv. i, 2,
xvi. i, 2, xvii. 8, xviii. 2, 3, xxx. 2, xlviii c 9, D 5 ; cf. also ch.
xxvi. 12.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 18.

(1) D: ‘And the prince of the fifth heaven from before the
prince of the sixth and the prince of the sixth heaven before
the prince of the seventh heaven’
(2) D inserts as title: ‘The Order of the Halls’.
(3) simplifies: ‘And the door keepers of the first Hall before the
door keepers of the second Hall, and the door keepers of the
second Hall before (those of) the third, and the door keepers of
the third Hall before those of the fourth etc.’
(4) in aramaic.
(5) in aramaic.
(6) D: ”Ataphiel’
(7) so acc. to the full reading of D. A טטרסיאל : D adds ‘ ‘ייי
after the name.
(8) D: ‘ATRUGNIEL ‘ ‘ייי
(9) D om.
(10) D adds ‘ ייי ‘ after the name.
(11) D: ‘Ta’raphiel’
(12) D: ‘Ashruyli tit’
(13) D: ‘who is the head [over] all the students on high’
(14) D: ‘the secret of the crown of the Law, the crown of
Holiness, the crown of Kingship’
(15) D om.

(16) D: ‘he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls
on his face. And ‘Anaphiel, the prince, he is appointed to keep
the keys of the Halls of ‘Araboth Raqia”
(17) so D. A om., probably taking ענפ as a verb, thus giving
the meaning:’ Because his honour etc. (overbranch)
overshadow all the chambers etc.’
(18) so D. A: ‘Sother and Ashiel’
(19) A ins.: ‘from the beginning’
(20) so D. A: ‘ the four fiery rivers ‘ (corrupt for ‘ the four
heads of the fiery river’?)
(21) so D. A om.
(22) so D. A om.
(23) D: ‘Shaqadhozii vis’
(24) A om.
(25) D :’ thus’
(26) D om.
(27) D: ‘Zehaphfaryi’
(28) D: ‘thus’
(29) so Da. A : ‘ because he is girded etc.’
(30) so D. A:’ the angels, the princes’
(31) in D this is transferred after ‘he writes him in the books of
the dead’ vs. 24.
(32) D ins. ‘is not written here, but “and all the host of
heaven'”
(33) D ins. ‘the one’s splendour is like the splendour of the
Throne of Glory and the other’s splendour is like that of the
Throne of Glory’
(34) D: ‘3000 parasangs’. This is perhaps a better reading. It
is more natural, that the style should not have the same length
as the whole scroll.
Angelological system A3 (see Introduction, section 13 (i c)).
This chapter (extant in D and A only) introduces an
independent exposition of the angelic hierarchy. The point of
connection with the preceding chapter is the mention of the
princes of the seven heavens. In ch. xvii, however, these
‘princes of the seven heavens’ are regarded as constituting the
highest rank of angels. That this is so is clear from the facts
that the princes of the seventh and sixth heavens are
identified with Mikael and Gabriel resp. and that they occur at
the head of a classification which is arranged in an order
beginning from the highest.

In the present chapter, on the
contrary, the princes of the heavens form the lowest class of
angels in an enumeration from the lowest to the highest.
A peculiarity of this chapter which separates it in character
from both ch. xvii and the rest of the angelological section is
the monotonous repetition of the words ‘ when X see(s) X he
(they) remove(s) the crown… from his (their) head and fall(s)
etc.’ the technical means by which the inferiority of one rank of
angels or one angelprince to the subsequently mentioned is
indicated.

Another characteristic feature of this chapter are the abstruse
forms of the names of most of the angels as compared with
those of the other parts of the book, where the names are
formed from the functions assigned to the angels. Here the
derivations are obscure. It is noteworthy that most of the
names are found in Hek. R., to which this chapter even
otherwise seems to be related e.g. by the conception of ‘the
watchers of the doors of the Halls’ (vs. 3), the common
derivation of ‘ANAPHIEL (vs. 19) etc. Though several of these
angel-names are not registered by Schwab, VA, and a couple
of them are áπαξλεγóμενα as far as printed books are
concerned, they are preserved in many prayers, magical
formulas, etc., extant in MSS. References are given below at
each name.

(1) The angels of the first heaven… the prince of the first
heaven… second heaven etc. On the seven heavens see note
on ch. xvii. 3. The princes, sarim, of the several heavens are
pictured as having each one his suite of angels. They are
mounted on horses (cf. Mass. Hek. iv and Hek. R. xvii seqq.)
and pay homage one to the other when meeting. Unlike ch.
xvii the present chapter mentions no names of these princes.
That is to say, that the tradition embodied here probably
knows no names of the ‘princes of the heavens’.

Consequently, in the view of this tradition, the heavens and
their rulers form a comparatively low and unimportant part of
the heavenly splendours, whereas the author of ch. xvii
presumably sees all the glory of the Divine Court contained
within the seven heavens. Crown of glory is the mark of
distinction common to all the angels and princes in this
chapter with the exception of the seventy-two princes of
kingdoms (vs. 3) and the two highest princes acc. to vs. 25 ,
to whom is assigned the ‘crown of royalty’. Crowns are in the
Talmudic-Midrashic literature as well as in the Apocalyptic
attributed to (a) God himself: TB. Chag. 1 3 b, Ber. 7 a, Ex.R.
xxi ; (b) the righteous in the world to come: TB. Ber. 17 a, b,
Lev. R. xx, Test. Benj. iv. 2, Asc. Is. vii. 22, viii. 26, ix. 10;
(c) angels: chh. xvi. 2, xl. Cf. ch. xii. 3. For the removing of
the crown(s) as token of homage cf. Rev. iv. 4, 10. An exact
parallel of expression is found in Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, rec. B, BH,
iii. p. 61.

(2) The seventy-two princes of kingdoms. They are the
representatives in heaven of the different kingdoms on earth,
but are also connected with the planets and constellations.
Concerning them cf. notes on chh. xvii. 8 and xxx. i, 2. In
ch. xxx they are supplemented by a leader, ‘the Prince of the
World’ (cf. TB. Yeb. 16 b, Chull. 60 a, Sank. 94 a). Their
number varies between seventy and seventy-two: i En. Ixxxix.
59, P. R. ‘El. xxiv, TB. Sukka, 29 a. It is possible that the
number seventy-two originated from the addition to the
seventy princes of Mikael and Sammael (or Mikael and Gabriel)
as their rulers. Mikael is the representative of Israel and
Sammael of Rome and thereby the chief of all the Gentile
nations. More probable is, however, that the number seventytwo
is arrived at from astrological considerations. See note on
ch. xvii. 8. Peculiar to this chapter is their position between
the prince of the seventh heaven and the door-keepers of the
Halls, their abode being usually near the Throne of Glory (ch.
xxx, Pesiqtha, xxvii, TB. Sukka, 29 a). In ch. xvii, again, they
have their place in the second heaven (Raqia’) and are in rank
under not only the princes of the heavens but also the princes
of the sun, moon and constellations. (Cf. however note on ch.
xvii. 8.)

(3) The door keepers of the first Hall in the ‘Araboth Raqia’.
The seven Halls or Palaces are situated in the highest of the
seven heavens, the ‘Araboth Raqia’, and are pictured as
arranged in concentric circles, ‘one within the other’ (ch. i. i).
The conception of the seven Halls which plays so conspicuous
a role in Hek. R. is in the present book quite outside the
centre of interest. Cf. chh. i. i, x. 2, xvi. i, xxxvii. i, xxxviii.
i, xlviii c 8. The door keepers of the Halls are in this chapter
without names and definite number. In these respects it
differs from Hek. R. xv, where each Hall is said to be guarded
by eight angels, of which the names are given (chh. xv, xvii et
seq.). Of these names which comprise the door keepers of the
first six Halls two, viz. GeBURaTiEL and ‘ANaPHiEL, recur later
in the present chapter (vss. 14 and 19) as names of higher
angels. Mass. Hek. iv, agreeing with Hek. R., gives the
number of the door keepers of each Hall as eight.

Names of
the chiefs of the door keepers of the Halls are found in Pirqe R.
‘Ishm. xx (Bodl. MICH. 175, foil. 20 3-26 a), although
different from those of Hek. R. As chief of the guardians of the
fourth Hall occurs saGNesagiEL of vs. 11 here. Cf. Zohar, i.
41 a and ii. 245 a-268 b. The functions of the door keepers of
the Halls are the guarding of the entrance to the Halls
generally and especially the control of the admittance of the
aspirants to the vision of the Merhaba, so that nobody may
enter who is not ‘worthy’ (‘rā’ūy’) acc. to Hek. R. (cf. ch. xvii
e.a.). This is probably implied also in ch. i. 3, where . Ishmael
begs God to protect him against the zeal of Qaspiel (or
Qafsiel), an angel-prince who in this connection, no doubt, is to
be considered as (one of) the guardian(s) of the door of the
seventh Hall (cf. ib. vs. 2; Zohar, ii. 248 b).

(4) The four great princes… who are appointed over the four
camps of Shekina. In ch. xxxvii the four camps of Shekina are
mentioned together with ‘the four chariots of Shekina’. In ch.
xxxvall the myriads of camps of angels are said to be arranged
in four rows, at the head of each row there being ‘a prince of
the army’. Probably ‘the four great princes’ here are to be
understood as identical with the princes of the army in ch.
xxxv. 3. In this case the camps of Shekina are the four
companies of ministering angels arranged by the Throne of
Glory, especially in their aspect as performers of Qedushsha.
In other writings ‘the four camps of Shekina’ is not an
infrequent term and in later cabbalistic traditions a
considerable amount of speculation centres round this
conception. (Cf. here esp. Zohar, iii. 50 a: (ד משריין
Now one generally finds that the ‘princes of the camps of
Shekina’ are named as Mikael, Gabriel, Uriel (more seldom:
Nuriel) and Raphael. Cf. Mass. Hek. vi: “four companies of
ministering angels praise before the Lord; the first camp under
Mikael to the right, the second camp under Gabriel to the left,
the third under Uriel before Him and the fourth under Raphael
from behind”, and it is added “the Shekina is in the middle”.
Acc. to Ma’ase Merkaba (Add. 26922) ‘the princes of the four
camps of Shekina ‘ are: Mikael, Gabriel, Uriel and Raphael,
standing to the right, to the left, in front of and behind the
Throne of Glory resp.

In P. R. ‘EL iv the four angels Mikael, Uriel, Gabriel and
Raphael stand by the Throne of Glory as leaders of four camps
of angels glorifying the Most High. A similar picture is drawn
by the Widduy Yaphe (Add. 15299, fol. 113 b).
The ‘three men’ visiting Abraham, Gen. xviii. 2 seqq. are in
Sinni ad loc. once identified with the angels Mikael, Gabriel
and Raphael, and again with Raphael, Uriel and Gabriel, “who
are the camp of Shekina” .

The conception of the four princes in charge of the ‘ uttering of
the Song ‘ before the Holy One, is traceable as far back as i En.
chh. xxxix. 12, 13 and xl, Ixxi, ix. i, where there are
mentioned “FOUR PRESENCES ON THE FOUR SIDES OF THE
LORD OF SPIRITS… uttering praises before the Lord of Glory”.
Their names are here: Mikael, Raphael, Gabriel and Phanuel.
See also 2 En. xviii. 9, and CHARLES, i En. note on xl. 2.
Towards the formation of the idea of ‘ four princes of the four
camps of Shekina’, speculations on the “four living creatures”
of Ezek. i. 5, 10, and the traditions of the four princes Mikael,
Gabriel, Raphael and Uriel have, presumably, combined. In
later cabbalistic sources one actually finds that the ‘four camps
of Shekina’ are referred to the ‘Eagle-Ox-Lion-Man’ vision, e.g.
YR. i. 80 a (Meg. ‘Amuq.).

Instances of other developments of the conception of ‘the
camps of Shekina’: the four camps of Shekina are imaged by
the arrangement of the “armies of Israel”, Nu. i. 3, acc. to
Bachya (ad loc.); they surround the Shekina or “the body of
Shekina” which is the same as the “Greater Metatron”, but are
above the Lesser Metatron who stands on the heads of the
living creatures, the Chayyoth (YR. i. 57 a) ; “in the camp of
Shekina are Metatron, Sandalphon, Uriel, Raphael, Mikael,
Gabriel” (Shene Luchoth ha-Berith, cited by Derek ‘Emeth on
Zohar, i. 149 b).

(5)Tag’as. ( תגעץ ). Not included in Schwab, VA. The name
occurs in the prayer attributed to R. Hammma ben Sabha (Or.
6577, fol. 13 a, Add. 27187, fol. 67 b, Add. 27199, fol. 299
e.a.), and also in another, anonymous, prayer in Add. 15299,
fol. 104 b. In these cases it is a Divine name (really a double
temura) always followed by טעצש and letters of the
Tetragrammaton. The epithet ‘great and honoured prince (‘
שרא רבא ויקירא ) is the same as that given to Metatron in
the beginning of Shi’ur Qoma (Bodl. OPP. 467, fol. 58 a, opp.
563, fol. 52 b, S. Raziel). Cf. also in 5. Elijahu, beg….
:גלא ליה מ י כאל שרא רבא

This angel is said to be ‘honoured with song and praise’ and to
stand ‘at the head of all the children of heaven’. In view of the
functions commonly assigned to the ‘princes of the camps of
the Shekina’ of the preceding verse (see note above) these
expressions are probably to be understood as referring to the
performance of the ‘Thrice Holy’ and to the angels uttering the
Qedushsha. The function of the angel may be that of a
conductor of the song-uttering angels.
(6) Barattiel ( ברטטיאל ). Neither this nor the ‘Ataphiel of D is
included in Schwab, VA. Ataphiel is found in Hilk. Mal’akimLa,
fol. 117 b. of three fingers. Cf. Hilk. Mal’akim, ib: “‘Ataphiel
lifteth up the ‘Araboth Raqia’ on his fingers”. Also ch. xxxiii. 3
of the present book (‘the Holy Chayyoth bear the Throne of
Glory… each one with three fingers’). Does the attribute ‘of
three fingers’ here possibly stand in any connection with the
recital of the Thrice Holy?

(7) Hamon, המון (‘tumult’). The expression ‘makes the
children of heaven to tremble etc.’ probably means ‘announces
the arrival of the time appointed for the Qedushsha’. The
trembling and fear with which all the heavenly household is
seized at the moment before the recital of the Thrice Holy is
pictured e.g. in ch. xxxviii. For the attributes ‘fearful,
honoured, pleasant and terrible’ cf. the parallels of chh. xx. i,
xxii. i, xxv. i, xxvi. i. This method of heaping epithets after
the name of a high angel-prince is frequently employed in Hek.
R. The attributes were probably from the beginning intended
as marks of distinction, applied according to a certain system

to denote the resp. rank assigned to each prince. (Cf.also in
Mandaitic.)
(8) Tutresiel. See Schwab, VA, pp. 134, 136. The name is of
frequent occurrence, although in variant forms. Schwab
explains it as ‘διατορος El’, ‘piercing God’. Here and in
Midrash Sar Tora it is the name of an angel. Often it appears
as one of the names of the Godhead (Hek. R. xi. 2, xii, xiii,
xv) or of Metatron (Sefer ha Chesheq, foil. 4 b, 8 a). There are
many variants of the name, which are enumerated in Hek. R.
xii.

See also S. Raziel, 40 a, 43 b. The STUTRevaH of Zohar, ii.
245 b, 246 a, is perhaps also a variant (through transposition
of the letters) of the same name.
(9 and 10) Atrugiel or Atrugniel (D) not in Schwab, VA. It is to
be considered identical with the ‘Atrigiel’ of Hek. R. xxii. i and
3, the name of one of the door keepers of the seventh Hall.
The form Tagriel, ib. xv and xvii, is apparently also a variant.
Cf. the names l Atrigi(a)sh’ (cited from Hek. R. xxx) and
Atarniel in Schwab, VA, p. 51. Schwab derives the former
from τρογος, he-goat, goatbuck, the traditional symbol of a
demon (cf. sa’ir).

Na’aririel: i.e. Na’ar ‘El (Na’ar = Child, Youth, the name of
Metatron, ch. iii). Occurs in Hek. R. in the form of Na’aruriel
as the name of one of the door keepers of the seventh Hall (ch.
xxii, together with Atrugiel). The ‘ H’ forming the second part
of the name of this and the following princes stands for the
Tetragrammaton (like ‘ ייי ‘ in D). Cf. the expression ‘called by
the name of YHWH’, ch. ix. 3 and note, ad locum.
(11) Sasnigiel is one of the variants of ‘Sagnesagiel’ or
‘Segansagel”, in ch. xlviii. i, 2 appearing as the last of the
names of Metatron, with the epithet ‘the Prince of Wisdom’.
Probably derived from גנז (treasure), cf. גנזי חכמה . In the
Apocalyptic Fragment (e.g. BH. v. 167-169) likewise, it is the
name of “the prince of the Presence” who shows R. Ishmael the
future. Other forms are: SASNIEL: S. Raziel, 24 a, 41 a;
ZEGANZEGAEL: ib. 2 b, called “the Prince of the Tora”;
SANSAGGIEL: Schwab, VA, cf. the explanation given there;
ZANGEZIEL: Midrash Petirath Moshe; here he is introduced as
Moses’ teacher and, together with Mikael and Gabriel, fetching

Moses’ soul at the time of his death. He is also called “Prince
of the world” (probably identical with Metatron). In Pirqe R.
Ishmael, xx, he is the chieftain of the door keepers of the
fourth Hall. acc. to Berith Menucha, 37 a, he is one of the
Seraphim and is appointed over “the peace”.
(12) Zazriel, probably = ‘the Strength of God,’ ‘the strong God.’
Cf. the following names.
(13) Geburatiel = ‘the strength of God’. Cf. the preceding
verse. acc. to Hek. R. xv and xvii, he is one of the door
keepers of the fourth Hall. See Schwab, VA, p. 91.
(14) ‘Araphiel = ‘the neck of God’ (the neck is the symbol of
strength). acc. to Hek. R. xxi, he is one of the guardians of
the second Hall. See Schwab, ib. p. 217.
(15) ‘Ashruylu = ‘who causes to dwell’, ‘who causes to rest’,
soil, the disciples of Tora in the heavenly colleges, hence the
function here assigned to him : ‘presideth in all the sessions of
the children of heaven’. That the colleges on earth have their
counterparts in heaven is a common Rabbinic idea. Cf. the
somewhat different picture of Metatron’s function in ch. xlviii c
12.

In accordance with the present view is the epithet ‘prince of
Tora’ given to this angel in S. Raziel, 45 a. In Hek. R. xii,
‘Ashruylii’ is one of the twenty names of the Godhead; ib. xxx
(Sar Tora) it is the name of an angel-prince. Cf. the
interpretation, Schwab, VA, p. 77.
(16) Gallisur… who reveals all the secrets of the Law. The
name is of comparatively frequent occurrence. Pesiqta R. par.
xx, explains it as “he who reveals the reasons of the Creator”
(Sur, Is. xxvi. 4).
The same explanation of the name ‘Gallisur’ is repeated, with
the addition of some other details, in Ma’yan Chokma, BH. i.
60, in ‘Aggadath Shema’ Israel, BH. v. 165, also in . Raziel, 41
b, 42 a, 42 b, and P. R. ‘El. iv, further in citations in Siuni, 93
d, and YR. ii. 67 a. acc. to these sources he is identical with
the angel, called ‘Raster (= ‘the secret(s) of God’); he hears
the Divine decrees from behind the ‘Curtain’ (cf. ch. xlv. i)
and reveals them to the world; he stands next to the Chayyoth
and spreads his wings, so that the ministering angels shall not
be consumed by the fire that goes forth from the breath of the
Chayyoth. acc. to !?. Raziel, 42 b, he is one of the Princes of
the Law.

In Sefer ha-Yashar (“the book of the righteous”, Add. 15299,
fol. 91 a b) it is related, that the book in question “was given
to Adam by the hand of Gallisur”. (Note the similar narrative in
S. Raziel, 3 a, which is probably another version of S. ha-
Yashar, where the name of angel is Raziel.)
In a prayer in the same MS., fol. 144 a, he is invoked with the
‘kinnuyim’ (or supplementary names) of ‘Yephiphyah’ (cf. ch.
xlviii D 4) and Yophiel to give assistance in the study of the
Tora.
From these sources it appears that the traditions assigned to
him mainly two functions: revealer of the Divine Secrets and
Prince of the Law. These two functions are here, rightly,
comprised in the one “revealer of all the secrets of the Law”.
The Divine secrets are embodied in the Tora, constituting its
inner meaning, the technical term for which is “the secrets of
the Law”. (Cf. on chh. ix. i and xlviii D 7 et seqq.) As the
Prince of the Law he is here probably connected with the
Divine Judgement which in its different aspects is represented
in nearly all the following angel names; through the said
epithet he is also connected with the aforegoing ‘Ashruylu’.
(17) Zakzakiel, ‘Merit-God’, is the same both with regard to
name and function as ‘Zekukiel of S. Rasiel, 21 b: “the Prince
of the merits of Israel”.

(18) ‘Anaphiel, ‘the branch of God’. In ch. vi of the Enoch-
Metatron piece of the present book he is the angel who
removes Enoch to the heavens; ib. ch. xvi (ace. to the
reading of BD) he is the angel who gave Metatron sixty strokes
with lashes of fire. (Vide Introd. section 8 u, x, y).
Acc. to Hek. R. xv, xvii, he is one of the door keepers of the
fourth Hall. Ib. ch. xxii. 4, he is one of the guardians of the
seventh Hall. A similar, partly literally identical, explanation of
his name as in the second part of the present verse is given
there.

The expression ‘ who keeps the keys of the Halls of ‘Araboth
Raqia” is the only trace in this chapter of the connection of the
high angel-princes enumerated here with the guardianship of
the heavenly Halls, whereas all of them that recur in Hek. R.
are there guardians of one or the other of the Halls, mostly the
seventh or the fourth. He has here the control of all the Halls.
The said statement “keeps the keys of the Halls of ‘Araboth
Raqia'” together with the following part of the verse attribute a
remarkably high position to ‘Anaphiel: he is compared with
“the Creator of the world”. In Hek. R. xxii, he is called “the
most beloved of all the guardians of the heavenly Halls, the
Prince, ‘Ebed (the Servant, Metatron’s name), who is called
thus by the name of his Master”. A similarly high position is
also implied by the passages in the Enoch-Metatron piece, just
referred to. Another instance is the quotation from ‘ Sode
Raza’ in YR. i. 5 a: “the angel ‘Anaphiel, to him are given in
charge the ‘ring’ and the seal of heaven and earth, and all on
high kneel down and prostrate themselves before him”.
(19) Sother ‘Ashiel H’ = ‘who stirs up the fire of God’.

The
explanations of the name as they appear in the present verse
are quoted in Hilkot ha Kisse La, fol. 138 a. A points: סותר
אשיאל (no other names in this ch. pointed).
He is here the angel appointed over the fiery river Nehar di-
Nur, the speculations on which evolved from the beginning of
Dan. vii. 10, the passage quoted in this verse. For the
conceptions of the fiery river, see note on ch. xxxiii. 5.
The four heads of the fiery river. It is difficult to discern from
A, whether ‘four’ or ‘seven’ are meant, the characters for
‘daleth’ (= 4) and ‘sain’ (= 7) being, in the current script
employed there, almost indistinguishable. In Hil. ha Merkaba
(Add. 27199, fol. 126 a) however, the “heads of the fiery river
of the Throne of Glory” are definitely stated as four. If ‘seven’
is the correct reading here, the number ‘7000 myriads’ would
be explained as derived from ‘the seven heads of the fiery
river’. Ch. xxxiii. 4 mentions ‘seven fiery rivers’, an
amplification frequently met with in the ‘Sode Razd’ by Eleazar
of Worms (cf. e.g. the quotation from this writing, YR. i. 4 b).

The fiery river, usually described as issuing forth “from under
the Throne of Glory” or “from the perspiration of the holy
Chayyoth” is here simply described as being situated over
against the Throne of Glory and is in the present connection
probably conceived of as dividing the Throne of Glory with the
Skekina from the world of the common angels and angelprinces,
through which ‘fiery stream’ they must pass when
they wish to enter before the Shekina.

On this assumption the expression ‘every prince… does not go
out nor enter but by his permission ‘would be intelligible:
Sother ‘Ashiel, who is the guardian of the fiery river, also
controls who shall pass through it to the Shekina. The fiery
river as a bath of purification and preparation for the angels is
a common idea in this and related writings. Cf. note on ch.
xxxiii. 5.
he goes out and enters before the Shekina to expound what is
written concerning the inhabitants of the world (lit. ‘to
expound in the writings of. A perhaps reads: ‘enters to the
Curtain of the inhabitants of the world’, i.e. the Curtain, on
which everything is recorded acc. to ch. xlv. i seqq.). This
strange expression obtains its elucidation by the quotation of
Dan. vii. 10 with its reference to ‘the Judgement’. The fiery
river is also, and foremost, the symbol of the execution of the
judgement on man. Hence Sother ‘Ashiel is connected with the
Divine Judgement, as far as he ‘stirs up the fire of the Nehar di-
Nur’. He, as it were, regulates the heat of the fire according to
the requirements of judgement.

(20) Shoqed Chozi, also in the forms ‘Shaqad Hozii’, ‘Sheqar
Chozii’ (the former in the readings of D and Midrash Sar Tora,
the latter in Hek. R. and S. Raziel, 45 a). Derivations
uncertain (‘Waking’ or ‘Watching and Seeing’; Schwab, VA, p.
259: ‘False Seer’ [based upon the form ‘Sheqar Chozii’]). Cf.
the name ‘Sheqadyahiel’ , Hek. R. xxii and Schwab, ib.
The explanation given in the present verse rather presupposes
a form ‘SHEQAL ZAKI’ (‘weighing merits’) or similar. (Cf.
Mandaitic: Abathur, Introd. sect. 13 Ce.) In S. Raziel, 45 a
(where other names of this ch. recur), he is mentioned after
‘Ashruylu as one of “the Princes of Tora”. In Hek. Zot. (Bodl.
MICH. 8, foil. 68 b, 69 a) the name recurs twice, in the form of
Sheqad Chozyah (a) in a hymn to God, (b) as the name in
which Metatron is invoked by the scholar who is watching and
praying during the night.

For the idea of ‘weighing merits’ cf. BOX, Ezra Apocalypse, p.
19, note p; i En. xli. i.
(21) Zehanpuryu. Explained by Schwab, VA, thus: “this is the
face of fear” (p. 121). More probable, at least in the
connection in which the name appears here, is the explanation
or reading of S. Raziel, 45 a: ‘Zeh Patar’ = ‘this one exempts’,
‘this one sets free’. In this chapter he represents the attribute
of mercy, a constituent part of the Judgement, acc. to chh.
xxxi and xxxiii et. freq. Such is at least the apparent
significance of the words: ‘pushes the fiery river back’.
Contrast the function given to Sother ‘Ashiel acc. to vs. 19 of
stirring up the Nehar di-Nur, an expression which is there
explicitly referred to the Judgement. The fiery river is the
means of or symbol of punishment and execution of
judgement.

In Hek. R. xvii. 5, he is called “Prince of the Presence”. Ib.
xxi, he is one of the guardians of the seventh Hall. There
might be some connection between this name and the ‘PURIEL’
of Test. Abraham, ch. xii, the name of one of the two high
angels who function at the Judgement.
(22) ‘Azbuga. Schwab, VA, p. 49, explains it as ‘messenger’.
Zunz, GV, p. 148, contains the notice that Hek. Zot. explains
the name as denoting ‘strength’ (ib.). It recurs in Midrash Sar
Tora and several times in Berith Menncha. In a prayer in S. ha
Chesheq (Add. 27120, fol. 11 b) he is invoked to deliver the
suppliant from “every evil, disease and affliction”. In this
writing ‘Azbuga is mostly one of the names of the Godhead. It
is also the name of a ‘temurd.’ In S. Raziel, 42 b, it is
inscribed on an amulet which also contains the names of
KERUBIEL (ch. xxii), SOPHERIEL (vss. 23 and 24 of the present
chapter), YEPHIPHYA (ch. xlviii D 4) and GALLISUR (vs. 16 of
this chapter).

the princes who know the mystery (or ‘secrets’ D) of the
Throne of Glory. This probably refers to angels, who enjoy the
privilege of constant access to the Throne of Glory, and hence
know the inner reasons of the Divine decrees. The expression,
then, has the same import as the phrase ‘stand inside the
Curtain’ applied to some high angels. Cf. further, ch. xlv. i
and references there.
Garments of life. Cf. i En. Ixii. 15, 16: “and the righteous and
elect shall have risen from the earth … and they shall have
been clothed with garments of glory, and they shall be the
garments of life from the Lord of Spirits”. 2 Esdras ii. 45:
“These be they that have put off the mortal clothing and put on
the immortal”. Cf. also 2 En. xxii. 8. For the conceptions
expressed by the terms ‘garments of glory’ or ‘garments of life’
cf. note on ch. xii. i. The garments of life are here the means
by which eternal life is conferred upon the righteous, possibly
according to the literary principle of ‘pars pro toto’. They are
the outer appearance of the essentially changed or new body
(of the righteous in the future life), constituted of light
substance. Vide CHARLES, i En., notes on chh. Ixii. 16 and
cviii. 12. ‘Azbuga’ is in the present chapter explained from אז
ר (= ‘gird’) and בגד (= ‘garment’).

(23) Sopheriel… The name Sopheriel is not found in Schwab,
VA. It occurs in S. Raziel, 21 b, as the name of “the Prince,
appointed over the books of life”, thus with the same function
as is here assigned to the one of the two princes with that
name. It is obvious that the name here is understood as ‘
Sopheriel’, i.e. ‘the Scribe (of) God’. But the writing or spelling
of the name (Sin-Shin instead of Samek) suggests that the
name earlier or originally was referred to the word ‘Shophar’
(= ‘trumpet’), meaning the angel who blows the trumpet, soil,
at the judgement, perhaps at the time for the opening of the
books (for this idea cf. BOX, Ezra Apocalypse, ch. vi. 23 and
note d, p. 75). Since the angel, if this be correct, already was
connected with the judgement, the change to the present
interpretation was comparatively easy. In S. Raziel, 42, is
found the similar name Shaphriel from ‘Shefer’ (= ‘beauty’).
The angels function as scribes. They are differentiated into
two, one for ‘life’ and one for ‘death’ in accordance with the
noticeable tendency of the book to place two polar opposites
side by side. Cf. also ch. xxxiii. 2 and note (two scribes) and
note on ch. xliv. 2.

The attributes ‘H who killeth’ and ‘H who maketh alive’ are in
all probability derived from i Sam. ii. 6: “the Lord (H = YHWH)
killeth and maketh alive”. This passage is also used TB. Rosh
ha Shana, 16 a, as point of support for the views concerning
the Judgement which are expressed there.
(24) Books of the dead… books of the living. The ‘books of the
dead and the books of the living’ are here merely the books
recording the moments designed for each individual’s birth and
death. The books of the living contain the names of the living,
the books of the dead those of the dead. Otherwise ‘the
book(s) of life’ regularly refer to the righteous, which are
recorded in this book for eternal life, for God’s remembrance,
and hence, when mentioned, ‘the book(s) of death or the dead’
are conceived of as containing the names of the wicked, for
perdition. Parallel with this conception goes that, according to
which ‘the books’ record the deeds of ‘the world’ or of the
righteous and the wicked separately.

The former idea is
represented in the O.T. (Is. iv. 3, Ex. xxxii. 32 seq., Ps. Ixix.
29, cxxxix. 16, Mai. iii. 16, Dan. xii. i), in i En. xlvii. 3, civ.
i, cviii. 3,Jub. xxx. 20, 22, xxxvi. 10, Ap. Elijah, iv. 2, xiv. 5 ;
Rev. iii. 5, xiii. 8, xvii. 8, xx. 12, 15, xxi. 27 ; the latter in
chh. xxx. 2 and xxvii. 2 of the present book, Is. Ixv. 6, Neh.
xiii. 14, Dan. vii. 10, i En. Ixxxi. 4, Ixxxix. 61 et seqq., xc.
17, 20, xcvii. 6, xcviii. 7 seqq., civ. 7, cviii. 7 seqq., 2 En. 1.
i, Hi. 15, liii. 2 seqq., Ap. Bar. xxiv. i, Copt. Apoc. El. Iii. 13
seqq., xi. i seqq., Asc. Is. ix. 26, 4 Ez. vi. 20, Rev. xx. 12.
For references and discourses see BOX, Ezra Apocalypse, p.
74, note y on ch. vi. 20; Dalman, Wortejesu, i. 171 ; Zimmern
in Keilinschriften des Alien Testaments, 3rd ed., ii. 505;
Bousset, Rel. d. Judentums, p. 247 ; Weber, Jild. Theol. 2nd
ed., pp . 242, 282 et seqq.: further Rosh ha Shana, 15 b e.a.,
and the discourse on New Year’s Day as day of Judgement in
Fiebig, Mischna Traktat Rosch ha-Schana, pp. 41-45. (Note.
The ‘3 books’ ib. p. 43, and note on ch. xliv. i of the present
book.)
Maqom = ‘place’, one of the technical terms of the Divine
Majesty. Cf. the expression ‘the Curtain of Maqom’, e.g. ch.
xlv. i.

Thou might perhaps say etc. The suggestion that the scribes
must be sitting when writing is refuted. “There is no sitting in
heaven” cf. Chag. 15 a. The scriptural passage from which
this is deduced, i Kings xxii. 19, is the one regularly used for
the purpose. acc. to TB. Chag. 15 a, however, Metatron, in
his function as scribe, was at first allowed to ‘sit and write’, and
in the Enoch-Metatron piece (chh. iii-xv) Metatron is placed on
a Throne. Apart from this there seems to have been a set of
traditions which felt no objection against ascribing ‘yeshiba’
(‘sitting’) to angel-princes or righteous dead. (For references
see note on ch. x. i.) To the other prevailing view which was
rigorous in this respect, it was probably the case of the
‘scribes’ that suggested a deviation from the strict rule ; the
question was raised as here: ‘how can they write, if they must
be standing?’ Cf. further ch. xvi and notes.
The unwillingness to admit any ‘sitting in heaven’, apart from
the Throne of God, has arisen from the interest of guarding the
Unity of the Godhead : there must not be even the appearance
of two Divine Powers (Chag. 15 a, ch. xvi).

With the two princes Sopheriel H’, ‘none like whom there is in
the high heavens ‘, the angelological system of the present
chapter is concluded. They are the highest of the angels of the
hierarchy, the different ranks of which are here enumerated
from the lowest to the highest. From this it is clear that ch.
xviii is independent of the following chapters xix seqq., which
from their present context appear as a continuation of the
angelological system here set forth. At the beginning of this
chapter it was shown in the notes that this chapter is also
independent of its antecedent chapter. In fact, it stands out by
itself from all the rest of the book.
The reason why it was embodied in the angelological section is
apparently its seeming connection with ch. xvii owing to the
mention in both chapters of the angels and the princes of the
different heavens. Besides, the beginning of ch. xix, ‘above
these three angels’, indicates a preceding exposition of high
angel-princes, and when the original beginning of the
fragment, of which chh. xix seqq. are a continuation was lost,
ch. xviii was put in as a substitute, although not a very happy
one.

(25) This verse, with its lengthy and extravagant descriptions
of the ‘two angels’ constitutes a striking contrast to the
concise, summarizing character of the aforegoing part of the
chapter. The beginning of the verse is not very lucidly
connected with vs. 24. The question ‘how are they writing
when standing?’ is not intelligibly answered. It is difficult to
understand how it could facilitate the writing to be standing ‘on
the wheels of the tempest’. Hence it is probable that vs. 25 is
a later addition to the chapter. The end of the verse shows
that the angels referred to are scribes like the princes
Sopheriel. The addition was probably composed for the
preceding verses, not adduced from another context.
The features used in the following description of the two angels
are mainly those constantly recurring in descriptions of high
angel-princes, Cf. the descriptions of KERUBIEL (ch. Xxii. 1-9),
OFFANNIEL (ch. XXV. 1-4), SERAPHl’EL (ch. XXvi. I-7).
standing on wheels Cf. ch. xxii. 7. clad in kingly garments
etc. Cf. chh. xii. i, xvii. 8. crowned with a royal crown Cf.
ib. and frequently. body full of eyes Cf. ch. xxii. 8. the eyes
are like the sun in its might Cf. ch. xxvi. 6. their height like
the height of the seven heavens Cf. ch. xxv. 4 etc., and esp.
ch. xxii. 3. wings as many as the days of the year, i.e. 365 ;
cf. ch. xxv. 2, also ch. xxi. 3. from the mouth of the one a
flame goes forth Cf. e.g. ch. xxii. 4. from the perspiration of
them fire is kindled Cf. the current saying “from the
perspiration of the Chayyoth a fiery river goes forth”. Gen. R,
Ixxviii beg., Lam. R. on ch. iii. 23. Cf. the note on ch. xxxiii.
4.

From the one’s tongue a torch is burning Cf. ch. xxii. 4: ‘his
tongue is a consuming fire’.
On the head of the one there is a sapphire stone Cf. ch. xxvi.
5 : ‘ the sapphire stone upon his head’; also ch. xxii. 13.
a wheel of a swift cherub. Cf. the expression ‘chariots of a
swift cherub’, ch. xxiv. 17.
The scroll and style are of fire, the heavenly matter. ‘Graven
with a flaming style’ is an uncommonly frequent expression,
referring e.g. to the letters engraved on the ‘Fearful Crown’,
the Names on the Throne of Glory, etc. Cf. e.g. ch. xxxix. I
and references in note, ad loc. Item, ch. xiii.
The scribes are represented as writing with a style of fire on a
scroll of flames. Cf. Midrash ‘Asereth Ma’dmaroth: “Tora was
written down by the arm of the Holy One, blessed be He, with
dark fire on white fire”. The numbers used in describing the
sizes of the scroll, the style and the letters are based on 3000
and 365. The number 365 is used very often in this book, see
esp. ch. ix. 3. It was conceived of as a cosmic and celestial
number, being the number of the days of the solar year. The
3000 is probably made up of 1000 times 3, the number 3
being, of old, a mystical number. Cf. the 300 thousand ‘gates’
of ch. viii.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 19.

(1) D includes this chapter in the aforegoing.
(2) D :’them, the two angels, these high princes’
למלעלה מהן משני:
(3) so D. A:’name’
(4) A ins. ‘and these’
(5) ins. in accordance with D. A om.
(6) D ins. ‘and ‘Elim’
(7) so D. A om ‘all’

Chh. xix-xxii, xxv, xxvi. (Angelological system A i, see
Introduction, section 13 (i A).)
Chh. xix-xxii, xxv, xxvi, form an angelological description of a
systematic structure. The centre, from which the system is
evolved, is the conception of the Merkaba with the Throne of
Glory. The objects of the exposition are the angelprinces,
appointed over the ‘wheels of the Merkaba’ and over the four
classes of superior angels who minister at the Merkaba and by
the Throne, as well as these angels themselves.
For the Merkaba speculations derived from Ezek. i and x and
the different arrangements of the details of the Merkabapicture,
see the Introduction, sections 13 and 14.
The importance of these chapters consists primarily in the fact
that they reveal a clear attempt at systematization. Beginning
with ‘the wheels of the Merkaba’, the description proceeds
from the lowest to the highest of the four classes of superior
angels which, wanting a more adequate comprehensive
appellation, may be called the Merkaba-angels. They are
arranged in an order, placing the Chayyoth as the lowest and
the Seraphim as the highest, thus: Chayyoth, Kerubim,
‘Ophannim, Seraphim.

This order is by no means the one
generally accepted. In most cases in the earlier cabbalistic
literature it seems that the writers had no clear view of the
mutual order of the Merkaba-angels, and the cases that
suggest an intended lassification, represent, when compared,
nearly all possible permutations of the four classes in question.
Furthermore, all of them are not mentioned, in such
classifications, some omitting the Chayyoth, others the
Kerubim and so on. It may suffice as an illustration, to refer to
the arrangement presented in ch. xxii C 2, where the order is
as follows: ‘the Galgallim, the Kerubim, the ‘Ophannim… the
Holy Chayyoth, the Throne of Glory’. Cf. further the
Introduction, section 13 (i A).

On the other hand, in P. R. ‘El. iv, we meet with an order of
the four classes of superior angels which is identical with the
order represented in this section. In contrast with the present
system, however, P. R. ‘El. puts the ‘wheels of the Merkaba’
together with the ‘Ophannim and the ‘princes’ assigned as
chieftains over the resp. classes of angels here, do not appear
there.
(1) Above these three angels, these great princes. The
beginning of the chapter points to a preceding description of
angels. In the present context the opening words refer to ch.
xviii. That it is highly improbable, however, that ch. xviii was
the original antecedent of ch. xix, has been pointed out above,
note on ch. xviii. 24. Who are then, originally, the angels and
princes referred to? No answer can be given to this question
apart from mere conjectures. First of all, the words ‘these
three angels’ or, as the reading of D runs, “them, the two
angels” sound like a gloss. They might, in fact, easily have
been an emendation made by the redactor who combined ch.
xix with ch. xviii. By this gloss if our assumption is correct ch.
xix is made to refer to the last named princes of ch. xviii. This
is particularly so, if the reading of D be adopted (the two
princes are then, of course, the two Sopheriel H, ch. xviii. 23-
25).

Assuming that the original beginning of the chapter had
the form ‘above these great princes’, the subject of the
preceding angelological fragment to which this expression
refers, might have been, say, the ‘princes of kingdoms’. Now
the princes of kingdoms are the subject of the last verse of ch.
xvii. The style of ch. xvii. 8 is also similar to that of the
present section. It opens with the phrase ‘above these’, which
is the regular inceptive expression of all the chapters in this
section. IT is POSSIBLE THAT CH. xvii. 8 BELONGED TO THE
SAME ANGELOLOGICAL EXPOSITION, POSSIBLE ALSO THAT IT
IMMEDIATELY PRECEDED WHAT is NOW CH. xix. Further, on
the connection of ch. xvii. 8 with the rest of that chapter, see
note, ad loc. distinguished, honoured, noble etc. On the
epithets added to the name of an angel-prince cf. note on ch.
xviii. 7 and chh. xx. i, xxii. i, xxv. i and xxvi. i. The
attributes are in the present case over twenty in number. This
manner of excelling in variations of terms resembles the
fashion of Hek. R. The words used here are mostly adduced
from the O.T.

Rikbiel. The names of the present section (with the exception
of RADWERIEL, ch. xxvii) have a very simple derivation.
RIKBIEL is derived from ‘ Rekeb ‘ (=’ chariot ‘ = ‘Merkaba’),
CHAYYLIEL is made to correspond to ‘Chayyoth’, KERUBIEL to
‘Kerubim’, ‘OPHANNIEL to ‘Ophannim’, SERAPHIEL to
‘Seraphim’,

The name RIKBIEL is not given by Schwab, VA. It recurs,
however, twice in Add. 27199. The first time it is in the
quotation of vss. 2-7 of the present chapter, see below. The
second time in Hilkoth ha Kisse, fol. 138 a b, in a passage from
an anonymous source, immediately following the quotation of
ch. xxiii. 20 (cf. note, ib.) and (SOTHER ASHIEL), ch. xviii. 19
(cf. note, ad loc.), preceding the quotation of ch. xxii
(KERUBIEL). The passage runs: “RIKBIEL H, the great and
fearful prince by name, is standing by the Merkaba (cf. the
last words of vs. i here) and he is appointed over the eight
wheels of the Merkaba, two in each direction” Since this
passage occurs in between quotations from this book it is
probably directly dependent upon this chapter and might be
regarded as a quotation. Notice, that the epithet “great and
fearful prince” are regarded as part of the name.
(2) In a midrashic commentary on Ezek. i. 16 in Add. 27199,
fol. 81 a, there is a passage on RIKBIEL which appears as a
literal, though unacknowledged quotation, of vss. 2-7 of the
present chapter.

the wheels of the Merkaba. (Hebrew: galgille ham-merkaba),
wheels: ‘galgallim’. The GALGALLIM are here, at least acc. to
vss. 2 and 3, understood in their literal sense, although they,
in vs. 7, are represented as speaking and apparently on a
level with the four classes of Merkaba angels. Cf. for the
present conception Mass. Hek. vii, e.g. “the wheels of the
Merkaba upon which is the Throne of Glory”. In Alph. R.
‘Aqiba the four Chayyoth appear “from under the wheels of the
chariot of His Throne (i.e. the Merkaba carrying the Throne of
Glory)”. (Contrast vs. 5 here.) In other connections they are
clearly represented as one of the angelic classes, e.g. Mass.
Hek. v: ” In the seventh Hall are the Throne of Glory, the
chariots of the Kerubim, the camps of the Seraphim, the
‘Ophannim, the Chayyoth and the Galgallim of consuming fire”.
In this passage it is noteworthy that the ‘Ophannim and the
Galgallim appear as two distinct angelic classes. Originally the
words ‘Ophannim and Galgallim were, on the whole, identical
notions, both meaning ‘wheels’. See note on ch. xxv. 5.

A third significance of the Galgallim is ‘heavenly bodies’, mainly
occurring in the later cabbalistic literature. And through
further developments of the speculations on the Galgallim,
they are again identified with the ‘Ophannim, or, according to
another trend of thoughts, the ”Ophannim are made the rulers
of the Galgallim or celestial spheres. Cf. note on ch. xxv. 5.
(3) The number of the wheels is presumably derived from
Ezek. i. (not x) : a wheel in the middle of a wheel by the side
of each of the four living creatures. four winds etc. ‘Stormwind’
and ‘tempest’ are well-established parts of any
descriptions of the celestial wonders. Cf. chh. xxxiv and xviii.
25. ‘Storm-wind, East-Wind, Strong Wind and Wind of
Earthquake’ are represented in ch. xxiii. 15, 3, 2 and 6.

(4) four fiery rivers. The number ‘four’ is to correspond with
the four directions, the four Chayyoth etc. The four fiery rivers
here should be compared with the mention in ch. xviii. 19 of ‘
the four heads of the fiery river”. Cf. note, ib. The fiery rivers
here run under the feet of the Chayyoth. Cf. the usual
expression: ‘the fiery river goes forth from the perspiration of
the Chayyoth’, The present conception of four fiery rivers is
related to that of the rivers flowing between the four camps of
Shekina as presented in ch. xxxvii. i . Cf. ib. Clouds between
the rivers, surrounding them. Cf. ch. xxxvii. 2. The object of
the ‘clouds’ is acc. to ch. xxiv. 2 to protect from the heat of
the fire. See also ch. xxxiii. 3.

(5) the feet of the Chayyoth are resting upon the wheels. In
accordance with the system of the present section the
Chayyoth have their place next above the wheels of the
Merkaba. Angels standing on wheels, cf. ch. xviii. 25 and ch.
xxii. 7. The different names of angelic classes and positions
enumerated in vs. 6 are most of them deduced from the O.T.
where they represent various divisions and orders within an
army. This is natural from the point of view of these writers
who picture the ‘hosts of angels’ as armies, camps and troops.
The words ‘appointed’, ‘princes’, ‘servants’, ‘angels’, are
familiar from the other chapters of the book. Cf. chh. xiv ; iv,
xxxix ; xxx, vi ; see Index ; the other terms are all found in the
enumeration in Mass. Hek. v of the contents of the seventh
Hall and the different angelic classes there (“armies, hosts,
troops, ranks (macarakoth) ,

divisions and armies of chieftains,
the men of war, mighty ones, powers (‘azuzoth) ta’asumoth
(Ps. Ixviii. 36) horsemen, the officers of armies, princes etc.”).
The presentation of all the different ‘hosts’ and ‘princes’ has
the object of enhancing the impression of the SOLEMNITY OF
THE MOMENT, WHEN ‘THE SONG’ is TO BE SUNG. The commotion of all heavens and all angels
at the sound of the
Trisagion is described in ch. xxxviii. Cf. also ch. xviii. 7.
For passages recalling the present vs. see i En. Ixi. 10, n, 2
En. xx. i seqq., Ma’yan Chokma, BH. i. 59, Zohar, ii. 136 a b.
For degalim applied to angelic troops cf. Num. R. par. ii with
reference to Ps. Ixviii. 18, Shir. R. on ii. 4. In the quotation
La, fol. 81 a, only eight classes are mentioned, viz. shallishim,
parashim, sebaim, gibborim, memunnim, sarim, mal’akim,
degalim.

(7) one wheel makes a sound to be heard to the other. After
the pattern of Is. vi. 3: “and one cried unto another, and said
etc.”A parallel to the present verse occurs Mass. Hek. vii:
“and one Bath Qol by the side of one wheel (referring to the ‘
wheels of the Merkaba ‘) and another Bath Qol by the side of
another wheel ; in that moment one wheel causes (its voice) to
be heard to another wheel with thunder and earthquake…
(saying) ‘Extol to him that rideth in ‘Araboth, by his name Jah,
and rejoice before him’. The psalm here cited is the one
specifically used in mystical interpretations. There are several
cabbalistic commentaries on this psalm. The special attention
of the mystics was drawn to this psalm already in the tannaitic
period if not earlier. From the vs. referred to here, the name
of the highest of the heavens, ‘Araboth, was deduced (cf.
Chag. 12 b). Other passages of this psalm to which special
interest was devoted are vss. 17 and 18.
Elsewhere the Galgallim of the Merkaba are stated to partake
in the celestial
QSdushsha, e.g. in the quotation, YR. v. 5 b: “the wheels of
the Merkaba say: ‘Blessed be the Glory of H’ from his place
etc.’

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 20.

(1) ins. with D (for the sake of symmetry).
(2) ins. from D. A om.
(3) D ins. ‘after me (Metatron)’
(1) Above these sdl. RIKBIEL and the Galgallim of the
Merkaba, described in the aforegoing chapter.
Chayyliel. The name of the Prince is chosen to correspond to
the word ‘Chayyoth’. It is, however, derived from Chayil (=
‘army’) rather than from Chayya. In accordance with this
derivation ‘CHAYYLIEL’ was probably originally the name of the
prince over the Chaylim (= ‘the armies of angels’, cf. ch. xix.
6). A remnant of a tradition to this intent is perhaps the
passage, occurring in Hilkoth ha MaVakim La, fol. 123 a,
according to which he has the function of punishing the
ministering angels, when they do not say the Song in the right
time.

The ‘armies’ sometimes are equivalent with the
‘ministering angels’. In the same passage CHAYYLIEL is also
the prince, appointed over the Chayyoth.
(2) smites the Chayyoth with lashes of fire. Here, where the
expression ‘smites the Chayyoth’ stands in juxtaposition to
‘glorifies them, when they give praise’, it seems that the
‘smiting’ would best be explained as referring to the
punishment executed upon the Chayyoth, if they do not say
the ‘Holy’ in the proper manner.
Such an idea would better harmonize with a context, where
‘ministering angels’ had been substituted for ‘Chayyoth’. Cf.
how acc. to YR. i. 15 a, “God smites the Chayyoth”.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 21.

(1) Inserted from D. A om.
The Chayyoth (singular form: Chayya) are the “four living
creatures” of Ezek. i. They are, acc. to the present section,
placed next above the wheels of the Merkaba. acc. to ch. xxii
c and Hek. R. xiii, they have their place immediately under
the Throne of Glory, above the ‘Ophannim and the Kerubim.
For other representations see the introductory section.

(1) The number of the Chayyoth and the faces and wings of
each one is in accordance with Ezek. i. 5 seq. Like the space
of the zohole world, cf. ch.ix. i, and the immense measures
ascribed to the Chayyoth in TB. Chag. 13 a (“the feet of the
Chayyoth are of a size like that of the seven heavens, the
ankles of corresponding measure, the knees of corresponding
measure, and so forth”).

(3) Faces in the middle of faces etc. Cf. ‘the heart in the
middle of the heart of the lion (i.e. one of the four Chayyoth)’
in ch. xv B. The conceptions have probably been developed
by force of analogy from Ezek. i. 16 (“a wheel in the middle of
a wheel”). The numbers’248′ and ‘365’ correspond to the
number of positive and negative laws resp. Cf. ch. xxxiii. 4.
(4) crowned with 2000 crowns. Crowns are regular attributes
of high angels, cf. note on chh. xii. 3, xviii. i.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 22 A.

(1) Here B continues.
(1a) D: ‘the Chayyoth’
(2) B: ‘from his mouth there burns as it were a lamp of fire ‘D:
‘the opening of his mouth burns like a lamp of fire’
(3) so B. AD: ‘consumes fire’
(4) B omits.
(5) D: ‘arrow’
(6) so B. A: ‘from his body’ D: ‘from him’
(7) so BD. A: ‘him’
(8) lit. ‘the two princes of the Merkaba are in his place’ B
reads: ‘are of his size (like his stature)’
(9) D om.

(10) B: ‘the chariots of the Chayyoth. And he adorns the
majesty and’
(11) B om.
(12) so D. AB: ‘hastens’
(13) BD ins. ‘he increases their beauty’
(14) S: ‘majestic strength’
(15) Z): ‘song of praise’
(16) B om.
(17) B: ‘majesty’
(18) ins. with DB. A om.
(19) so D. B: ‘the sapphire’ A: ‘their sapphires’
(20) so DB. A: ‘a great glory of the king’

(1) Kerubiel. In this form the name is not found in Schwab,
VA. Cf. however, KRBIEL, p. 157, ib., and Kerubyah, ib.
In Hilkoth ha Kisse, Add. 27199, fol. 138 b, after mention
being made of SOTHER ‘ASHI’EL (cf. xviii. 19) and RIKBIEL (ch.
xix), there occurs a summary of the functions ascribed to
KERUBIEL, a passage which is apparently drawn from vss. i, 3-
5, 7-9, of the present chapter.
A similar abridged quotation (ba’arikut mizzeh ham mal’ak)
occurs in YR. i. 54 a, from Sode Rasa, a quotation which is
important, because it begins with Gen. v. 24, also forming the
beginning of the present book, a fact which shows that the
compiler of the Sode Rasa used as one of his sources an
Enoch-fragment or a book of Enoch which contained
descriptions of Kerubiel, and, by consequence, probably also
the essential parts of the angelological section of the present
book.

In Widdiiy Yaphe (Add. 15299, fol. 133 b) he appears at the
head of the Kerubim as here, but ib. fol. 134 b he is in common with SERAPHIEL (ch. xxvi. 8),
represented as one of
the twenty-six angels ‘who carry the Merkaba’.
In the enumeration of different classes of angels which is given
in Mass. ‘Asilut (frequently referred to in notes and
Introduction), the ‘prince of the Kerubim’ is called ‘KERUBIEL’.
Even so in S. ha Chesheq (Add. 27120, fol. 14 b) KERUBIEL is
introduced as the angel appointed over the Kerubim.
Acc. to i En. xx. 7, the prince of the Kerubim is GABRIEL, and
acc. to Zohar, Ex. 43 (jfE), this function is assigned to ‘KERUB’.
The variant reading of B is most likely due to a false
punctuation and subsequent transposition of the word “immo’
(= ‘with him’).

(3) His stature etc. The simpler reading of Hilkoth Kisse (see
above) might with advantage be adopted: “his stature is as
high as the seven heavens and the thickness of his stature is
as the width of the sea”. On the measures of high angels cf.
ch. ix. i, xxi. i and notes. Also ch. xlviii 05.
(4) The opening of his mouth is like a lamp of fire etc. The
description of the body of this angel-prince is in the usual
terms conveying that he is wholly made up of fire. The
substance of the angels’ body is regularly fire. So it is said in 2
En. xxix. 1,3, with regard to God’s creation of the angels: “for
all the heavenly hosts I (God) fashioned a nature like that of
fire: their weapons are fiery, their garment is a burning
flame…”. Descriptions of this kind are frequent. Cf. 2 En. i. 5
(“their faces shone like the sun, their eyes like burning lamps,
fire came forth from their lips… their wings were brighter than
gold”). Cf. also Chibbut ha Qeber, i, Mass. Hek. iv, Rev. xix.
11-15.

Occasionally one finds the statement that some angels are
made of water in contrast with others who are made of fire or
that the angels in general are composed of fire and water. E.g.
Midrash ‘Asereth haDebdroth, pp. 64 seqq., BH. (on the
contents of ‘Araboth): “the angels are made of fire and water,
and there is peace between them etc.”, based on Job xxv. 2.
Cf. ch. xlii.
(5) And there is a crown of holiness upon his head. The term
‘crown of holiness’ instead of the more usual ‘crown of glory’,
probably with reference to the attribute of ‘holiness’ conferred
upon this prince in vs. i.
on which the Explicit Name is graven. Cf. ch. xii. i and note,
also ch. xxxix. i . acc. to Shir Rabba, i, the explicit name was
engraved on the crowns given to the Israelites at mount Sinai.
the bow of Shekina. The (heavenly counterpart of) the ‘bow in
the cloud’ is probably meant. This has become a regular part
of the speculations on the heavenly splendours, cf. ch. xxii c
4, 7. Then also it is understood as referring to the angel’s
weapon.

(6) his sword is upon his loins. Sword is a frequent
concomitant attribute of the angel of death or of the angels of
destruction. Cf. Rev. R. Joshua ben Levi, BH. ii. 48.
(7) the splendour of Shekina is on his face. On the conception
of the splendour of Shekina see Abelson, Immanence, pp. 85-
89, and cf. note on ch. v. 4. When it is said to be on the face
of KERUBIEL here, it is to be understood as a reflection of
God’s glory, in analogy with the ‘glory’ that the first Adam
possessed before his fall (Ber. R. xii) and which is to be
restored to the righteous in the world to come (cf. Alph. R.
‘Aqiba, letter Kaph, beg.).
horns of majesty on his wheels. The angels are often depicted
as horned, cf. vs. 13 (horns of glory) and ch. xxix. 2 (horns
of splendour). Horned angels are referred to in Mass. Hek. v
(angels of horns of majesty: ba’ale qarne hod). Instead of ‘on
his wheels’ one would have expected ‘on his head’. Cf. vs.
13.

No doubt the angel was imagined as having ‘wheels’, but it
is possible that the reading here is corrupt (”ofan’ as a
synonym of galgal ‘having been put in the place of the latter?).
But cf. Ezek. x. 12. For Messiah ben Joseph as ‘horned’ cf.
note on xlv. 5.
(8) his body is full of eyes. The angels have eyes all round to
be able to see without turning: “there is no back in heaven”
(Chag. 15 a). The passage forming the point of support is
such a one as Ezek. x. 12. Cf. further chh. ix. 3, xxv. 2, 6,
xxvi. 6, Hek. R. xxii. wings are covering the whole of his high
stature. Cf. ch. ix. 2, Hek. R. ib. For vss. 8 and 9 in general
cf. Chibbut ha Qeber, i.

(10) the two princes of the Merkaba. Cf. ch. i. 7. The princes
of the Merkaba are carrying the Merkaba acc. to Widduy
Yaphe, fol. 133 b. ‘The princes of the Merkaba ‘ are on the
level with MIKAEL, GABRIEL, METATRON and SANDALPHON in
so far as they, in contrast to other angels, are exempt from
being burnt in the fiery river and ‘ created anew ‘ acc. to Stunt,
quoted by the Smaller Yalqut Re’ubeni under ‘ Mal’ak’. In Alph.
R. ‘Aqiba, letter Mem, BH. in, they are one of the highest
classes of angels ; together with the Chayyoth they minister by
the Merkaba. In Midrash Sar Tora, BH. Hi, Hek. R. xxx, an
angel, called SIRBIEL, is defined as “one of the princes of the
Merkaba “.

* The literal translation ‘thunder in thunder’ etc. is presumably
that which best corresponds to the idea in the mind of the
writer: that thunder was thundering from the midst of thunder,
earthquake roaring from the midst of earthquake.
In the two latter of these instances the ‘princes of the Merkaba’
are clearly indicated as more than two in number. Confer
further on ch. i. 7 (‘the princes of the Merkaba and the
flaming Seraphim’).

The expression ‘are on his place’ or ‘are together with him’ is
perhaps a sign that the princes of the Merkaba had a function
or occupied a position here ascribed to KERUBIEL or the
Kerubim, a view which the writer tried to harmonize with his
own in this way.
(11) KERUBIEL is the prince of the Kerubim. The Kerubim
described here are “the four Kerubim” (Ezek. x). In the
Pseudepigrapha they are mentioned, esp. in Apoc. Moses and
i En. and 2 En. Further see the introductory section, mighty
Kerubim is the expression used also in Mass. Hek. iv.
chariot(s) of the Kerubim, also ch. xxiv. i. Cf. Apoc. Mosis,
xxii. 3 (“when God appeared in paradise, mounted on the
chariots of his Kerubim”), and ib. xxxviii. 3.

(13) and Shekina is resting upon them and the…. Glory is
upon their faces. Cf. Ezek. x. 18. ‘The brilliance of the Glory’
is the resplendence of the ‘Glory’ of Shekina. their hands are
under their wings, perhaps deduced from Ezek. x. 7. their
feet are covered etc. obviously from Is. vi. 2. horns of glory
Cf. vs. 7. sapphire stones. Cf. Ezek. i, etc. (vs. 26).
columns of fire on their four si des . Cf. Ezek . x. 7 .

(15) spread them, to sing with them. The Kerubim are
represented as singing with their wings. The ‘sound’ or ‘voice
of the cherubims’ wings’ of Ezek. x. 5 is interpreted as the
sound of a.song. acc. to Hek. R. xi. 4: “the wings of the
Chayyoth are full of rejoicing.” The Kerubim themselves are
singing acc. to vs. 13. Cf. 2 En. xix. 6 e.a. (“the
indescribable singing of the host of the Cherubim”).
(16) Cf. chh. xxv. 5, xxvi. 8.
The additional fragments, here marked chh. xxii B and xxii C,
follow in B immediately after ch. xxii. Another recension of ch.
xxii c occurs in Add. 27199, fol. 783, referred to here as ‘L(o)’
or ‘Lo’. In the same MS. fol. 126 a (Helak Merkaba) there is a
third recension, containing a version of ch. xxii c 1-3 (middle),
followed by a piece parallel to but differing markedly from ch.
xxii 31,3,4: ‘ Lmr’.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 22 B.

(1) there is a court before the Throne of Glory (Lmr). The place
of God’s manifestation in the highest heavens is depicted in
the simile of the innermost part of a Sanctuary. The seventh
Hall is called ‘the Holy of Holies’. The entry (B), then, is the
entry of the innermost part of the sanctuary. The conception
of ‘bridges’ in heaven is attested in Hek. R. BH. iii. 93. They
are the bridges that are placed over the fiery rivers (cf. ib.).
(2) three ministering angels. Probably the leaders of the songuttering
angels, who sometimes are represented as three,
usually as four (cf. note on ch. xxxv. 3). lords of dread and
captains of fear. Guardian angels who inspire dread and fear,
cf. Rev. Moses, YR. ii. 66 b (“I saw the angels of dread who
surround the Throne”)- thousand times thousand etc. Derived
from Dan. vii. 10. Cf. chh. xxxv. 6, xxxvi. i, Zohar, ii. 252
b.

(3, 4) rivers of fire, rivers of hail. Cf. ch. xlii. 1,7. wheels
(galgallim) of fire. The wheels of fire are possibly conceived of
as angelic beings. Cf. Zohar, ii. 252 b (in the fourth Hall):
“under the Chayyoth are four Seraphim (cf. vs. i acc. to
Lmr)… from these four Seraphim… there go forth flames of fire
and from these flames are made 72 galgallim burning in the fire and from that fire is made the Nehar
di-Nur”. the
treasuries of snow are usually said to be ‘under the throne’, six
above and six below etc. ‘Above’ and ‘below’ probably in
relation to the bridges. for all the creatures that are standing
in the midst thereof… The ‘creatures’ probably refer to human
beings, perhaps the souls or spirits who are ascending towards
their abode near the Throne of Glory, i.e. after death. It is
improbable that the Yorede Merkaba are meant here. The
angels are placed so as to form an entry, through the midst of
which the souls proceed.

(6) the king of Glory doth cover His face… This part of the
verse recurs literally identical in Hek. R. xi, BH. iii. 92, and
Or. 6666, fol. 4 b. the veil with which the Most High covers
his face is often identified with the Pargod, cf. on ch. xlv. i.
Cf. also Mass. Hek. iii and Chag. 12 b.
(8) There go forth rivers of joy etc. The whole of this verse
recurs in Hek. R. viii. 4, BH. iii. 90, Or. 6666, fol. 3 a. Only
the very last sentence is somewhat different in Hek. R.:” (go
forth with commotion) with Qedushsha, at the hour when Israel
say before Him: ‘HOLY, HOLY, HOLY etc.’ as it is written (Is. vi.
3) HOLY, HOLY, HOLY”. In common with the rest of the book
this chapter makes no reference to the Qednshsha chanted by
the congregation on earth.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 22 C.

(0) Lo: ‘R. Ishmael said ‘ Lmr om (follows upon a par. to ch.
xxxvii).
(1) L(o): ‘(12 myriads of parasangs) in their ascent and 12
myriads of parasangs in their descent. 12 myriads of
parasangs’ corr. L(mr) om.
(2) Lmr adds: ‘and there are the rivers of dread ‘
(3) Lmr : ‘snow’
(4) Lmr : ‘orders’
(5) Lo : ‘heat’ Lmr: ‘consolation’
(6) Lmr ins. the gloss: ‘(why) clouds of consolation? Because
they console the Glory (the Most High)’
(7) Lo om.
(8)Lmr: ‘consolation’
(8a) Lmr: ‘185’
(9) Lmr ins. the explanatory gloss: ‘and in these chambers are
honour and majesty. This is the mystical meaning (of the
passage Ezek. i. 16), and the appearance of the ‘Ophannim
and their work’
(10) so with Lmr and Lo. B: ‘ 1000’
(11) Lmr: ‘and the same (measure) is its length and its
breadth’
(12) so with Lmr. Lo: ’30 myriads of parasangs’ B: ‘of that
same measure’
(13) Lmr: ‘where He is seated’
(14) Lmr continues here with a parallel to ch. xxii C, see text
ib.
(15) Lo ins. the gloss: ‘and this is what the poet lays down: the
arches of the Bow with the wing(s) of the dragon’
(16) Lo om.
(17) Lo om. i8Lo:’as’ 19-1 9 Loom.

(1) What is the distance between one bridge and another? 12
myriads of parasangs. The present chapter is mainly
concerned with measures and distances. This was an early
theme of the mystical traditions. A striking parallel is the wellknown
passage in Chag. 133 (the distances between the
heavens and the measures of the different parts of the body of
the Holy Chayyoth). It was probably referred to as Seder
Shi’urin. Cf. the Shi’ur Qoma. The latter part of vs. i is a
variant of the former part. (2) Vss. 2 and 3, by way of an
exposition of the distances and measures gives a definite
Merkaba-picture. The order is from the lower to the highest
parts: rivers of dread rivers of fear rivers of hail rivers of
darkness chambers of lightnings clouds of compassion the
beginning of the Merkaba proper the Kerubim the ‘Ophannim
the chambers of chambers the Holy Chayyoth the Throne.

It
will be seen that this order is entirely different from that
implied in the angelological section, chh. xix-xxii, xxv seqq.,
and also from that of ch. xxxiii. 2 seqq. In placing the
Chayyoth next to the Throne as the highest of the Merkabaangels,
this fragment agrees with Hek. R. xiii and the regular
representation of Zohar, and also with the passage Chag. 13
a, referred to above. When it is said: “the Holy Chayyoth carry
the Throne of Glory”, this does not necessarily imply the
Chayyoth being designed as the highest of the Merkabaangels;
the other classes may be conceived of as surrounding .the
Throne (cf. ch. xxxiii. 2, 3).

The chambers of chambers are
here the treasuries and storehouses of the Most High.
(3) from the foot of the Throne etc. The R. Aqiba version of
Shi’ur Qoma has: “from the seat of His Glory (Yaqar, not
Kabod) downwards is (a distance of) 118,000 parasangs” (half
the numerical value of ורב כח , “and of great power”: Ps.
cxlvii. 5). Cf. Hek. R, x, BH. iii. 91 (“from His Throne of Glory
upwards is a distance of 180,000 myriads of parasangs”).
Vss. 4-7 cannot be harmonized with the Merkaba-picture of
the preceding verse. They are in reality a mystical
commentary on Ezek. i. 14 seqq., starting from the
conception of the Celestial Bow, brought about by the
combination of Gen. ix. 13 with Ezek. i. 28. Also in Zofiar, i.
71 b, the passage Gen. ix. 13 is used to elucidate the mystical
meaning of passages in the first chapter of Ezekiel. These vss.
may have been added here on account of the reference to
‘measures’ in vss. 4 and 7. after the measure of the ‘Irin and
Qaddishin. Cf. Rev. xxi. 17. The measures laid down in ‘
Shi’ur Qoma ‘ are said ib. to be acc. to the measures of the
Most High, to whom a span (zret) means the distance from one
end of the world to the other. For the ‘Irin and Qaddishin see
ch. xxviii. Vs. 4 recurs in S. Raziel, 30 a, preceding Shi’ur
Qoma. (5) a fire of the voice etc. is an allusion to the Qol
Hamulla of Ezek. i. 24. It is here conceived of as a Divine
Voice. The Voice goes forth in fire. The Chayyoth fearing the
fire: cf. Hek. R. BH. iii. 104. (7) vs. 7 recurs in S. Raziel, 4
a.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 23 AND 24.

Merkabah. The רוחות and מרכבות
Chh. xxiii and xxiv stand out by themselves from the rest of
the book. They are nearest akin to the chapters describing the
heavens from their quasiphysical aspects, and can therefore
conveniently be reckoned as belonging to section 6. (See the
survey of the contents of the present book.) The different
‘winds’ and ‘chariots’ are enumerated. Their names are
deduced from passages of the O.T. where the words ‘ruach’
resp. ‘ merkaba”, ‘rekeb’ or similar occur in different
connections or with different attributes.
An almost literal parallel to ch. xxiii, although in a shorter form
(the winds are reduced to eight), is found, YR. i. 9 a, quoted
from Sode Rasa: “There are eight winds. The first is ‘the wind
of Jealousy’, as it is written (Gen. vi. 3), ‘ My wind shall not
always strive with man’, the second is ‘the Wind blowing in the
world’, as it is written (Gen. i. 2): ‘the wind of God was
brooding upon the face of the waters’; the third is ‘the angelwind’
as it is written (i Kings xix. 11): ‘but the Lord was not in
the wind’, etc.” As the word for ‘wind’ is also that for ‘spirit’, in
all passages referred to here, where the English version has
‘spirit’, this word has been replaced by ‘wind’ in accordance
with the significance ‘ruach’ has assumed throughout the
chapter.

Parallels for the present method of deriving ‘names’ of
different heavenly objects from O.T. passages and
enumerating them are found in Mass. Pick, i and in Alph. R.
‘Aqiba, letter Zain.
In Mass. Heh. i it is the Thrones of the Holy One, blessed be
He, which are dealt with according to this principle. The
wording is almost literally the same as that of the present
chapters. “Numerous thrones has the Holy One, blessed be
He. He has ‘the Established Throne’ as it is written… He has
‘the Throne of Justice and Righteous-ness’… He has the Throne
of Loving-kindness… He has the Throne of Yah, as it is written
(Ex. xvii. 16): ‘Because a hand is lifted up upon the throne of
Yah’. (Cf. ch. xxiv. 20 here), etc.” In Alph. R. ‘Aqiba, ib. the
‘keys of the Holy one’ are the objects. The ‘winds’, ‘chariots’,
‘thrones’ and ‘keys’ of the said passages are to be understood
in their literal sense.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 23.

(1) Ins. with BDE. A om. E continues here. DE put at the
beginning of this chapter as heading, ‘Order of the winds’.
(2) E: ‘ Day’ corr.
(3) E om.
(4) B quotes i Sam. xvi. 14: ‘and an evil wind from the Lord
troubled him’
(5) B: ‘”and the wind of counsel and might” and “the wind of
knowledge and fear of H”” E: ‘”and Understanding,” “the wind
of counsel and might”, “the wind of knowledge and fear ” ‘
(6) so BDE. A om.
(7) B om. from ‘ the wind of wisdom etc.’ vs. 9 to the end of
vs. 12.
(8) E om.
(9) so D. AB: ‘in’
(10)-10 B om.
(11) DE add: ‘and Sorrow’
(12) so D. BE om. A: ‘for Satan has no wind (spirit?)’
(13) BDE add: ‘(when) descending’
(14) so DE(B). A om.
(15) A ins. ‘in the Garden and from the Garden and into’
(16) B om.
(17) DE ins. ‘the country and from the country they return and
descend upon ‘
(18) so with DE. A om. corr.

(1) blowing under the wings of the Kerubim. This trait forms
the point of connection with ch. xxii, treating of the Kerubim.
(6) and after that the wind… The scriptural verse in question is
interpreted in a sense different from the natural (‘but the Lord
was not in the wind: and after the wind an earthquake, etc.), in
order to furnish the notion ‘wind of earthquake’.
(16) Satan is standing among these winds etc. Satan, acc. to
the reading adopted above, is represented by ‘the Storm-wind’.
The winds are thus divided into good and evil ones. Cf. i En.
xxxiv. 3: “and out of one portal they (the winds) blow for good:
but when they blow through the other two portals it is with
violence and affliction on the earth. The ‘storm-wind’
represents the destructive agency among the winds.
(17) The winds are represented as going out from under the
wings of the Kerubim. The idea common to older and later
Apocalyptic and Rabbinic is that the winds are kept in
treasures in heaven, from where there are sent out and
whereto they return.

(18) into the Garden, and from the Garden… to Eden. On the
relation between the ‘Garden’ and ‘Eden’ cf. note on ch. v. 5.
And in the midst of the Garden they join together. Cf. Cant.
R. Par. iv. 31: “in the world to come God will make the north
wind and the south wind to blow together as one”. are
perfumed with the spices of the Garden. For the fragrance and
sweet odour of the trees of Gan ‘Eden, esp. of the Tree of Life,
cf. 2 En. viii. 2,3. In Apoc. Pauli the ‘perfuming winds’ are
replaced by ενωδεστατον
υδωρ, which “flows from the root of the tree of life”. Cf. also
Rev. R. Joshua ben Levi, Paradise, 5th Compartment: “a
perfume breathes through it, more exquisite than the perfume
of Lebanon” (Caster’s translation).
they bring… the spices of the Garden to the righteous… in the
time to come. Here we are at once translated into a picture of
the future world. It would have been more natural if the
relative sentence (‘who etc.’) had not appeared here, for then
‘the righteous and godly’ could have been referred to the
common conception, according to which they are already living
in Paradise, having been brought there immediately after
death. The author’s glide from present to future time is,
however, comprehensible and excused by the poetical form of
expression of the chapter.

Also acc. to 2 En. ix, “the fragrancies of the Garden of Eden
are prepared for the righteous”. Cf. especially Num. R. xiii. 3
(there, as here, with reference to Cant. iv. 16): “In the world
to come God will make a feast for the righteous in the Garden
of Eden. Neither balsam nor spices will then be needed, for
the North Wind and the South Wind will come down and bring
with them all the spices of the Garden of Eden and they will
spread their perfume”. See Introd. sect. 16, 6.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 24.

(1) DE: ‘(a) kerub’
(2) B om. vss. 5-7.
(3) B: ‘YYY’ (i.e. YHWH) MT as above.
(4) BDE om. (perhaps gloss).
(5) B om.
(6) so BDE. A: ‘the Living Ones’ (Chayyim).
(7) B om
(8) The reference is a confusion of Ps. xviii. 10 with Is. xix. i.
B om. vs. 17.
(9) D: ‘cloud’ cf. vs. 3.
(10) so BDE. A: ‘18,000 thousands (of worlds)’
(11) B om.
(12) B om.
(13) B: ‘the Holy Throne’ E: ‘the Throne of His Glory’ cf. vs. 22.
(14) ED om.
(15) B om.

(16) B ends with this chapter. i DE: ‘honoured’
The same method that is used in regard to the ‘winds’ in the
aforegoing chapter is here applied to the ‘chariots’. The key to
the understanding of the often far-fetched deductions from
scriptural passages can be expressed by the principle:
“WHENEVER IT IS STATED IN THE HOLY WRIT THAT GOD
APPEARS, IT MUST BE ASSUMED THAT HE APPEARS ON A
VEHICLE”. Thus, e.g. when it is said (vs. 5), ‘I saw the Lord
standing upon the altar’, this is interpreted as referring to ‘the
Chariot of the altar’; ‘appeared in the Tent’ is interpreted as
‘appeared in the Chariot of the Tent’, etc.

(1) the Chariots of the Kerubim. This forms the connecting link
with ch. xxii, treating of the Kerubim in general and
mentioning the ‘chariots of the Kerubim’, vs. ii. Cf. ib. note.
(15) They run by permission soil, of the Shekina. Shekina is
above their heads. Cf. the expression ‘Shekina is resting upon
them’, with reference to the Kerubim, in ch. xxii. 13. The
Chayyoth carry the Throne of Glory, the seat of Shekina. Note
the systematic order of the ‘chariots’ in vss. 15 seqq. The
Chariots are those of ‘the Chayyoth (vs. 15), the Galgallim (vs.
16), the Kerub (vs. 17), the ‘Ophannim (vs. 1 8) and the
Divine Thrones (vss. 19 seqq.)’. This order recalls the system
of the Merkaba-tepresentation in the angelological section,
chh. xix-xxii, xxiv seqq.: four classes of Merkaba-angels
arranged according to rank under and next to the Divine
Throne. If the order here presented is intentional, it appears
that the Merkaba-picture of this chapter is different from that
of the angelological section referred to: the arrangement (and
names) of the superior classes of angels here is not congruent
with that of the latter. Cf. further note on ch. xix and
Introduction.

(16) Chariots of Wheels (Galgallim). On the Galgallim cf. note
on ch. xix. 2.
(17) Chariots of a Swift Kerub. Cf. P. R. ‘EL iv: “When God
looks out on the earth his Chariots are on the wheels
(Galgallim, cf. the preceding vs.), when riding in heaven, on a
swift Kerub”.
before he sets the other foot etc. The expression occurs also
Hek. R. iii. 2 et al.
he looks through 18,000 worlds at one glance. “It was
presumed that our present earth was preceded by many
others which were not good in the eyes of the Creator (Gen. R.
iii. 9, ix. 2) who traverses in all 18,000 worlds”. The 18,000
worlds are co-existent with the present world.

The number 18,000 is here deduced from Ezek. xlviii. 35. So
also in S. Raziel, 36 (Ma’ase Bereshith).
Acc. to ‘Aboda Zara, 3 b, the number is derived from Ps. Ixviii.
18, interpreted somewhat in the following sense: ‘God rides
(through) twenty thousands (i.e. 20,000 worlds) less two
thousand (worlds)’. This interpretation is repeated in later
cabbalistic works, e.g. ‘Peli’a’ (cited YR. i. 7 b).
In the Talmud-passage just mentioned the Holy One is
represented as traversing all the 18,000 worlds “on his SWIFT
KERUB”. The number 18,000 is lastly deduced even in a third
way, viz. from the first word of the Tora: Bereshith.
The number of the letters of this word when written in full
(beth, resh, shin, etc.) is 18. Hence the interpretation: “18
(scil. thousand worlds) created God”. With the conception of
18,000 worlds may be compared that of 955 heavens: ch.
xlviii A i (cf. note, ib.).
(19-23) The Chariots of his Holy Throne… of the Throne of
Yah… of the Throne of Judgement… of the Throne of Glory… of
the High and Exalted Throne. The word ‘chariots’ seems here
to be merely a metaphorical expression (= the vehicle of God’s
manifestation?). For the different ‘Thrones’ of God see Mass.
Hek. i, ii. All the names of ‘Thrones’ of the present verses
recur there, partly with the same scriptural references.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 25.

(1) DE: ‘honoured’
(2)-D om.
(3) A repeats the last sentence.
(4) so DE. A ins. ‘to stand (and)’
(5) so D. A: ‘house’
(6) so DE. A: ‘eyes’
(7) A ins. ‘And he is appointed to attend the ‘Ophannim’
(8)A ins. ‘over them’
(9) E: ‘makes them to fear and refreshes them’
(10) E: ‘assembles their meeting (congregation)’
(11) DE instead of ‘makes even’ read: ‘refreshes’
(12) DE: ‘and all of them are full of wings, eyes over against
wings, wings corresponding to eyes, and in between them
splendour and radiance are shining as the light of the planet
Venus’
(13) E om.
(14) D om.
(15) E: ‘seventy two’
(16) so D. EA: ‘sapphire’
(17) so D. A: (Why is it called Beraqot (lightnings)
(carbuncles)’ E: ‘Why is he called by the name of SIDQIEL?’
(18) E: ‘(the planet) Jupiter’
(19) A: ‘the shining appearance of them (the ‘Ophannim), and
of their eyes and before them (=and of their faces?)’. The
adopted reading is that of DE.

Ch. xxv. The continuation of ch. xxii.
(1) Above these… The opening words of the chapter make it
evident that it cannot possibly be a continuation of the
preceding chapter, as it appears to be from its present place.
With ch. xxii, however, it fits in well, both with regard to style,
phraseology and general arrangement. It treats of the third
class of Merkaba angels, the ‘Ophannim, and their prince,
‘OPHPHANNIEL, in a manner very similar to that of chh. xixxxii,
with regard to Chayyoth and KeruUm. ‘Ophphanniel. The
name occurs, chh. xiv. 10 and xvii. 5, as the name of the
angel set over the course of the moon. Cf. 5. Raziel, 19 b. No
instance attributing to ‘OPHPHANNIEL the function assigned to
him in the present chapter is found among the references in
Schwab, VA.
There seem to have been two different traditions concerning
the name of the leader of the ‘Ophannim. According to one it
was ‘OPHANNIEL, according to the other RAPHAEL. The former
tradition is represented by this chapter, the latter by Zohar, Ex.
xliii. In Masseket ‘Asilut the two are foisted together, so that
there RAPHAEL and ‘OPHANNIEL are given as the chieftains of
the ‘Ophannim.

(2) he has 8466 eyes etc. The number of the eyes is a
calendary one. The text is, however, corrupt, the reading of
DE worse than that of A. If, instead of ‘days of the year’, we
read (as Jellinek suggests in note, ad locum, in E) ‘hours of the
days of the year’, the number 8466 would correspond to a
lunar year of 352¾ days; the fourth part of 8466 is 2116 (plus
½) the number of eyes on each of the four sides, according to
one of the variants of A. The other variant, 2190, is the exact
fourth part of the number of hours of the solar year, if counted
as 365 days of 24 hours each. The variants of A thus point to
two different readings, one of which used ‘solar’ numbers, the
other ‘lunar’ ones. This fact does not imply any contention
between solar and lunar calculations as in the earlier
Apocrypha. In the present book the solar and lunar numbers
are merely cosmic numbers, used side by side, apparently of
equal value, although the solar ones are more frequent. The
only reason to consider the variant, giving the lunar numbers,
as the original in this case, is the fact that ‘OPHANNIEL
elsewhere chh. xiv. 10 and xvii. 5 of the present book and S.
Raziel, 19 b is connected with the course of the moon (notice
the use of the number 354 in connection with ‘OPHANNIEL, ch.
xvii. 5). Besides, the numbers 8466 and 2116 may be corrupt

for 8496 and 2124 resp., corresponding to a lunar year of 354
days. A parallel passage in Mass. Hek. iv runs (using solar
numbers): “In each Hall there are 8766 gates of lightnings,
corresponding to the number of hours of the days of a year”.
This parallel is pointed out by Jellinek in his note (referred to
above) and is the point of support for the emendations
suggested by him.
(3) two eyes that are in his face. His face, being pictured as
that of a man, has two eyes only, whereas the rest of his body
is wholly covered with eyes: see the preceding verse.
(4) appointed over the ‘Ophannim. On the ‘Ophannim cf.
Introduction. The ‘Ophannim have here, as well as in i En. Ixi.
10, Ixxi. 7, 2 En. xxix. 3, Yer. Ber. iv. 5, lost all traces of
their original character of wheels (galgallim). Cf. the similar
development of the traditions concerning the Galgallim (see
note on ch. xix. 2).

Here the ‘Ophannim are depicted as one of the classes of
Merkaba-angels, with the regular appearance of angels (with
eyes, garments, crowns etc. cf. vs. 6).
Later the ‘Ophannim are identified with the Galgallim, e.g. in
the cabbalistic treatise on the Throne, the Merkaba and the
Shekina, contained in Harley Or. 5510, fol. 127 a: “the
‘Ophannim, they are (the same as) the Galgallim”.
When the Galgallim are identified with the spheres or heavenly
bodies, the conception of the ‘Ophannim as those who ‘move
the spheres’ arises. Such is the representation of the
‘Ophannim in Shefa ‘Tal (by R. Sheftel Horwitz, ed. 1612), fol.
41 c: “… the ‘Ophannim, who act in the ‘Asiyyatic world (‘the
world of creative matter’) and move the spheres, as it is
written (Ezek. i. 15) ‘… behold one ‘Ophan upon the earth’
etc.”

It was, no doubt, through the connection of the ‘Ophannim with
the ‘globes’ that ‘OPHANNIEL was made the prince appointed
over the ‘globe of the moon’.
(6) 72 sapphire stones are fixed on their garments. Cf. ch.
xii. i, and for the use of the number 72, vs. i of ch. ix.
(7) four carbuncle stones on the crown… Carbuncle stone is
mentioned as one of the different kinds of precious stones

fixed on “the floor of the ‘Araboth” in Mass. Hek. iv, where a
similar statement is made to its splendour as here: “its
splendour proceeds through the whole universe and through
all the seven heavens”.
why is it called Carbuncle? There is a certain confusion in the
readings of the latter part of the verse. The reading of D is
adopted in the translation, as being the most plausible: the
unfamiliar word ‘Bareqet’ is explained as derived from ‘Baraq’
(‘lightning’). The reading of E is based on the assumption that
the word to be explained is that of an angel: the expression
‘wĕlãmmã niqrā shĕmō… = why is he called by the name… ‘is
the regular phrase introducing the explanation of an angel’s
name. Hence E presents the reading: “Why is he called by the
name of SIDQIEL? Because his splendour is like the splendour
of the planet Jupiter (Sedeq)”.

The reading of E is probably due to an emendation of a copyist.
It is, however, difficult to understand why he should have
substituted ‘SIDQIEL’ and ‘Sedeq’ for ‘Bareqet’ and ‘Baraq’
resp. (it would have been more natural to choose, say, the
name ‘BARAQIEL’, cf. ch. xiv. 10), unless one may assume,
that he was dependent upon some tradition, according to
which SIDQIEL was the Prince of the ‘Ophannim. acc. to Zohar
and Mass. Asilut, SIDQIEL is the leader of the class of angels,
which is called Shin’anim. tents of splendour etc. The tents,
like the clouds of ch. xxxiv. 2, serve the purpose of protecting
the other angels from the splendour of the ‘Ophannim.

3 ENOCH. CHAPTER NOTES.

CHAPTER 26.

(1) DE om.
(2). A omitting ‘goodliness’ has here a lacuna.
(3) so D. A: ‘streams’
(4) E instead of ‘the planet Venus’ reads ‘the shining stars ‘
(5) DE om.
(6) A ins. ‘the Holy Seraphim and’
(7) DE om.
(8) DE add: ‘in each direction’
(9) E om.
(10) DE: ‘he writes*
(11) E: ‘in a vision from’
(12) ins. from D. A om.
(13) E adds: ‘of Glory’
(14) so DE. A: ‘he may not present them.’ Ch. xxvii.

(1) a swift scribe. As this attribute is omitted by D and E, and
no second statement occurs in the chapter to the effect that
SERAPHIEL had the function of a scribe, scarcely any
importance can be ascribed to this single expression. It is
possible that a copyist, missing a clear reference to the
identity of the ‘scribes’ or ‘scribe’ in the present angelological
section, there being only an occasional mention of ‘scribes’ in
ch. xxvii. 2, concluded that SERAPHIEL, the highest of the
princes of the Merkaba-angels held this function. To the
‘scribes’ was assigned a high position near the Throne of God.
The conception is mainly connected with that of the
Judgement.

(6) The description of the appearance of the body of
SERAPHIEL in this verse seems to indicate that his body was
conceived of as having human form, in contradiction to the
statement made in vs. 3.
(7) The crown on his head. On the crown as regular
accompaniment-feature of descriptions of high angels, cf. ch.
xii. 3 note (also ch. xviii. i). The measure of the crown is…
Cf. SM’ur Qoma, Bodl. OPP. 467: the measure of the crown on
the head of the manifested GoHhead is 500,000 by 500,000
(measures).
(8) Seraphiel H’. See Schwab, VA. p. 260. Among the
different passages treating of ‘SERAPHIEL’ that which is
nearest akin to the present representation is Zohar, ii. 252 b

(Hekaloth), where SERAPHIEL is given as the name of one of
the four Seraphim, viz. the first one.
Acc. to S. Raziel, 36 b, he is appointed over one of the gates of
the heavenly apartments.
Acc. to Widduy Yaphe (Add. 15299, fol. 133 b) SERAPHIEL is
one of the twenty-six angels who carry the Merkaba.
In S. ha Chesheq he is invoked together with other angels by
the suppliant, praying for “knowledge in purity”.
In Berith Menucha, fol. 47 c, SERAPHIEL is mentioned as one
of the company of ‘consuming’ or ‘burning’ angels. The words
‘SERAPHIEL’ and ‘Seraphim’ are deduced from the verb
‘saraph’ (‘burn’, ‘to burn’). Cf. the explanation of the name
‘Seraphim’ in vs. 12 of the present chapter. Hence
SERAPHIEL, acc. to ‘Amtachat Binyanim, fol. 38 b (cited
Schwab, ib.), is invoked in case of fire.

And the crown on his head, its name is “the Prince of Peace.”
This statement is peculiar to A : it is not found in D and E. It is
somewhat out of keeping with the style of this section, as well
as of the whole book, in so far as it is the only instance where a
special, artificial, name is given to any part of an angel’s body
or adornment. The attribution of special names to the different
parts of the body of the Godhead is a marked feature of Shiur
Qoma, and even of Hek. Zot. The sentence is no doubt a
gloss.

in all manner of Praise and Sanctification. The Seraphim are
singing praises to their Creator and especially the Qĕdushsha
or Trisagion. That the Seraphim perform the Qĕdushsha is
definitely stated also in the Testament of Adam (Patrologia
Syriaca), in Ma’yan Chokma, BH. i. 58-64, and in the
Qĕdushsha of the Additional service for Sabbath and Festivals
(the Qĕdushsha le-Musaph) . The last mentioned runs: “We
will revere and sanctify thee as in the secret whisper of the
Holy Seraphim who sanctify Thy name in Holiness, as it is
written by the hand of the prophet (Is. vi. 3), ‘And one cried
unto another and said, Holy, Holy, Holy, etc.”‘The entire
conception of the Qĕdushsha-singing Seraphim is of course
deduced from Is. vi. It is uncertain whether Qĕdushsha here is
really = Trisagion.
The Seraphim are identical with the Chalkadri of 2 En. xii and
xv. i (according to CHARLES) and, probably, also with the
‘serpents’ of i En. xx. 7 (“Gabriel, one of the holy angels, who
is over Paradise and the serpents and the Cherubim”). Cf. 2
En. xix. 6. In Apoc. Mosis, xxxiii. 3, the Seraphim are
connected with the Merkaba as here. They appear as one of
the classes of superior angels in i En. Ixi. 10: “And He will
summon all the host of the heavens, and all the holy ones
above, and the host of God, the Kerubin, Seraphin and
‘Ophannin”; and ib. Ixxi. 7: “And round about were Seraphin,
Cherubin and Ophannin …”. Cf. further 2 En. xix. 6, xxix. 3,
TB. Chag. 12 b.

As the first (and highest) rank of angels they are represented
(as here) in the Coptic Mysteries of St John and the Holy Virgin,
fol. 6 b (Budge’s ed.): “I saw all the ranks of the angels. The
first rank contained the Seraphim”.
Berith Menucha, 38 b, also puts the Seraphim in the highest
rank, under the leadership of YeHOEL.
Further on the Seraphim, see the Introduction.
(12) Every day Satan is sitting, together with Sammael etc.
Satan is here the Prince of the Accusers, SAMMAEL and
DUBBIEL being merely his assistants. This function tends more
and more to be transferred to SAMMAEL, who as the
representative of Rome, the head of the Gentile Nations,
naturally becomes the chief supraterrestrial enemy of Israel.
So, ch. xiv. 2, SAMMAEL is explicitly named ‘the Prince of the
Accusers’. Likewise, in the Pirqe Mashidch, BH. iii. 68,
SAMMAEL appears as the official accuser of Israel. In the
earlier Apocrypha he is the angel of death, e.g. Sir. xxv. 24; 3
Bar. iv. 8, ix. 7.

He is also identified with the serpent of the
Genesis narrative of the primordial sin, or at least considered
as the angel who led Adam astray acc. to 3 Bar. iv. 8, ix. 7.
Traces of his character as angel of death are found even in
later writings, e.g. Midrash Petirath Moshe, BH. i. 125, acc. to
which ‘SAMMAEL, the head of the Accusers’ aspires to fetch
Moses’ soul at the time of his death. In the same line fall his
functions of prince of the Nehar di-Nur, the fiery river (Zohar, i.
40 a, ii. 243 b), and angel of Gehenna (Midrash Konen, ‘Arze
Lebanon, 3 b, P. R. ‘EL xxxi, xiii). As Prince of Rome Sammael
is mentioned in Gen. R. Ixxvii, in Pirqe Mashi’ch, ib., in Hek.
R. iv, v and freq. As such he obtains a prominent place among
‘the Princes of Kingdoms’, even at times represented as their
leader. Cf. notes on chh. xiv. 2 and xvii. 8.
For DUBBIEL as the Prince of Persia cf. TB. Yoma, 77 a. Vide
Introd. sect. 7.

For ‘Satan’ and ‘Satans’ as having access to heaven, vide
CHARLES, The Book of Enoch, p. 66, on the relation of ‘The
Parables’ of i En. to the rest of the book. acc. to i En. xl. 7,
the Satans have access to heaven.
that they may present them before the Holy One. This
conception of the Seraphim as having the function of handing
over documents or petitions to the Holy One, is represented in
a somewhat different form in the statement occurring in Lev.
R. xxii and Eccl. R. x, that the record of man’s deeds during
the past day is during his sleep transmitted by the ‘nĕshāmā’
to a Kerub and by the Kerub to a Seraph, who in his turn
presents it before the Holy One, blessed be He.

The
conception is based on the assumption that the Seraphim are
the class of Merkaba-angels who stand next to the Throne.
know from the secrets of the Holy One. It was thought that
some of the highest angels enjoyed the privilege of partaking
in the knowledge of God’s secrets; they knew beforehand the
decrees and the reasons of the decrees. Cf. chh. xxviii. 4, x.
i, xlv. i, 2 and notes resp., xviii. 16 and note. A technical term
for this knowledge of the Divine secrets was the expression
“know from inside the Curtain” or “hear from behind the
Curtain”. Cf. Chag. 16 a (concerning the ministering angels),
Chibbut ha Qeber, iv (of the angel of death), Ma’yan Chokma,
et freq. (of the angel Gallisur).
receive them from the hand of Satan and burn them… that
they may not come before the Holy One etc. Cf. how acc. to i
En. xl, “the four presences on the four sides of the Lord of
Spirits” “fend off the Satans and forbid them to come before
the Lord of Spirits to accuse them who dwell on the earth” (vs.
7). The accusations have no power to alter the Divine decrees
concerning Israel, so far as they are sufficiently counterpoised
by high merits on the part of Israel (for instance their
acceptance of the Tora on mount Sinai, without which
acceptance the whole world could not have subsisted). Of this
impotence of the accusations the burning ‘of the writing tables
of Satan’ is a metaphor.

The Seraphim are here represented as frustrating the plottings
of the accusing angels. In P. R. ‘El. on the contrary,
SAMMAEL, the Chayyoth and the Seraphim in unity desire
man’s fall and plan to bring it about. sitting upon the Throne
of Judgement, judging the whole world in truth.
The interest begins to turn to the Judgement. Similarly, in the
independent angelological exposition contained in ch. xviii,
the functions of the last enumerated angels centre round the
different aspects of the Divine Judgement. The Throne of Glory
seems to the visionary as he directs his gaze higher, to reveal
itself as the Throne of Judgement. For the expression ‘judging
in truth’ cf. ch. xxxi. i. although belonging to the same
angelological section as the preceding chapters, leaves the
subject of the angels of the Merkaba and the princes appointed
over them and approaches the subject of the Judgement,
already alluded to by the last verse of the aforegoing chapter.
It treats of RADWERIEL, the heavenly registrar, the keeper of
the Case of Writings, of which the most important is ‘the Book
of Records’. On ‘the Book of Records’ the Judgement is to be
based.

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The Third Book of Enoch

THE THIRD BOOK OF:

ENOCH.

BY RABBI, ISHMAEL BEN ELISHA.

THE HIGH PRIEST.

R. Ishmael ascends to heaven to behold the vision of the Merkaba and is given in charge to Metatron.

AND ENOCH WALKED WITH GOD: AND HE WAS NOT; FOR GOD TOOK HIM.

(Gen. V:24)

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 1.

Rabbi Ishmael said:

1:1 When I ascended on high to behold the vision of the Merkaba (1) and had entered the six Halls, one within the other:

1:2 as soon as I reached the door of the seventh Hall I stood still in prayer before the Holy One, blessed be He, and, lifting up my eyes on high (i.e. towards the Divine Majesty), I said:

1:3 “Lord of the Universe, I pray thee, that the merit of Aaron, the son of Amram, the lover of peace and pursuer of peace, who received the crown of priesthood from Thy Glory on the mount of Sinai, be valid for me in this hour, so that Qafsiel, (2) the prince, and the Angels with him may not get power over me nor throw me down from the heavens”.

1:4 Forthwith the Holy One, blessed be He, sent to me Metatron, his Servant (‘Ebed) the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, and he, spreading his wings, with great joy came to meet me so as to save me from their hand.

1:5 And he took me by his hand in their sight, saying to me: “Enter in peace before the high and exalted King (3) and behold the picture of the Merkaba”.

1:6 Then I entered the seventh (4) Hall, and he led me to the camp(s) (5) of Shekina and placed me before (6) the Holy One, blessed be He, to behold the Merkaba.

1:7 As soon as the princes of the Merkaba and the flaming Seraphim perceived me, they fixed their eyes upon me. Instantly trembling and shuddering seized me and I fell down (7) and was benumbed by the radiant image of their eyes and the splendid appearance of their faces; until the Holy One, blessed be He, rebuked them, saying:

1:8 “My servants, my Seraphim, my Kerubim and my ‘Ophannim! Cover ye your eyes before Ishmael, (8) my son, my friend, my beloved one and my glory, that he tremble not nor shudder!”

1:9 Forthwith Metatron the Prince of the Presence, came and restored my spirit and put me upon my feet.

1:10 After that (moment) there was not in me strength enough to say a song before the Throne of Glory of the glorious King, the mightiest of all kings, the most excellent of all princes, until after the hour had passed.

1:11 After one hour (had passed) the Holy One, blessed be He, opened to me the gates of Shekina, the gates of Peace, the gates of Wisdom, the gates of Strength, the gates of Power, the gates of Speech (Dibbur), the gates of Song, the gates of Qedushsha, the gates of Chant.

1:12 And he enlightened my eyes and my heart by words of psalm, song, praise, exaltation, thanksgiving, extolment, glorification, hymn and eulogy. (9) And as I opened my mouth, uttering a song before (10) the Holy One, blessed be He, the Holy Chayyoth beneath and above the Throne of Glory answered and said: “HOLY” and “BLESSED BE THE GLORY OF YHWH FROM HIS PLACE!” (I.e. chanted the Qedushsha).

The highest classes of Angels make inquiries about R. Ishmael which are answered by Metatron

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 2.

R. Ishmael said:

2:1 In that hour the eagles (1) of the Merkaba, the flaming ‘Ophannim and the Seraphim of consuming fire (2) asked (2a) Metatron, saying to him:

2:2 “Youth! Why sufferest thou one born of woman to enter and behold the Merkaba? From which nation, from which tribe is this one? What is his character?”

2:3 Metatron answered and said to them: “From the nation of Israel whom the Holy One, blessed be He, chose for his people (3) from among seventy tongues (nations), from the tribe of Levi, (4) whom he set aside as a contribution to his name and from the seed of Aaron whom the Holy One, blessed be He, did choose for his servant and put upon him the crown of priesthood on Sinai”.

2:4 Forthwith they spake and said: “Indeed, this one is worthy to behold the Merkaba”. (5) And they said: “Happy is the people that is in such a case!” (Ps. cxliv. 15).

Metatron has 70 names, but God calls him ‘Youth.’

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 3.

R. Ishmael said:

3:1 In that hour (1) I asked Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence: (2) “What is thy name?”

3:2 He answered me: “I have seventy names, corresponding to the seventy tongues (3) of the world and all of them (4) are based upon the name (5) Metatron, Angel of the Presence; but (6) my King calls me ‘Youth’ (Na’ar) (ראנ)

Metatron is identical with Enoch who was translated to heaven at the time of the Deluge.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 4.

R. Ishmael said:

4:1 I asked Metatron and said to him: Why art thou called (1) by the name of thy Creator, by seventy names? Thou art greater than all the princes, higher than all the Angels, beloved more than all the servants, honoured above all the mighty ones in kingship, greatness and glory: why do they call thee ‘Youth’ in the high heavens?”

4:2 He answered and said to me: “(2) Because I am Enoch, the son of Jared.”

4:3 For when the generation of the flood sinned and were confounded in their deeds, saying unto God: ‘Depart from us, for we desire not the knowledge of thy ways; (Job xxi. 14) then the Holy One, blessed be He, removed me from their midst to be a witness against them in the high heavens to all the inhabitants of the world, that (3) they may not say: ‘The Merciful One is cruel’.

ADEL:

BC:

What sinned all those multitudes, their wives, their sons and their daughters, their horses, their mules and their cattle and their property, and all the birds of the world, all of which the Holy One, blessed be He, destroyed from the world (4) together with them in the waters of the flood?

What sins had they committed, all those multitudes? Or, let it be they sinned, what had their sons and their daughters, their mules and their cattle sinned? And likewise, all the animals, domestic and wild, and the birds in the world (4) that God did destroy from the world?

ADL:

E:

Nor may say: What though the generation of the flood did sin; the beasts and the birds, what had they sinned, that they should perish with them?

What had they sinned that they should perish with them?

4:4 What sins had they committed, all those multitudes? Or, let it be they sinned, what had their sons and their daughters, their mules and their cattle sinned? And like wise, all the animals, domestic and wild, and the birds in the world (4) that God did destroy from the world?

4:5 Hence the Holy One, blessed be He, lifted me up (5) in their lifetime before their eyes to be a witness against them to the future world. And the Holy One, blessed be He, (6) assigned me for a prince and a ruler among the ministering Angels.

4:6 In that hour (7) (8) three of the ministering Angels, ‘UZZA, ‘AZZA and ‘AZZAEL came forth and brought charges against me in the high heavens, saying before the Holy One, blessed be He, (9) Said “not the Ancient Ones (First Ones) rightly before Thee: (10) Do not create man!'” (11) “The Holy One, blessed be He, answered and said unto them: “I have made and I will bear, yea, I will carry and will deliver”. (Is. xlvi. 4.)

4:7 As soon as they saw me, they said before Him: “Lord of the Universe ! What is this one that he should ascend to the height of heights? Is not he one from among the sons of [the sons of] those who perished in the days (12) of the Flood? (13) “What doeth he in the Raqia?”

4:8 Again, the Holy One, blessed be He, answered and said to them: “What are ye, that ye enter and speak in my presence? I delight in this one more than in all of you, and hence he shall be a shall be a prince and a ruler over you in the high heavens”

4:9 Forthwith all stood up and went out to meet me, prostrated themselves before me and said: “Happy art thou and happy is thy father (14) for thy Creator doth favour thee”.

4:10 And because I am small and a youth among them (15) in days, months and years, therefore they call me “Youth” (Na’ar).

The idolatry of the generation of Enosh causes God to remove the Shekina from earth.

The idolatry inspired by ‘Azza, ‘ Uzza and ‘Azziel.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 5.

R. Ishmael said:

5:1 Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to me: (1) From the day when the Holy One, blessed be He, expelled the first Adam from the Garden of Eden (and onwards), Shekina was dwelling upon a Kerub under the Tree of Life.

5:2 And the ministering Angels were gathering together and going down from heaven in parties, (3) from the Raqia’ in companies and from the heavens in camps (4) to do His will in the whole world.

5:3 And the first man and (5) his generation were sitting outside the gate of the Garden to behold the radiant appearance of the Shekina.

5:4 For the splendour of the Shekina traversed the world from one end to the other (6) (with a splendour) 365,000 times (that) of the globe of the sun. And everyone who (7) made use of the splendour of the Shekina, on him no flies and no gnats did rest, neither was he ill nor suffered he any pain. No demons got power over him, neither were they able to injure him.

5:5 When the Holy One, blessed be He, went out and went in: (8) from the Garden to Eden, from Eden to the Garden, from the Garden to Raqia’ and from Raqia’ to the Garden of Eden 8 then all and everyone beheld the splendour (9) of His Shekina and they (10) were not injured;

5:6 until the time of (11) the generation of Enosh (12) who was the head of all idol worshippers of the world.

5:7 And (13) what did the generation of Enosh do? They went from one end of the world to the other, and each one brought silver, gold, precious stones and pearls in (14) heaps like unto mountains and hills making idols out of them throughout all the world. And they erected the idols in every quarter of the world: the size of each idol was 1000 parasangs.

5:8 And they brought down the sun, the moon, planets and constellations, and placed them before the idols on their right hand and on their left, to attend them even as they attend (15) the Holy One, blessed be He, as it is written (3 Kings xxii. 19): “And all the host of heaven was standing by him on his right hand and on his left”.

5:9 What power was in them that they were able to bring them down? They would not have been able to bring them down but for (16) ‘UZZA, ‘AZZA and ‘AZZIELIS who taught them “sorceries whereby they brought them down and made use of them (17)

5:10 In that time the ministering Angels brought charges (against them) before the Holy One, blessed be He, saying before him: “Master of the World! What hast thou to do with the children of men? As it is written (Ps. viii. 4) ‘What is man (Enosh) that thou art mindful of him?’ ‘Mah Adam’ is not written here, but ‘Mah Enosh’, for he (Enosh) is the head of the idol worshippers,

5:11 Why hast thou left and art gone and dwellest with the children of men who worship idols and equal thee to the idols.

ADE;

B:

CL:

The highest of the high heavens, the abode of Thy glorious Name, and the high and exalted Throne in Araboth on high. the Araboth Raqia which are full of Thy glory, might and high alike, and the high and exalted Throne in Araboth Raqia in the highest. The highest of the high heavens which are filled with the majesty of Thy glory and are high, uplifted and exalted, and the high and exalted Throne in the Araboth Raqia on high.

5:12 (18) Now thou art on earth and the idols likewise. What hast thou to do with (19) the inhabitants of the earth who worship idols?”

5:13 Forthwith the Holy One, blessed be He, lifted up His Shekina from the earth, from their midst. (20)

5:14 In that moment came the ministering Angels, the troops of hosts and the armies of ‘Araboth in thousand camps and ten thousand hosts: they fetched trumpets and took the horns in their hands and surrounded the Shekina with all kinds of songs. (21) And He ascended to the high heavens, as it is written (Ps. xlvii. 5): “God is gone up with a shout, the Lord with the sound of a trumpet”.

Enoch lifted up to heaven together with the Shekina.

Angels’ protests answered by God.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 6.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

6:1 When the Holy One, blessed be He, desired (1) to lift me up on high, He first sent Anaphiel H (H (ה) = Tetragrammaton), the Prince, he took me from their midst in their sight and carried (2) me (3) in great glory upon (3a) a fiery chariot with fiery horses, servants (4) of glory. And he lifted me up to the high heavens together with the Shekina.

6:2 As soon as I reached the high heavens, the Holy Chayyoth, the ‘Ophannim, the Seraphim, the Kerubim, the Wheels of the Merkaba (the Galgallim), and the ministers of (5) the consuming fire, perceiving my smell (6) from a distance (7) of 365,ooo (7a) myriads of parasangs, said:

A:

B:

CDEL:

“What smell of one born of woman and what taste of a (8) white drop (is this) that ascends on high, and (Lo, he is merely) a gnat among those who ‘divide flames (of fire)’?” “What is one born of woman between (among) us? The taste of a (8) white drop which ascends to the high heavens to minister (9) among those who ‘divide flames of fire'”. “What smell (10) of (11) a woman-born is this and what taste of a (8) white drop that ascends to the high heavens to minister (12) among dividers of flames.

6:3 The Holy One, blessed be He, answered and spake unto them: “My servants, (13) my hosts, my Kerubim, my ‘Ophannim, my Seraphim! Be ye not displeased on account of this! Since all the children of men have denied me (14) and my great Kingdom and are gone worshipping idols, I have removed my Shekina from among them and have lifted it up on high. (15) But this one whom I have taken from among them is an ELECT ONE among (the inhabitants of) the world (16) and he is equal to all of them in faith, righteousness and perfection of deed (17) and (18) I have taken him for (as) a tribute from my world under all the heavens”.

Enoch raised upon the wings of the Shekina to the place of the Throne, the Merkaba and the Angelic hosts.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 7. (1)

R. Ishmael said:

7:1 Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me: When the Holy One, blessed be He, took me away from the generation of the Flood, he lifted me on the wings of the wind of Shekina to the highest heaven and brought me into the great palaces of the ‘Araboth Raqia’ on high, where are (2) the glorious Throne of Shekina, the Merkaba (3), the troops of anger, the armies of vehemence, the fiery Shin’anim (4), the (5) flaming Kerubim, and the burning ‘Ophannim, the flaming servants, the flashing Chashmattim and the lightening Seraphim. And he placed me (there) to attend the Throne of Glory day after day.

The gates (of the treasuries of heaven) opened to Metatron.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 8.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

8:1 Before He appointed me to attend the Throne of Glory, the Holy One, blessed be He, opened to me

(1) three hundred thousand gates of Understanding,

Three hundred thousand gates of Subtlety,

Three hundred thousand gates of Life,

Three hundred thousand gates of ‘grace and loving-kindness,

Three hundred thousand gates of love,

Three hundred thousand gates of Tora,

Three hundred thousand gates of meekness,

Three hundred thousand gates of maintenance,

Three hundred thousand gates’ of mercy,

Three hundred thousand gates of fear of heaven.

8:2 In that hour the Holy One, blessed be He, added in me wisdom unto wisdom, understanding unto understanding, subtlety unto subtlety, knowledge unto knowledge, mercy unto mercy, instruction unto instruction, love unto love, loving-kindness unto loving-kindness, goodness unto goodness, meekness unto meekness, power unto power, strength unto strength, might unto might, brilliance unto brilliance, beauty unto beauty, splendour unto splendour, (2) and I was honoured and adorned with all these good and praiseworthy things more than all the children of heaven.

Enoch receives blessings from the Most High and is adorned with Angelic attributes.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 9.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

9:1 After all these things the Holy One, blessed be He, put His hand upon me and blessed me with 536O (1) blessings and honour unto all honour, majesty unto all majesty, glory unto all glory and greatness unto all greatness.

9:2 And I was raised (2) and enlarged to the size of the length and width of the world.

9:3 And He caused 72 wings to grow on me, 36 on each side. And each wing (3) was as the whole world.

9:4 And He fixed on me 365 eyes: each eye was as the great luminary.

9:5 And He left no kind of splendour, brilliance, radiance, beauty (4) in (of) all the lights of the universe that He did not fix on me.

God places Metatron on a throne at the door of the seventh Hall and announces through the Herald, that Metatron henceforth is God’s representative and ruler over all the princes of kingdoms and all the children of heaven, save the eight high princes called YHVH by the name of their King.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 10.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

10:1 All these things the Holy One, blessed be He, made for me: (1) He made me a Throne, similar to the (2) Throne of Glory. And He spread over me (3) a curtain of splendour and brilliant appearance, of beauty, grace (4) and mercy, similar to (3) the curtain of the Throne of Glory; and on it were fixed all (5) kinds of lights in the universe.

10:2 And He placed it at the door of the Seventh Hall and seated me on it.

10:3 And the herald went forth (6) into every heaven, saying: (7) This is Metatron, (8) my servant. I have made him into a prince and a ruler over all the princes of my kingdoms (9) and over all the children of heaven, except the eight great princes, the honoured and revered ones who are called (10) YHWH, (יהוה) by the name of their King.

10:4 And every Angel (11) and every prince who has a word to speak (12) in my presence (before me) shall go into his presence (before him) and shall speak to him (instead).

10:5 (13) And every command that he utters to you in my name do ye observe and fulfil. For the Prince of Wisdom and the Prince of Understanding (14) have I committed to him to instruct him in the wisdom of heavenly things and of earthly things, in the wisdom of this world and of the world to come.

10:6 Moreover, I have set him over all the treasuries of the palaces of Araboih and over all the stores (15) of life that (16) I have (17) in the high heavens.

God reveals all mysteries and secrets to Metatron.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 11.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

11:1 (1) Henceforth the Holy One, blessed be He, revealed to me1 all the mysteries of Tora and all the secrets of wisdom (2) and all the depths of the Perfect Law; (3) and all living beings’ thoughts of heart and all the secrets of the universe and all the secrets (4) of Creation were revealed unto me even as they are revealed unto (5)he Maker of Creation.

11:2 And I watched intently (6) to behold (7) the secrets of the depth and the wonderful mystery.

(9) ABL:

C:

Before a man did think (8) in secret, I saw (8a) (it) and before a man made a thing I beheld it. (3) And there was no thing on high nor in the depth of the world hidden from me (10) from the Creator of the World alone. Before a man did think, I knew what was in his thought. (3) And there was no thing above on high nor below in the deep hidden from me. (9)

God clothes Metatron in a garment of glory, puts a royal crown on his head and calls him “the Lesser YHVH”.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 12.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

12:1 By reason of the love with which the Holy One, blessed be He, loved me more than all the children of heaven, He made me a garment of glory (1) on which were fixed (2) all kinds of (3) lights, and He clad me (4) in it.

12:2 (5) And He made me a robe of honour on which were fixed all kinds of beauty, splendour, brilliance and majesty (6).

12:3 And he made me a royal crown in which were fixed forty-nine costly stones (7) like unto the light of the globe of the sun.

12:4 For its splendour went forth (8) in the four quarters of the ‘Araboth Raqia’, and in (through) the seven heavens, and in the four quarters of the world. And (9) he put it on my head.

12:5 And (10) He called me THE LESSER YHWH (יהוה) in the presence of all His (11) heavenly household; as it is written (Ex. xxiii. 21): “For my name is in him”.

God writes with a flaming style on Metatron’s crown the cosmic letters by which heaven and earth were created.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 13.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, the Glory of all heavens, said to me:

13:1 Because of the (1) great love and mercy with which the Holy One, blessed be He, loved (2) and cherished me more than all the children of heaven, He wrote with his ringer with a flaming style upon the crown on my head the letters by which were created (3) heaven and earth, the seas and rivers, (4) the mountains and hills, the planets and constellations (5), the lightning’s, winds, earthquakes (6) and voices (thunders), the snow and hail, the storm-wind and the tempest; the letters by which were created all (7) the needs of the world (8) and all the orders of Creation.

13:2 And every single letter (9) sent forth (10) time after time as it were “lightning’s, (12) time after time as it were torches, time after time as it were flames of fire, time after time (11) (rays) like [as] the rising of the sun and the moon and the planets.

All the highest princes, the elementary Angels and the planetary and sideric Angels fear and tremble at the sight of Metatron crowned.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 14.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

14:1 When the Holy One, blessed be He, put this crown on my head, (then) trembled before me all the Princes of Kingdoms who are in the height (1) of ‘Araboth Raqiaf and all the hosts of every heaven; and even (2) the princes (of) the ‘Elim, the princes (of) the ‘Er’ellim and the princes (of) the Tafsarim, who are greater than all the ministering Angels who minister before the Throne of Glory, (4) shook, feared and trembled before me 3when they beheld me.

14:2 Even Sammael (5), the Prince of the Accusers, who is greater than all the princes of kingdoms on high; feared and trembled before me.

14:3 And even the Angel (6) of fire, and the Angel of hail, and the Angel of the wind, (7) and the Angel of the lightning, and the Angel of anger, (8) and the Angel of the thunder, and the Angel of the snow, and the Angel of (9) the rain; and the Angel of the day, and the Angel of the night, (10) and the Angel of the sun and the Angel of the moon and the Angel of the planets and the Angel of the constellations (11) who rule the world under their hands, feared (12) and trembled and were affrighted before me, when they beheld me.

14:4 13 These are the names of the rulers of the world: Gabriel, the Angel of the fire, Baradiel, the Angel of the hail, Ruchiel who is appointed over the wind, Baraqiel who is appointed over the lightning’s, Za’amiel who is appointed over the vehemence, Ziqiel who is appointed over the sparks, Zi’iel who is appointed over the commotion, Zdaphiel who is appointed over the storm-wind, Ra’amiel who is appointed over the thunders, Rctashiel who is appointed over the earthquake, Shalgiel who is appointed over the snow, Matariel who is appointed over the rain, Shimshiel who is appointed over the day, Lailiel who is appointed over the night, Galgalliel who is appointed over the globe of the sun, ‘Ophanniel who is appointed over the globe of the moon, Kokbiel who is appointed over the planets, Rahatiel who is appointed over the constellations (13) (11).

14:5 And they all fell prostrate, when they saw me. And they were not able to behold me because of the majestic glory and beauty of (14) the appearance of the shining light of the crown of glory upon my head. (15).

Metatron transformed into fire.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 15A.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, the Glory of all heavens, said to me:

15A:1. As soon as the Holy One, blessed be He, took me (1) in (His) service to attend the Throne of Glory and (2) the Wheels (Galgallim) of the Merkaba and the needs (3) of Shekina, forthwith my flesh was changed into flames, my sinews into flaming fire, my bones into coals of burning juniper, (4) the light of my eye-lids into (5) splendour of lightning’s, my eye-balls into fire-brands, the hair of my head into dot flames, all my limbs into wings of burning fire and the whole of my body into glowing fire.

15A:2. And on my right were divisions (6) of fiery flames, on my left fire-brands were burning (7) , round about me 8stormwind and tempest were blowing (8) and in front of me and behind me was roaring of (9) thunder with earthquake. (10)

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 15B.

Addition occurring in B and L.

B.

L.

15B:1 R. Iskmael said: Said to me Metatron, the Prince of the Presence and the prince over all the princes, and he stands before

15B:1 Metatron, he is prince over all the princes and he stands before

Him who is greater than all the Elohini. And he goes in under the Throne of Glory. And he has a great tabernacle of (1) light on high. And he brings forth the fire of deafness and puts (it) into the ears of the Holy Chayyoth, that they may not hear the voice of the Word (Dibbur) (2) that goes forth from the mouth of the Divine Majesty.

15B:2 And when Moses ascended on high, he fasted 121 fasts, till (3) the habitations of the chashmal were opened to him; and he

Fragment of ”Ascension of Moses”.

B.

L.

saw the heart within the heart of the Lion

saw, that it was white as the heart of the Lion

and he saw the innumerable (4) companies of the hosts (5) round about him. And they desired to burn him. But Moses prayed for mercy, first (6) for Israel and after that (7) for himself: and He who sitteth on the Merkaba opened the windows that are above the heads of the Kerubim. And a host of 1800 advocates (8) and the Prince of the Presence, Metatron, with them went forth to meet Moses. And they took the prayers of Israel (9) and put them (10) (11) as a crown on the head of the Holy One, blessed be He.

15B:3. And they said (Deut. vi. 4): “Hear, O Israel; the Lord our God is one Lord”

B:

L:

and their face shone and rejoiced over Shekina

and the face of Shekina shone and rejoiced

and they said to Metatron: “What are these? And to whom do they give all this honour and glory?” And they answered: “To the Glorious Lord of Israel”. And they spake:

B:

L:

“Hear, O Israel: the Lord, our God, is one Lord. To whom shall be given abundance of honour and majesty but to Thee YHWH, the Divine Majesty, the King, living and eternal”.

“YHWH the Living and Eternal”.

15B:4. In that moment spake Akatriel Yah Yehod Sebaoth and said to Metatron, the Prince of the Presence: “Let no prayer that he prayeth before me return (to him) void. Hear thou his prayer and fulfil his desire whether (it be) great or small (12)”.

15B:5. Forthwith Metatron, the Prince of the Presence, said to Moses: “Son of Amram! Fear not, (13) for now God delights in thee. And ask thou (14) thy desire of the Glory and Majesty. For thy face shines from one end of the world to the other”. But Moses answered him: “(I fear) lest I bring guiltiness upon myself”. Metatron said to him: ”Receive the letters of the oath, in (by) which there is no breaking the covenant” (15) (which precludes any breach of the covenant).

Metatron divested of his privilege of presiding on a Throne of his own on account of AcHer’s misapprehension in taking him for a second Divine Power.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 16. (1)

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, the Glory of all heaven, said to me:

16:1 At first I was sitting upon a (2) great Throne at the door of the Seventh Hall; and I was judging (3) the children of heaven, (4) the household on high by authority of the Holy One, blessed be He. And I divided Greatness, Kingship, Dignity, Rulership, Honour and Praise, and Diadem and Crown of Glory unto all the princes of kingdoms, while I was presiding (lit. sitting) in the Celestial Court (Yeshiba), and the princes of kingdoms were standing before me, on my right and on my left by authority of the Holy One, blessed be He.

16:2 But when Acher (5) came to behold the vision of the Merkaba and fixed his eyes on me, he feared and trembled before me and his soul was affrighted even unto departing from him, because of fear, horror and dread of me, when he beheld me sitting upon a throne like a king with all the ministering Angels standing by me as my servants and all the princes of kingdoms (6) adorned with crowns surrounding me:

16:3 in that moment he opened his mouth and said: “Indeed, there are two Divine Powers in heaven!”

16:4 Forthwith Bath Qol (the Divine Voice) went forth (7) from heaven from before the Shekina and said: “Return, ye backsliding children (Jer. iii. 22), except Acher!”

16:5 Then came ‘Aniyel (9), the Prince, the honoured, glorified, beloved, wonderful, revered and fearful one, in commission from (10) the Holy One, blessed be He and (11) gave me sixty strokes with lashes of fire and made me stand on my feet.

The princes of the seven heavens, of the sun, moon, planets and constellations and their suites of Angels.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 17. (1)

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, the glory of all heavens, said to me:

17:1. Seven (are the) princes, the great, beautiful, (2) revered, wonderful and honoured ones who are appointed over the seven heavens. And these are they:

A:

D:

MIKAEL, GABRIEL, SHATQIEL, SHACHAQIEL, BAKARIEL, BA-DARIEL, PACHRIEL. MIKAEL and GABRIEL, SHATQIEL and BARADIEL and SHACHAQIEL and BA-RAQIEL and SIDRIEL.

17:2 And every one of them is the prince of the host of (one) heaven. And each one of them is accompanied by 496,000 myriads of ministering Angels.

17:3 MIKAEL, (מיכאל) the great prince, is appointed over the seventh heaven, the highest one, which is in the ‘Araboth. GABRIEL, (גבריאל) the prince of the host, is appointed over the sixth heaven which is in Makon.

SHATAQIEL, (שחקיאל) (3) prince of the host, is appointed over the fifth heaven which is in Ma’on.

SHAHAQI’EL, (שהקיאל) (4) prince of the host, is appointed over the fourth heaven which is in Zebul.

BADARIEL, (בדריאל) (5) prince of the host, is appointed over the third heaven which is in Shehaqim.

BARAKIEL, (ברכיאל) (6) prince of the host, is appointed over the second heaven which is in (7) the height of (Merom) Raqia’.

PAZRIEL, (פזריאל) (8) prince of the host, is appointed over the first (9) heaven which is in Wilon, which is in Shamayim.

17:4 Under them is GALGALLIEL (גלגלליאל) (10) , the prince who is appointed over the globe (galgal) of the sun, and with him are 96 great and honoured Angels who move (11) the sun in Raqia’. (12)

17:5 (13) Under them is OPHANNIEL, (אפןיאל) the prince who is set over the globe (‘ophari) of the moon. And with him are 88 (14) Angels who move (11) the globe of the moon 354 thousand parasangs every night at the time when the moon stands in the East at its turning point. (15) And when is the moon sitting in the East at its turning point? Answer: in the fifteenth day of every month.

17:6 Under them is RAHATIEL, (רהחיאל) the prince who is appointed over the constellations. And he is accompanied by 72 great and honoured Angels. And why is he called RAHATIEL? Because he makes the stars run (marhit) in their orbits and courses 339 thousand parasangs every night from the East to the West, and from the West to the East. For the Holy One, blessed be He, has made a tent for all of them, for the sun, the moon, the planets and the stars in which they travel at night from the West to the East.

17:7 Under them is KOKBIEL, (כוכביאל) the prince who is appointed over all the planets. And with him are 365,000 myriads of ministering Angels, great and honoured ones who move (16) the planets from city to city and from province to province in the Raqia’ of heavens.

17:8 And over them are SEVENTY-TWO PRINCES OF KINGDOMS on high corresponding to the 72 tongues of the world. And all of them are crowned with royal crowns and clad in royal garments and wrapped in royal cloaks. And all of them are riding on royal horses and they are holding royal sceptres in their hands. And before each one of them when he is travelling in Raqia’ , royal servants are running with great glory and majesty

A:

D:

even as on earth they (princes) are travelling in chariot(s) with horsemen and great armies and in glory and greatness with praise, song and honour. and before every one of them, when travelling in Raqia’, there are running great armies, even as (the custom is) on earth, with chariot(s), in glory and greatness, praise, song and honour.

The order of ranks of the Angels and the homage received by the higher ranks from the lower ones.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 18.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, the glory of all heaven, said to me:

18:1 THE ANGELS OF THE FIRST HEAVEN, when (ever) they see their prince, they dismount from their horses and fall on their faces.

And THE PRINCE OF THE FIRST HEAVEN, when he sees the prince of the second heaven, he dismounts, removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

And THE PRINCE OF THE SECOND HEAVEN, when he sees the prince of the third heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

And THE PRINCE OF THE THIRD HEAVEN, when he sees the prince of the fourth heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

And THE PRINCE OF THE FOURTH HEAVEN, when he sees the prince of the fifth heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

(1) And THE PRINCE OF THE FIFTH HEAVEN, when he sees the prince of the sixth heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

And THE PRINCE OF THE SIXTH HEAVEN, when he sees the prince of the seventh heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:2 And THE PRINCE OF THE SEVENTH HEAVEN, when he sees THE SEVENTY-TWO PRINCES OF KINGDOMS, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:3 (2) And the seventy-two princes of kingdoms, when they see THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE FIRST HALL IN THE ‘ARABOTH RAQIA’ in the highest, they remove the royal crown from their head and fall on their faces.

(3) And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE FIRST HALL, when they see the door keepers of the second Hall, they remove the crown of glory from their head and fall on their faces.

And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE SECOND HALL, when they see the door keepers of the third Hall, they remove the crown of glory from their head and fall on their faces.

And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE THIRD HALL, when they see the door keepers of the fourth Hall, they remove the crown of glory from their head and fall on their faces.

And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE FOURTH HALL, when they see the door keepers of the fifth Hall, they remove the crown of glory from their head and fall on their faces.

And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE FIFTH HALL, when they see the door keepers of the sixth Hall, they remove the crown of glory from their head and fall on their faces.

And THE DOOR KEEPERS OF THE SIXTH HALL, when they see the DOOR KEEPERS OF THE SEVENTH HALL, they remove the crown of glory from their head and fall on their faces.

18:4 And the door keepers of the seventh Hall, when they see THE FOUR GREAT PRINCES, the honoured ones, WHO ARE APPOINTED OVER THE FOUR CAMPS OF SHEKINA, they remove the crown(s) of glory from their head and fall on their faces.

18:5 And the four great princes, when they see TAG’AS, (4) the prince, great and honoured (5) with song (and) praise, at the head of all the children of heaven, they remove the crown of glory from their head and fall on their faces.

18:6 And Tag’ as, the great and honoured prince, when he sees BARATTIEL, (6) the great prince of three fingers in the height of ‘Araboth, the highest heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:7 And Barattiel, the great prince, when he sees HAMON, the great prince, the fearful and honoured, pleasant and terrible one who maketh all the children of heaven to tremble, when the time draweth nigh (that is set) for the saying of the ‘(Thrice) Holy’, as it is written (Isa. xxxiii. 3): “At the noise of the tumult (hamon) the peoples are fled; at the lifting up of thyself the nations are scattered” he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:8 And Hamon, the great prince, when he sees TUTRESIEL, (7) the great prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:9 And Tutresiel (7) H’, the great prince, when he sees ATRUGIEL (8), the great prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:10 And Atrugiel the great (9) prince, when he sees NA’ARIRIEL H’, the great 9 prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:11 And Na’aririel H’, the great prince, when he sees SASNIGIEL (10), the great prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:12 And Sasnigiel H’, when he sees ZAZRIEL H’, the great prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:13 And Zazriel H’, the prince, when he sees GEBURATIEL H’, the prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:14 And Geburatiel H’, the prince, when he sees ‘ARAPHIEL (11) H’, the prince, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:15 And ‘Araphiel H’, the prince, when he sees ‘ASHRUYLU (12), the prince, (13) who presides in all the sessions of the children of heaven, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:16 And Ashruylu H, the prince, when he sees GALLISUR H’, THE PRINCE, WHO REVEALS (14) ALL THE SECRETS OF THE LAW (Tora), he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:17 And Gallisur H’, the prince, when he sees ZAKZAKIEL H’, the prince who is appointed to write down the merits of Israel on the Throne of Glory, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face.

18:18 And Zakzakiel H’, the great (15) prince, when he sees ‘ANAPH(I)EL H’, the prince (16) who keeps the keys of the heavenly Halls, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face. Why is he called by the name of ‘Anaphiel? Because the bough of his honour and majesty and his crown and his splendour and his brilliance covers (overshadows) (17) all the chambers of ‘Araboth Raqia’ on high even as the Maker of the World (doth overshadow them). Just as it is written with regard to the Maker of the World (Hab. iii. 3): “His glory covered the heavens, and the earth was full of his praise”, even so do the honour and majesty of ‘Anaphiel cover all the glories of ‘Araboth the highest.

18:19 And when he sees SOTHER ‘ASHIEL H’, the prince, the great, fearful and honoured one, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face. Why is he called (18) Sother Ashiel? Because he is appointed (19) over the four heads of the fiery river over against the Throne of Glory; and every single prince who goes out or enters before the Shekina, goes out or enters only by his permission. For the seals of 20the fiery river (20) are entrusted to him. And furthermore, his height is 7000 myriads of parasangs. And he stirs up the fire of the river; and he goes out and enters before the Shekina to expound (21) what is written (recorded) concerning the inhabitants of the world. According as it is written (Dan. vii. 10):” the judgement was set, and the books were opened”.

18:20 And Sother ‘Ashiel (22) the prince, when he sees (23) SHOQED CHOZI, the great prince, the mighty, terrible and honoured one, he removes the crown (24) of glory from his head and falls upon his face. And why is he called (25) Shoqed Chozi? Because he weighs (26) all the merits (of man) in a balance in the presence of the Holy One, blessed be He.

18:21 And when he sees ZEHANPURYU (27) H’, the great prince, the mighty and terrible one, honoured, glorified and feared in all the heavenly household, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face. Why is he called Zehanpuryu? (28) Because he rebukes the fiery river and pushes it back to its place.

18:22 And when he sees ‘AZBUGA H’, the great prince, glorified, revered, honoured, adorned, wonderful, exalted, beloved and feared among all the great princes who know the mystery of the Throne of Glory, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face. Why is he called ‘Azbuga? Because in the future he will gird (clothe) (29) the righteous and pious of the world with the garments of life and wrap them in the cloak of life, that they may live in them an eternal life.

18:23 And when he sees the two great princes, the strong and glorified ones who are standing above him, he removes the crown of glory from his head and falls on his face. And these are the names of the two princes (30): SOPHERIEL H’ (WHO) KILLETH, (Sopheriel H’ the Killer), the great prince, the honoured, glorified, blameless, venerable, ancient and mighty one; (and) (31) SOPHERIEL H’ (WHO) MAKETH ALIVE (Sopheriel H’ the Lifegiver), the great prince, the honoured, glorified, blameless, ancient and mighty one.

18:24 Why is he called Sopheriel H’ who killeth (Sopheriel H’ the Killer)? Because he is appointed over the books of the dead : [so that] everyone, when the day of his death draws nigh, he writes him in the books of the dead. Why is he called Sopheriel H’ who maketh alive (Sopheriel H’ the Lifegiver)? Because he is appointed over the books of the living (of life), so that every one whom the Holy One, blessed be He, will bring into life, he writes him in the book of the living (of life), by authority of MAQOM. Thou might perhaps say: “Since the Holy One, blessed be He, is sitting on a throne, they also are sitting when writing”. (Answer): The Scripture teaches us (3 Kings xxii. 19, 2 Chron. xviii. 18): “And all the host of heaven are standing by him”. “The host of heaven” (32) (it is said) in order to show us, that even the Great Princes, none like whom there is in the high heavens, do not fulfil the requests of the Shekina otherwise than standing. But how is it (possible that) they (are able to) write, when they are standing? It is like this:

18:25 One is standing on the wheels of the tempest and the other is standing on the wheels of the storm wind.

The one is clad in kingly garments; the other is clad in kingly garments.

The one is wrapped in a mantle of majesty and the other is wrapped in a mantle of majesty.

The one is crowned with a royal crown, and the other is crowned with a royal crown.

The one’s body is full of eyes, and the other’s body is full of eyes.

The appearance of one is like unto the appearance of lightning’s, and the appearance of the other is like unto the appearance of lightning’s.

The eyes of the one are like the sun in its might, and the eyes of the other are like the sun in its might.

(33) The one’s height is like the height of the seven heavens, and the other’s height is like the height of the seven heavens.

The wings of the one are as (many as) the days of the year, and the wings of the other are as (many as) the days of the year.

The wings of the one extend over the breadth of Raqia’, and the wings of the other extend over the breadth of Raqia’

The lips of the one, are as the gates of the East, and the lips of the other are as the gates of the East.

The tongue of the one is as high as the waves of the sea, and the tongue of the other is as high as the waves of the sea.

From the mouth of the one a flame goes forth, and from the mouth of the other a flame goes forth.

From the mouth of the one there go forth lightning’s and from the mouth of the other there go forth lightning’s.

From the sweat of the one fire is kindled, and from the perspiration of the other fire is kindled.

From the one’s tongue a torch is burning, and from the tongue of the other a torch is burning.

On the head of the one there is a sapphire stone, and upon the head of the other there is a sapphire stone.

On the shoulders of the one there is a wheel of a swift cherub, and on the shoulders of the other there is a wheel of a swift cherub. One has in his hand a burning scroll, the other has in his hand a burning scroll.

The one has in his hand a flaming style, the other has in his hand a flaming style.

The length of the scroll is 3000 myriads of parasangs; the size of the style is (34) 3OOO myriads of parasangs; the size of every single letter that they write is 365 parasangs.

Rikbiel, the prince of the wheels of the Merkaba.

The surroundings of the Merkaba.

The commotion among the Angelic hosts at the time of the Qedushsha.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 19. (1)

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

19:1 Above (2) these three Angels, these great princes there is one Prince, distinguished, honoured, noble, glorified, adorned, fearful, valiant, strong, great, magnified, glorious, crowned, wonderful, exalted, blameless, beloved, lordly, high and lofty, ancient and mighty, like unto whom there is none among the princes. His name is RIKBIEL H’, the great and revered prince (3) who is standing by the Merkaba.

19:2 And why is he called RIKBIEL? Because he is appointed over the wheels of the Merkaba, and they are given in his charge.

19:3 And how many are the wheels? Eight; two in each direction. And there are four winds compassing them round about. And these are their names: “the Storm-Wind”, “the Tempest”, “the Strong Wind”, and “the Wind of Earthquake”.

19:4 And under them four fiery rivers are continually running, one fiery river on each side. And round about them, between the rivers, four clouds are planted (placed), and these they are: “clouds of fire”, “clouds of lamps”, “clouds of coal”, “clouds of brimstone” and they are standing over against [their] wheels.

19:5 (4) And the feet of the Chayyoth are resting upon the wheels. And between one wheel and the other earthquake is roaring and thunder is thundering.

19:6 And when the time draws nigh for the recital of the Song, (then) the multitudes of wheels are moved, the multitude of clouds tremble, all the chieftains (shallishim) are made afraid, all the horsemen (parashim) do rage, all the mighty ones (gibborim) are excited, all the hosts (seba’im) are afrighted, all the troops (gedudim) (5) are in fear, all the appointed ones (memunnim) haste away, all the princes (sarim) and armies (chayyelim) (6) are dismayed, all the servants (mesharetim) do faint and all (7) the Angels (mal’akim) and divisions (degalim) travail with pain.

19:7 And one wheel makes a sound to be heard to the other and one Kerub to another, one Chayya. to another, one Seraph to another (saying) (Ps. Ixviii. 5) “Extol to him that rideth in ‘Araboth, by his name Jah and rejoice before him!”

CHAYYLIEL, the prince of the Chayyoth.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 20.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

20:1 Above these there is one great and mighty prince. His name is CHAYYLIEL H’, a noble and revered prince, a (1) glorious and mighty prince, a great and revered prince, a prince before whom all the children of heaven do tremble, a prince who is able to swallow up the whole earth in one moment (at a mouthful).

20:2 And why is he called CHAYYLIEL H’? Because he is appointed over the Holy Chayyoth (2) and smites the Chayyoth with lashes of fire: and glorifies them, when they give praise and glory and rejoicing and he causes them to make haste to say (3) “Holy” and “Blessed be the Glory of H’ from his place!” (i.e. the Qedushshd).

The Chayyoth

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 21.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

21:1 Four (are) the Chayyoth corresponding to the four winds. Each Chayya is as the space of the whole world. And each one has four faces; and each face is as the face of the East.

21:2 Each one has four wings and each wing is like the cover (roof) of the universe.

21:3 And each one has faces in the middle of faces and wings in the middle of wings. The size of the faces is (as the size of) 248 faces, and the size of the wings is (as the size of) 365 wings.

21:4 And every one is crowned with 2000 crowns on his head. And each crown is like unto the bow in the cloud. And its splendour is like unto the splendour of the globe (1) of the sun. And the sparks that go forth from every one are like the splendour of the morning star (planet Venus) in the East.

KERUBIEL, the Prince of the Kerubim.

Description of the Kerubim.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 22A. (1)

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

22A:1 Above these (1a) there is one prince, noble, wonderful, strong, and praised with all kinds of praise. His name is KERUBIEL H’, a mighty prince, full of power and strength

AD:

B:

a prince of highness, and Highness (is) with him, a righteous prince, and righteousness (is) with him, a Holy prince, and holiness(is) with him, a prince

a prince of highness, and with him (there is) a righteous prince, of righteousness, and with him a Holy prince, of holiness, and with him, (there is) a prince

glorified in (by) thousand hosts, exalted by ten thousand armies.

22A:2 At his wrath the earth trembles, at his anger the camps are moved, from fear of him the foundations are shaken, at his rebuke the ‘Araboth do tremble.

22A:3 His stature is full of (burning) coals. The height of his stature is as the height of the seven heavens the breadth of his stature is as the wideness of the seven heavens and the thickness of his stature is as the seven heavens.

22A:4 (2) The opening of his mouth is like a lamp of fire. His tongue (3) is a consuming fire. His eyebrows are like unto the splendour of the lightning. His eyes are like sparks (4) of brilliance. His countenance is like a burning fire.

22A:5 And there is a crown of holiness upon his head on which (crown) the Explicit Name is graven, and lightning’s go forth from it. And the bow of Shekina is between his shoulders.

22A:6

AD:

B:

And his sword is upon his loins and his arrows (5) are like lightnings in his girdle. And a shield of consuming fire, (is) on his neck and coals of juniper are round about him.

And his sword is like unto a lightning; and upon his loins there are arrows like unto a flame, and upon his armour and shield there is a consuming fire and upon his neck there are coals of burning juniper and (also) round about him (there are coals of burning juniper).

22A:7 And the splendour of Shekina is on his face; and the horns of majesty on his wheels; and a royal diadem upon his skull.

22A:8 And his body is full of eyes. And wings are covering the whole of his high stature (lit. the height of his stature is all wings).

22A:9 On his right hand a flame is burning, and on his left a fire is glowing; and coals are burning from it. (6) And firebrands go forth from (7) his body. And lightning’s are cast forth from his face. With him there is alway thunder upon (in) thunder, by his side there is ever earthquake upon (in) earthquake *.

22A:10 And the two princes of the Merkaba are together (8) with him

22A:11 Why is he called KERUBIEL (9) H’, the Prince. Because he is appointed over (10) the chariot of the Kerubim. And the mighty Kerubim are given in his charge. And he adorns the crowns on their heads and polishes the diadem upon their skull.

22A:12 (11) He magnifies the glory of their appearance. And he glorifies (12) the beauty of their majesty. (13) And he increases the greatness of their honour. He causes the song of their praise to be sung. He intensifies their beautiful strength. He causes the brilliance of their glory to shine forth. He beautifies their goodly mercy and lovingkindness. He frames the fairness of their radiance. He makes their merciful beauty even more beautiful. He glorifies their (14) upright majesty. He extols the order of their praise, to stablish the dwellingplace of him “who dwelleth on the Kerubim”.

22A:13 And the Kerubim are standing by the Holy Chayyoth, and their wings are raised up to their heads (lit. are as the height of their heads)

and Shekina is (resting) upon them

and the brilliance of the Glory is upon their faces

and (15) song and praise in their mouth

and their hands are under their wings

(16) and their feet are covered by their wings

and horns of glory (17) are upon their heads

and the splendour of Shekina on their face and Shekina is (resting) upon them

and sapphire stones are round about them

and columns of fire on their four sides

and columns of firebrands beside them.

22A:14 There is one sapphire on one side (18)and another sapphire on another side and under (19) the sapphires there are coals of burning juniper.

22A:15 And one Kerub is standing in each direction but the wings of the Kerubim compass each other above their skulls in glory; and they spread them to sing with them a song to him that inhabiteth the clouds and to praise with them the fearful majesty of the king of kings.

22A:16 And KERUBIEL H’, the prince who is appointed over them, he arrays them in comely, beautiful and pleasant orders and he exalts them in all manner of exaltation, dignity and glory. And he hastens them in glory and might to do the will of their Creator every moment. For above their lofty heads abides continually (20) the glory of the high king “who dwelleth on the Kerubim”.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 22B.

R. Ishmael said to me: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

22B:1 And there is a court before the Throne of Glory,

22B:1 How are the Angels standing on high? He said: Like a bridge that is placed over a river so that every one can pass over it, likewise a bridge is placed from the beginning of the entry to the end.
22B:2 which no seraph nor Angel can enter, and it is 36,000 myriads of parasangs, as it is written (Is. vi. 2): “and the Seraphim are standing above him” (the last word of the scriptural passage being ול[numerical value: 36]).

22B:2 And three ministering Angels surround it and utter a song before YHWH, the God of Israel. And there are standing before it lords of dread and captains of fear, thousand times thousand and ten thousand times ten thousand in number and they sing praise and hymns before YHWH, (הוהי) the God of Israel.

22B:3 As the numerical value ול(36) is the number of the bridges there.

22B:3 Numerous bridges are there: bridges of fire and numerous bridges of hail. Also numerous rivers of hail, numerous treasuries of snow and numerous wheels of fire.
22B:4 And there are 24 myriads of wheels of fire. And the ministering Angels are 12,000 myriads. And there are 12,000 rivers of hail, and 12,000 treasuries of snow. And in the seven Halls are chariots of fire and flames, without reckoning, or end or searching

(LMR. ends here.)22B:4 And how many are the ministering Angels? 12,000 myriads: six (thousand myriads) above and six (thousand myriads] below. And 12,000 are the treasuries of snow, six above and six below. And 24 myriads of wheels of fire, 12 (myriads] above and 12 (myriads] below. And they surround the bridges and the rivers of fire and the rivers of hail. And there are numerous ministering Angels, forming entries, for all

the creatures that are standing in the midst thereof, corresponding to (over against) the paths of Raqia Shamayim.

22B:5 What doeth YHWH, (יהוה) the God of Israel, the King of Glory? The Great and Fearful God, mighty in strength, doth cover his face.

22B:6 In ‘Araboth are 660,000 myriads of Angels of glory standing over against the Throne of Glory and the divisions off laming fire. And the King of Glory doth cover His face; for else the ‘Araboth Raqia’ would be rent asunder in its midst because of the majesty, splendour, beauty, radiance, loveliness, brilliancy, brightness and excellency of the appearance of (the Holy One,) blessed be He.

22B:7 There are numerous ministering Angels performing his will, numerous kings, numerous princes in the ‘Araboth of his delight, Angels who are revered among the rulers in heaven, distinguished, adorned with song and bringing love to remembrance: (who) are affrighted by the splendour of the Shekina, and their eyes are dazzled by the shining beauty of their King, their faces grow black and their strength doth fail.

22B:8 There go forth rivers of joy, streams of gladness, rivers of rejoicing, streams of triumph, rivers of love, streams of friendship (another reading:) of commotion and they flow over and go forth before the Throne of Glory and wax great and go through the gates of the paths of ‘Araboth Raqia’ at the voice of the shouting and musick of the CHAYYOTH, at the voice of the rejoicing of the timbrels of his ‘OPHANNIM and at the melody of the cymbals of His Kerubim. And they wax great and go forth with commotion with the sound of the hymn: “HOLY, HOLY, HOLY, IS THE LORD OF HOSTS; THE WHOLE EARTH IS FULL OF HIS GLORY!”

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 22C.

(0) R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Prince of the Presence said to me:

22C:1 What is the distance between one bridge and another? 12 myriads of parasangs. (1) Their ascent is 12 myriads of parasangs, and their descent 12 myriads of parasangs.(2)

22C:2 (The distance) between the rivers of dread and the rivers of fear is 22 myriads of parasangs; between the rivers of hail and the rivers of darkness (3) 36 myriads of parasangs; between the chambers (4) of lightnings and the clouds of compassion (5) 42 myriads of parasangs; (6) (7) between the clouds of compassion (8) and the Merkaba 84 myriads of parasangs; between the Merkaba and the Kerubim 148 (8a) myriads of parasangs; between the Kerubim and the ‘Ophannim 24 myriads of parasangs; between the Ophannim and the chambers of chambers 24 myriads of parasangs; (9) between the chambers of chambers and the Holy Chayyoth (10) 40,000 myriads of parasangs; between one wing (of the Chayyoth) and another myriads of parasangs; (11) and the breadth of each one wing is of that same measure; and the distance between the Holy Chayyoth and the Throne of Glory is (12) 30,000 myriads of parasangs.

22C:3 And from the foot of the Throne to (I3) the seat there are 40,000 myriads of parasangs. (14) And the name of Him that sitteth on it: let the name be sanctified!

22C:4 And the arches of the Bozv are set above the ‘Araboth, and they are 1000 thousands and 10,000 times ten thousands (of parasangs) high. Their measure is after the measure of the ‘Irin and Qaddishin (Watchers and Holy Ones) (15) . As it is written (Gen. ix. 13) “My bow I have set in the cloud”. It is not written here “I will set” but “I have set”, (i.e.) already; clouds that surround the Throne of Glory. As His clouds pass by, the Angels of hail (turn into) burning coal.

22C:5 And a fire of the voice goes down from (16) by the Holy Chayyoth. And because of the breath of that voice they “run” (Ezek. i. 14) to another place, fearing lest it command them to go; and they “return” lest it injure them from the other side. Therefore “they run and return” (Ezek. i. 14).

22C:6 And these arches of the Bow are more (17) beautiful and radiant than (18) the radiance of the sun during the summer solstice. And they are whiter than a flaming fire and they are great and beautiful.

22C:7 Above the (19) arches of the Bow are the wheels of the ‘Ophannim. Their height is 1000 thousand and 10,000 times 10,000 units of measure after the measure of the Seraphim and the Troops (Gedudim).

The winds blowing ‘under the wings of the Kerubim.’

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 23.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

23:1 There are numerous winds blowing under the wings of the Kerubim.

There blows “the Brooding Wind”, as it is written (Gen. i. 2): “and the wind of God was brooding upon the face of the waters”.

23:2 There blows “the Strong Wind”, (1) as it is said (Ex. xiv. 21): “and the Lord caused the sea to go back by a strong east wind all that night”.

23:3 There blows “the East Wind” (1) as it is written (Ex. x. 13): “the east wind brought the locusts”.

23:4 There blows “the Wind of Quails” (2) as it is written (Num. xi. 31): “And there went forth a wind from the Lord and brought quails”.

23:5 There blows “the Wind of Jealousy” as it is written (Num. v. 14): “And the wind of jealousy came upon him”.

23:6 There blows the “Wind of Earthquake” as it is written (3 Kings. xix. 11): “and after that the wind of the earthquake; but the Lord was not in the earthquake”.

23:7 There blows the “Wind of H” (3) as it is written (Ex. xxxvii. i):” and he carried me out by the wind of H’ and set me down”.

23:8 There blows the “Evil Wind” as it is written (i Sam. xvi. 23):” and the evil wind departed from him” (4).

23:9 There blow the “Wind of Wisdom” (5) and the “Wind of Understanding” and the “Wind of Knowledge” and the “Wind of the Fear of H'” as it is written (Is. xi. 2): “And (6) the wind of H’ shall rest upon him; (7) the wind of wisdom and understanding, the wind of counsel and might, the wind of knowledge and of the fear

23:10 There blows the “Wind of Rain”, as it is written (Prov. xxv. 23): “the north wind bringeth forth rain”.

23:11 There blows the “Wind of Lightning’s “, as it is written (Jer. x. 13, li. 16): “he maketh lightning’s for the rain and bringeth forth the wind out of his treasuries”.

23:12 (8) There blows the “Wind, Breaking the Rocks”, as it is written (3 Kings xix. ii): “the Lord passed by and (9) a great and strong wind (rent the mountains and brake in pieces the rocks before the Lord)”.

23:13 There blows the “Wind of Assuagement of the Sea”, as it is written (Gen. viii. i): “and God made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged”.

23:14 (10) There blows the “Wind of Wrath”, (11) as it is written (Job i. 19): “and behold there came a great wind from the wilderness and smote the four corners of the house and it fell”.

23:15 There blows the “Storm-Wind”, as it is written (Ps. cxlviii. 8): “Storm-wind, fulfilling his word”.

23:16 And Satan is standing among these winds, (12) for “storm-wind” is nothing else but “Satan”, and all these winds do not blow but under the wings of the Kerubim, as it is written (Ps. xviii. 11): “and he rode upon a cherub and did fly, yea, and he flew swiftly upon the wings of the wind”.

23:17 And whither go all these winds? (13) The Scripture teaches us, that they go out from under the wings of the Kerubim and descend on the globe of the sun, as it is written (Eccl. i. 6): (14) “The wind goeth toward the south and turneth about unto the north; it turneth about continually in its course and the wind returneth again to its circuits”. And from the globe of the sun they return and descend upon [(16) the rivers and (15) the seas, upon] the mountains and upon the hills, as it is written (Am. iv. 13): “For lo, he that formeth the mountains and createth the wind”.

23:18 And from the mountains and the hills they return and descend to the seas and the rivers ; and from the seas and the rivers they return and descend upon (17) (the) cities and provinces; and from the cities and provinces they return and descend into the Garden, and from the Garden they return and descend to Eden, as it is written (Gen. iii. 8): “walking in the Garden in the wind of day”. And in the midst of the Garden they join together and blow from one side to the other and are perfumed with the spices of the Garden even from its remotest parts, until (18) they separate from each other, and, filled with the scent of the pure spices, they bring the odour from the remotest parts of Eden and the spices of the Garden to the righteous and godly who in the time to come shall inherit the Garden of Eden and the Tree of Life, as it is written (Cant. iv. 16): “Awake, O north wind; and come thou south; blow upon my garden, that the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden and eat his precious fruits”.

The different chariots of the Holy One, blessed be He.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 24.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, the glory of all heaven, said to me:

24:1 Numerous chariots has the Holy One, blessed be He: He has the “Chariots of (the) Kerubim”, (1) as it is written (Ps. xviii. n, 2 Sam. xxii. 11): “And he rode upon a cherub and did fly”.

24:2 He has the “Chariots of Wind”, as it is written: “and he flew swiftly upon the wings of the wind”.

24:3 He has the “Chariots of (the) Swift Cloud”, as it is written (Is. xix. i): “Behold, the Lord rideth upon a swift cloud”.

24:4 He has “the Chariots of Clouds”, as it is written (Ex. xix. 9): “Lo, I come unto thee in a cloud”.

24:5 (2) He has the “Chariots of the Altar”, as it is written (Am. ix. i): “I saw the Lord standing upon the Altar”.

24:6 He has the “Chariots of Ribbotaim”, as it is written (Ps. Ixviii. 18) : “The chariots of God are Ribbotaim; thousands of Angels”.

24:7 He has the “Chariots of the Tent”, as it is written (Deut. xxxi. 15): “And the Lord appeared in the Tent in a pillar of cloud”.

24:8 He has the “Chariots of the Tabernacle”, as it is written (Lev. i. i): “And the Lord spake unto him out of the tabernacle”.

24:9 He has the “Chariots of the Mercy-Seat”, as it is written (Num. vii. 89): “then he heard (3) the Voice speaking unto him from upon the mercy-seat”.

24:10 He has the “Chariots of Sapphire Stone”, as it is written (Ex. xxiv. 10): “and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of sapphire stone”.

24:11 He has the “Chariots of Eagles”, as it is written (Ex. xix. 4): “I bare you on eagles’ wings”. (4) Eagles literally are not meant here but “they that fly swiftly as eagles”.

24:12 5 He has the “chariots of Shout”, as it is written (Ps. xlvii. 6): “God is gone up with a shout”. (5)

24:13 He has the “Chariots of ‘Araboth”, as it is written (Ps. Ixviii. 5): “Extol Him that rideth upon the ‘Araboth”.

24:14 He has the “Chariots of Thick Clouds”, as it is written (Ps. civ. 3): “who maketh the thick clouds His chariot”.

24:15 He has the “Chariots of the Chayyoth”, 6 as it is written (Ezek. i. 14): “and the Chayyoth (6) ran and returned”. (7) They run by permission and return by permission, for Shekina is above their heads.

24:16 He has the “Chariots of Wheels (Galgallim)”, as it is written (Ezek. x. 2): “And he said: Go in between the whirling wheels”.

24:17 He has the “Chariots of a Swift Kerub”, as it is written (? 8): “riding on a swift cherub”. (9) And at the time when He rides on a swift Kerub, as he sets one of His feet upon him, before he sets the other foot upon his back, he looks through (10) eighteen thousand worlds at one glance. And he discerns and sees into them all and knows what is in all of them and then he sets down the other foot upon him, according as it is written (Ezek. xlviii. 35): “Round about eighteen thousand”. Whence do we know that He looks through every one of them every day? It is written (Ps. xiv. 2): “He looked down from heaven upon the children of men (11) to see if there were any that did understand, that did seek after God”.

24:18 (12) He has the “Chariots of the ‘Ophannim”, as it is written (Ezek. x. 12): “and the ‘Ophannim were full of eyes round about”.

24:19 He has the” Chariots of (13)His Holy Throne”, as it is written (Ps. xlvii. 8): “God sitteth upon his Holy throne”.

24:20 He has the “chariots of the Throne of Yah”, as it is written (Ex. xvii. 16) : “Because a hand is lifted up upon the Throne of Jah”. (14)

24:21 He has the “Chariots of the Throne of Judgement”, as it is written (Is. v. 16): “but the Lord of hosts shall be exalted in judgment”.

24:22 He has the “Chariots of the Throne of Glory”, as it is written (Jer. xvii. 12): “The Throne of Glory, set on high from the beginning, (15) is the place of our sanctuary”.

24:23 He has the “Chariots of the High and Exalted Throne”, as it is written (Is. vi. i): “I saw the Lord sitting upon the high and exalted throne”. (16)

‘Ophphanniel, the prince of the ‘Ophannim.

Description of the ‘Ophannim.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 25.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

25:1 Above these there is one great prince, revered, high, (1) lordly, fearful, ancient and strong. ‘OPHPHANNIEL H’ is his name.

25:2 He has sixteen faces, four faces on each side, (2) (also) hundred wings on each side. And he has 8466 eyes, corresponding to the days of the year.

A:

DE:

2190 and some say 2116 on each side (3).

2191 (E: 2196) and sixteen on each side.

25:3 And those two eyes of his face, in each one of them lightning’s are flashing, and from each one of them firebrands are burning; and no creature is able (4) to behold them: for anyone who looks at them is burnt instantly.

25:4 His height is (as) the distance of 2500 years’ journey. No eye (5) can behold and no mouth can tell the mighty power of his strength (6) save the King of kings, the Holy One, blessed be He, alone.

25:5 Why is he called ‘OPHPHANNIEL? Because he is appointed over the ‘Ophannim and the ‘Ophannim are given in his charge. (7) He stands (8) every day and attends and beautifies (9) them. And he exalts and orders their apartment (DE: runnings) and (10) polishes their standing-place and makes bright their dwellings, makes their corners even (11) and cleanses their seats. And he waits upon them early and late, by day and by night, to increase their beauty, to make great their dignity and to make them “diligent in praise of their Creator.

25:6 And all the ‘Ophannim are full of eyes, (12) and they are all full of brightness; (13) (14) seventy two sapphire stones are fixed on their garments on their right side and seventy two sapphire stones are fixed on their garments on their left side.

25:7 And four (15) carbuncle (16) stones are fixed on the crown of every single one, the splendour of which proceeds in the four directions of ‘Araboth even as the splendour of the globe of the sun proceeds in all the directions of the universe. (17) And why is it called Carbuncle (Bareqet)?. Because its splendour is like the appearance of a lightning (18) (Baraq). And tents of splendour, tents of brilliance, tents of brightness as of sapphire and carbuncle in close them because of (19) the shining appearance of their eyes.

SERAPHIEL, the Prince of the Seraphim.

Description of the Seraphim.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 26.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

26:1 Above these there is one prince, wonderful, noble, great, honourable, mighty, terrible, a chief and leader (1) and a swift scribe, glorified, honoured and beloved.

26:2 He is altogether filled with splendour, full of praise and shining; and he is wholly full of brilliance, of light and of beauty; and the whole of him is filled with goodliness (2) and greatness.

26:3 His countenance is altogether like (that of) Angels, but his body is like an eagle’s body.

26:4 His splendour is like unto lightning’s, his appearance like fire brands, his beauty like unto sparks, his honour like (3) fiery coals, his majesty like chashmals, his radiance like the light of the planet Venus.

The image of him is like unto the Greater Light. His height is as the seven heavens. The light from his eyebrows is like the sevenfold light.

26:5 The sapphire stone upon his head is as great as the whole universe and like unto the splendour of the very heavens in radiance.

26:6 His body is full of eyes like the stars of the sky, innumerable and unsearchable. Every eye is like the planet Venus. Yet, there are some of them like the Lesser Light and some of them like unto the Greater Light. From his ankles to his knees (they are) like unto stars of lightning, from his knees to his thighs like unto the planet Venus (4) , from his thighs to his loins like unto the moon, from his loins to his neck like the sun, from his neck to his skull like unto the Light Imperishable. (Cf. Zeph. iii. 5.)

26:7 The crown on his head is like unto the splendour of the Throne of Glory. The measure of the crown is the distance of 502 years’ journey. There is no kind of splendour, no kind of brilliance, no kind of radiance, no kind of light in the universe but is fixed on that crown.

26:8 The name of that prince is SERAPHIEL H”. (5) And the crown on his head, its name is “the Prince of Peace”. (5) And why is he called by the name of SERAPHIEL H’? Because he is appointed over the Seraphim. And (6) the flaming Seraphim are given in his charge. And he presides over them by day and by night and teaches them song, praise, proclamation of beauty, might and majesty; that they may proclaim the beauty of their King in all manner of Praise and Sanctification (Qedushsha).

26:9 How many are the Seraphim”? Four, corresponding to the four winds of the world. And how many wings have they (7) each one of them? Six, corresponding to the six days of Creation. And how many faces have they? Each one of them four faces. (8)

26:10 (9)The measure of the Seraphim and the height of each one of them correspond to the height of the seven heavens. The size of each wing is like the measure of all Raqia’ The size of each face is like that of the face of the East.

26:11 And each one of them gives forth light like unto the splendour of the Throne of Glory: so that not even the Holy Chayyoth, the honoured ‘Ophannim, nor the majestic Kerubim are able to behold it. For everyone who beholds it, his eyes are darkened because of its great splendour.

26:12 Why are they called Seraphim? Because they burn (saraph) the writing tables of Satan: Every day Satan is sitting, together with SAMMAEL, the Prince of Rome, and with DUBBIEL, the Prince of Persia, and (10) they write the iniquities of Israel on writing tables which they hand over to the Seraphim, in order that they may present them before the Holy One, blessed be He, so that He may destroy Israel from the world. But the Seraphim know (11) from the secrets of the Holy One, blessed be He, (12) that he desires not, that this people Israel should perish. What do the Seraphim? Every day do they receive (accept) them from the hand of Satan and burn them in the burning fire over against the high and exalted Throne (13) in order that (14) they may not come before the Holy One, blessed be He, at the time when he is sitting upon the Throne of Judgement, judging the whole world in truth.

RADWERIEL, the keeper of the Book of Records.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 27.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel (1) of H’, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

27:1 Above the Seraphim there is one prince, exalted above all the princes, wondrous more than all the servants. His name is RADWERIEL H’ (2) who is appointed over the treasuries of the books.

27:2 He fetches forth the Case (3) of Writings (with) the Book of Records in it, and brings it before the Holy One, blessed be He. (4) And he breaks the seals of the case, (5) opens it, (6) takes out the books and delivers them before the Holy One, blessed be He. And the Holy One, blessed be He, receives them of his hand and gives them in his sight to the Scribes, that they may read them (7) in the Great Beth Din in the height of ‘Araboth Raqia’, before the heavenly household.

27:3 And why is he called RADWERIELS? (8) Because out of every word that goes forth from his mouth an Angel is created: and he stands in the songs (in the singing company) of the ministering Angels and utters (9) a song before (10) the Holy One, blessed be He when the time draws nigh for the recitation of the (Thrice) Holy.

The ‘Irin and Qaddishin.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 28.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

28:1 Above all these there are four great princes, Irin and Qaddishin by name: high, honoured, revered, beloved, wonderful and glorious ones, greater than all the children of heaven. There is none like unto them among all the celestial princes and none their equal among all the Servants. For each one of them is equal to all the rest together.

28:2 And their dwelling is over against the Throne of Glory, (1) and their standing place (2) over against the Holy One, blessed be He, so that the brilliance of their dwelling is a reflection of the brilliance of the Throne of Glory. And the splendour of their countenance is (3) a reflection of the splendour of Shekina.

28:3 And they are glorified by the glory of (4) the Divine Majesty (Geburd and praised by (through) the praise of Shekina.

28:4 And not only that, but the Holy One, blessed be He, does nothing in his world without first consulting them, but after that he doeth it. As it is written (Dan. iv. 17): “The sentence is by the decree of the ‘Irin and the demand by the word of the Qaddishin.”

28:5 The Irin are two and the Qaddishin are two. And how are they standing before the Holy One, blessed be He? (5) It is to be understood, that one ‘Ir is standing on one side and the other ‘Ir on the other side, and one Qaddish is standing on one side and the other on the other side.

28:6 And ever do they exalt (6) the humble, and they abase to the ground those that are proud, and they exalt to the height those that are humble.

28:7 And every day, as the Holy One, blessed be He, is sitting upon the Throne of Judgement and judges the whole world, and the Books of the Living and the Books of the Dead are opened before Him, then all the children of heaven are standing before him in fear, dread, awe and trembling. At that time, (when) the Holy One, blessed be He, is sitting (7) upon the Throne of Judgement (8) (9) to execute judgement, his garment is white as snow, the hair on his head as pure wool (10) and the whole of his cloak is like the shining light. And he is covered with righteousness all over as with a coat of mail.

28:8 And those ‘Irm and Qaddishin are standing before him like court officers before the judge. And they raise and argue every case and close the case that comes before the Holy One, blessed be He, in judgement, according as it is written (Dan. iv. 17): “The sentence is by the decree of the ‘Irm and the demand by the word of the Qaddishin”.

28:9 Some of them argue and others pass the sentence in the Great Beth Din in ‘Araboth. Some of them make the requests from before (11) the Divine Majesty and some close the cases before the Most High. Others (12) finish by going down and (confirming,) executing the sentences on earth below. (13) According as it is written (Dan. iv. 13 , 14): “Behold an ‘Ir and a Qaddish came down from heaven and cried aloud and said thus, Hew down the tree, and cut off his branches, shake off (14) his leaves, and scatter his fruit: (15) let the beasts get away from under it, and the fowls from his branches”.

28:10 Why are they called ‘Irin and Qaddishin? By reason that they sanctify the body and the spirit with lashes of fire on the third day of the judgement, as it is written (Hos. vi. 2): “After two days will he revive us: on the third he will raise us up, and we shall live before him.”

Description of a class of Angels.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 29.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

29:1 Each one of them has seventy names corresponding to the seventy tongues (1) of the world. And all of them are (based) upon the name of the Holy One, blessed be He. And every several name is written with a flaming style (2) upon the Fearful Crown (Kéther Nōrā) which is on the head of the high and exalted King.

29:2 And from each one of them there go forth sparks and lightning’s. And each one of them is beset with horns of splendour round about. From each one lights are shining forth, and each one is surrounded by tents of brilliance (3) so that not even the Seraphim and the Chayyoth who are greater than all the children of heaven are able to behold them.

The 72 princes of Kingdoms and the Prince of the World officiating at the Great Sanhedrin in heaven.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 30.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

30:1 Whenever the Great Beth Din is seated in the ‘Araboth Raqia’ on high (1) there is no opening of the mouth for anyone in the world save those great princes who are called H’ by the name of the Holy One, blessed be He.

30:2 How many are those princes? Seventy-two princes of the kingdoms of the world besides the Prince of the World who speaks (pleads) in favour of the world before the Holy One, blessed be He, every day, at the hour when the book is opened in which are recorded all the doings of the world, according as it is written (Dan. vii. 10):

“The judgement was set and the books were opened.”

(The attributes of) Justice, Mercy and Truth by the Throne of Judgement.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 31.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

31:1 At the time when the Holy One, blessed be He, is sitting on the Throne, of Judgement, (then) Justice is standing on His right and Mercy on His left and Truth (1) before His face.

31:2 And when man (2) enters before Him to judgement, (3) (then) there comes forth from the splendour of the Mercy towards him as (it were) a staff and stands in front of him. Forthwith man falls upon his face, (and) all the Angels of destruction fear and tremble (4) before him, according as it is written (Is. xvi. 5): “And with mercy shall the throne be established, and he shall sit upon it in truth.”

The execution ofjudgement on the wicked. God’s sword.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 32.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

32:1 (1) When the Holy One, blessed be He, opens the Book half of which is fire and half flame, (then) they go out from before Him in every moment to execute the judgement on the wicked by His sword (that is) (2) drawn forth out of its sheath and the splendour of which shines like a lightning and pervades the world from one end to the other, (3) as it is written (Is. Ixvi. 16): “For by fire will the Lord plead (and by his sword with all flesh).”

32:2 And all the inhabitants of the world (lit. those who come into the world) fear and tremble before Him, when they behold His sharpened sword like unto a lightning from one end of the world to the other, and sparks (4) and flashes of the size of the stars of Raqia’ going out from it; according as it is written (Deut. xxxii. 41): (5) “If I whet the lightning of my sword”.

The Angels of Mercy, of Peace and of Destruction by the Throne of Judgement. The scribes, (vss. i, 2) The Angels by the Throne of Glory and the fiery rivers under it. (vss. 3-5).

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 33.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

33:1 At the time that the Holy One, blessed be He, is sitting on the Throne of Judgement, (1) (then) the Angels of Mercy are standing on His right, the Angels of Peace are standing on His left and the Angels of Destruction are standing in front of Him.

33:2 And one scribe is standing beneath (2) Him, and (3) another scribe above Him.

33:3 And the glorious Seraphim

A:

E:

surround them like fire- brands round about Throne of Glory

surround the Throne on its four sides with the walls of lightning’s, and the ‘Ophannim surround them with fire-brands round about the Throne of Glory

And clouds of fire and clouds of flames compass them to the right and to the left; and the Holy Chayyoth carry the Throne of Glory from below: each one (4) with three fingers. (5) The measure of the fingers of each one4 is 800,000 and 700 times hundred, (and) 66,000 (6) parasangs.

33:4 And underneath the feet of the Chayyoth seven fiery rivers are running and flowing. And the breadth (7) of each river is 365 thousand parasangs (8) and ifs depth is 248 thousand myriads of parasangs. Its length is unsearchable and immeasureable.

33:5 And each river turns round in a bow in the four directions of ‘Araboth Raqia, and (from there) it falls down to Ma’on and is stayed, and from Ma’on to Zebul, from Zebul to Shechaqim, from Shechaqim to Raqia’, from Raqia’ to Shamayim and from Shamayim upon the heads of the wicked who are in Gehenna, as it is written (Jer. xxiii. 19): “Behold a whirlwind of the Lord, even his fury, is gone, yea, a whirling tempest; it shall burst upon the head of the wicked”.

The different concentric circles round the Chayyoth, consisting of fire, water, hailstones etc. and of the Angels uttering the Qedushsha responsorium.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 34.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron; the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

34:1 The hoofs of the Chayyoth are surrounded by seven clouds of burning coals. The clouds of burning coals are surrounded on the outside by seven walls of flame(s). The seven walls of flame(s) are surrounded on the outside by seven walls of hailstones (stones of ‘El-gabish, Ezek. xiii. 11,13, xxviii. 22). The hailstones are surrounded on the outside by (1) stones of hail (stone of Barad). The stones of hail are surrounded on the outside by stones of “the wings of the tempest”. The stones of “the wings of the tempest” are surrounded on the outside by flames of fire. The flames of fire are surrounded by the chambers of the whirlwind. The chambers of the whirlwind are surrounded on the outside by (2) the fire and the water.

34:2 Round about the fire and the water are those who utter the “Holy”. Round about those who utter the “Holy” are those who utter the “Blessed”‘. Round about those who utter the “Blessed” are the bright clouds. The bright clouds are surrounded on the outside by coals of burning jumper; and on the outside surrounding the coals of burning juniper there are thousand camps of fire and ten thousand hosts of flame(s). And between every several camp and every several host there is a cloud, so that they may not be burnt by the fire.

The camps of Angels in ‘Araboth Raqia’: Angels, performing the Qedushsha.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 35.

(1) R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

35:1 506 (2) thousand myriads of camps has the Holy One, blessed be He, in the height of ‘Araboth Raqia’. And each camp is (composed of) 496 thousand Angels.

35:2 And every single Angel, the height of his stature is as the great sea; and the appearance of their countenance as the appearance of the lightning, and their eyes as lamps of fire, and their arms and their feet like in colour to polished brass (3) and the roaring voice of their words like the voice of a multitude.

35:3 And they are all standing before the Throne of Glory in four rows. And the princes of the army are standing at the head of each row.

35:4 And some of them utter the “Holy” and others utter the “Blessed”, some of them run as messengers, others are standing in attendance, according as it is written (Dan. vii. 10): “Thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set and the books were opened”.

35:5 And in the hour, when the time draws nigh for to say the “Holy”, (then) first there goes forth a whirlwind from before the Holy One, blessed be He, and bursts upon the camp of Shekina and there arises a great commotion among them, as it is written (Jer. xxx. 23): “Behold, the whirlwind of the Lord goeth forth with fury, a continuing commotion”.

35:6 At that moment (4a) thousand thousands of them are changed into sparks, thousand thousands of them into firebrands, thousand thousands into flashes, thousand thousands into flames, thousand thousands into males, thousand thousands into females, thousand thousands into winds, thousand thousands into burning fires, thousand thousands into flames, thousand thousands into sparks, thousand thousands into chashmals of light (4b); until they take upon themselves the yoke of the kingdom of heaven, the high and lifted up, of the Creator (5) of them all with fear, dread, awe and trembling, with commotion, anguish, terror and trepidation. Then they are changed again into their former shape to have the fear of their King before them alway, as they have set their hearts on saying (5) the Song continually, as it is written (Is. vi. 3): “And one cried unto another and said (Holy, Holy, Holy, etc.)”.

The Angels bathe in the fiery river before reciting the ‘Song’.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 36.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

36:1 At the time when the ministering Angels desire to say (the) Song, (then) Nehar di-Nur (the fiery stream) (1) rises with many “thousand thousands and myriads of myriads” (of Angels) of power and strength of fire 1 and it runs and passes under the Throne of Glory, between the camps (2) of the ministering Angels and the troops of ‘Araboth.

36:2 And all the ministering Angels first go down into Nehar di-Nur, and they dip themselves in the fire (3) and dip their tongue and their mouth seven times; and after that they go up and put on the garment of ‘Machaqe Samal’ and cover themselves with cloaks of chashmal and stand in four rows over against the Throne of Glory, in all the heavens.

The four camps of Shekina and their surroundings.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 37.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

37:1 In the seven Halls there are standing four chariots of Shekina, and before each one are standing the four camps of Shekina. Between each camp a river of fire is continually flowing.

37:2 Between each river there are bright clouds [surrounding them], and between each cloud there are put up pillars of brimstone. Between one pillar and another there are standing flaming wheels, surrounding them. And between one wheel and another there are flames of fire (1) round about. Between one flame and another there are treasuries of lightning’s; behind the treasuries of lightning’s are the wings of (2) the stormwind. (3) Behind the wings of the storm-wind are the chambers of the tempest; (4) behind the chambers of the tempest there are winds, voices, thunders, sparks (5) [upon] sparks and earthquakes [upon] earthquakes.

The fear that befalls all the heavens at the sound of the ‘Holy’ espECIALLY the heavenly bodies.

These appeased by the Prince of the World.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 38.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

38:1 At the time, when the ministering Angels utter (the Thrice) Holy, then all the pillars of the heavens and their sockets do tremble, and (1) the gates of the Halls of ‘Araboth Raqia’ are shaken and the foundations of Shechaqim and the Universe (Tebel) are moved, and the orders (2) of Ma’on and the chambers (3) of Makon quiver, and all the orders (4) of Raqia’ and the constellations and the planets are dismayed, and the globes of the sun and the moon haste away and flee out of their courses (5) and run (6) 12,000 parasangs and seek to throw themselves down from heaven,

38:2 by reason of the roaring voice of their chant, and the noise of their praise and the sparks and lightning’s that go forth from their faces; as it is written (Ps. Ixxvii. 18): “The voice of thy thunder was in the heaven (the lightning’s lightened the world, the earth trembled and shook)”.

39:3 Until the prince of the world calls them, saying: “Be ye quiet in your place! Fear not because of the ministering Angels who sing the Song before the Holy One, blessed be He”. As it is written (Job xxxviii. 7): “When the morning stars sang together and all the children of heaven shouted for joy”.

The explicit names fly off from the Throne and all the various Angelic hosts prostrate themselves before it at the time of the Qedushsha.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 39.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

39:1 When the ministering Angels utter the “Holy” then all the explicit names that are graven with a flaming style on the Throne of Glory fly off like eagles, with sixteen wings. And they surround and compass the Holy One, blessed be He, on the four sides of the place of His Shekina (1).

39:2 And the Angels of the host, and the flaming Servants, and the mighty ‘Ophannim, and the Kerubim of the Shekina, and the Holy Chayyoth, and the Seraphim, and the ‘Er’ellim, and the Taphsarim (2) and the troops (3) of consuming fire, and the fiery armies, and the flaming hosts, and the Holy princes, adorned with crowns, clad in kingly majesty, wrapped in glory, girt with loftiness, (4) fall upon their faces three times, saying: “Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever and ever”.

The ministering Angels rewarded with crowns, when uttering the ”Holy” in its right order, and punished by consuming fire if not. New ones created in the stead of the consumed Angels.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 40.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

40:1 When the ministering Angels say “Holy” before the Holy One, blessed be He, in the proper way, then the servants of His Throne, (1) the attendants of His Glory, go forth with great mirth from under the Throne of Glory.

40:2 And (2) they all carry in their hands, each one of them thousand thousand and ten thousand times ten thousand crowns of stars, similar in appearance to the planet Venus, and put them on the ministering Angels and the great princes who utter the “Holy”. Three crowns they put on each one of them: one crown because they say “Holy”, another crown, because they say “Holy, Holy”, and a third crown because they say “Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord of Hosts”.

40:3 And in the moment that they do not utter the “Holy” in the right order, a consuming fire goes forth from the little finger of the Holy One, blessed be He, and falls down in the midst of their ranks and is divided into 496 (3) thousand parts corresponding to the four camps of the ministering Angels, and consumes them in one moment, as it is written (Ps. xcvii. 3): “A fire goeth before him and burneth up his adversaries round about”.

40:4 After that the Holy One, blessed be He, opens His mouth and speaks one word and creates others in their stead, new ones like them. And each one stands before His Throne of Glory, uttering the “Holy”, as it is written (Lam. iii. 23): “They are new every morning; great is thy faithfulness”.

Metatron shows R. Ishmael the letters engraved on the Throne of Glory by which letters everything in heaven and earth has been created.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 41.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

41:1 Come and behold (1) the letters by which the heaven and the earth were created,

(2) the letters by which were created the mountains and hills,

the letters by which were created the seas and rivers,

the letters by which were created the trees and herbs,

the letters by which were created the planets and the constellations,

the letters by which were created the globe of the moon and the

globe of the sun, Orion, the Pleiades and all the different luminaries of Raqia’.

41:2 (3) the letters by which were created the Throne of Glory and the Wheels of the Merkaba, the letters by which were created the necessities of the worlds (4),

41:3 the letters by which were created wisdom, understanding, knowledge, prudence, meekness and righteousness by which the whole world is sustained.

41:4 And I walked by his side and he took me by his hand and raised me upon his wings and showed me (5) those letters, all of them, that are graven with a flaming style on the Throne of Glory: and sparks go forth from them and cover all the chambers of ‘Araboth.

Instances of polar opposites kept in balance by several Divine Names and other similar wonders.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 42.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, The Angel, the Prince of the Presence, (1) said to me:

42:1 Come and I will show thee, where the waters are suspended in the highest, where fire is burning in the midst of hail, (2) where lightning’s lighten out of the midst of snowy mountains, where thunders are roaring in the celestial heights, where a flame is burning in the midst of the burning fire and where (3) voices make themselves heard in the midst of thunder and earthquake.

42:2 Then I went (4) by his side and he took me by his hand and lifted me up on his wings and showed me all those things. I beheld the waters suspended on high in ‘Araboth Raqia’ by (force of) the name יהאהיהאשראהיה(YAH ‘EHYE ‘ASHER ‘EHYE) (Yah, I am that I am), (5) and their fruits going down from heaven and watering the face of the world, as it is written (Ps. civ. 13): “(He watereth the mountains from his chambers:) the earth is satisfied with the fruit of thy work”.

42:3 And I saw fire and snow and hailstone that were mingled together within each other and yet were undamaged, by (force of) the name אשאכלה (ESH ‘OKELA) (consuming fire), as it is written (Deut. iv. 24): “For the Lord, thy God, is a consuming fire”.

42:4 And I saw lightning’s that were lightening out of (6) mountains of snow and yet were not damaged (quenched), by (force of) the name YAH, (7) יהסורעלמי(SUR ‘OLAMIM) (Jah, the everlasting rock), as it is written (Is. xxvi. 4): “For in Jah, YHWH, יה יהוה the everlasting rock”.

42:5 And I saw thunders and voices that were roaring in the midst of fiery flames and were not damaged (silenced), by (force of) the name (8) ‘EL-SHADDAI RABBA,

אלשדיראבבא

(the Great God Almighty) as it is written (Gen. xvii. i): “I am God Almighty”.

42:6 And I beheld a flame (and) a glow (glowing flames) that were flaming and glowing in the midst of burning fire, and yet were not damaged (devoured), by (force of) the name (8) YAD ‘AL KES YAH, יאדעלךשיה(the hand upon the Throne of the Lord) as it is written (Ex. xvii. 16): (9) “And he said: for the hand is upon the Throne of the Lord”.

42:7 And I beheld rivers of fire in the midst of rivers of water (10) and rivers of water running in the midst of rivers of fire and they were not damaged (quenched) by (force of) the name OSE SHALOM, עששאלום(Maker of Peace) (11) (12) as it is written (Job xxv. 2): “He maketh peace in his high places”. For he makes peace between the fire and the water, (13) between the hail and the fire, between the wind and the cloud, between the earthquake and the sparks.

Metatron shows R. Ishmael the abode of the unborn spirits and of the spirits of the righteous dead.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 43.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron said to me:

43:1 Come and I will show thee (1) where are the spirits of the righteous that have been created and have returned, and the spirits of the righteous that have not yet been created.

43:2 And he lifted me up to his side, took me by his hand and lifted (2) me up near the Throne of Glory (3) by the place of the Shekina; and he revealed the Throne of Glory to me, and he showed me the spirits that have been created and had returned : and they were flying above the Throne of Glory before the Holy One, blessed be He.

43:3 After that I went to interpret the following verse of Scripture and I found in what is written (Isa. Ivii. 16): “for the spirit clothed itself before me, and the souls I have made” that (“for the spirit was clothed before me”) means the spirits (4) that have been created in the chamber of creation of the righteous and that have returned before the Holy One, blessed be He; (and the words:) “and the souls I have made” refer to the spirits of the righteous that have not yet been created in the chamber. (GUPH) גופה(= Body.).

Metatron shows R. Ishmael the abode of the wicked and the intermediate in Sheol. (vss. 1-6) The Patriarchs pray for the deliverance of Israel (vss. 7-10).

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 44.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron, (1) the Angel, the Prince of the Presence, said to me:

44:1 Come and I will show thee the spirits of the wicked (2) and the spirits of the intermediate where they are standing, and the spirits of the intermediate, whither they go down, (3) and the spirits of the wicked, where they go down.

44:2 And he said to me : The spirits of the wicked go down to She’ol by the hands of two Angels of destruction: ZA’APHIEL and SIMKIEL are their names.

44:3 SIMKIEL is appointed over the intermediate to support them and purify them because of the great mercy of the Prince of the Place (Maqom). ZA’APHIEL is appointed over the spirits of the wicked (4) in order to cast them down from the presence of the Holy One, blessed be He, and from the splendour of the Shekina (5) to She’ol, to be punished in the fire of Gehenna with staves of burning coal.

44:4 And I went by his side, and he took me by his hand and showed me all of them with his fingers.

44:5 And I beheld the appearance of their faces (and, lo, it was) as the appearance of children of men, and their bodies like eagles. And not only that but (furthermore) the colour of the countenance of the intermediate was like pale grey on account of their deeds, for there are stains upon them until they have become cleaned from their iniquity in the fire.

44:6 And the colour of the wicked was like the bottom of a pot on account of (6) the wickedness of their doings.

44:7 And I saw the spirits of the Patriarchs Abraham Isaac and Jacob and the rest of the righteous whom they have brought up out of their graves and who have ascended to the Heaven (Raqira’). And they were praying before the Holy One, blessed be He, saying in their prayer: “Lord of the Universe! How long wilt thou sit upon (thy) Throne like a mourner in the days of his mourning with thy right hand behind thee (7) and not deliver thy children and reveal thy Kingdom in the world? (8) And for how long wilt thou have no pity upon thy children who are made slaves among the nations of the world? Nor (9) upon thy right hand that is behind thee wherewith thou didst stretch out (10) the heavens and the earth and the heavens of heavens? When wilt thou have compassion?”

44:8 Then the Holy One, blessed be He, answered every one of them, saying: “Since these wicked do sin so and so, and transgress with such and such transgressions against me, how could I deliver my great Right Hand in the downfall by their hands (caused by them) (11).

44:9 In that moment Metatron called me and spake to me: “My servant! Take the books, and read their evil doings!” Forthwith I took the books and read their doings and there were to be found 36 transgressions (written down) with regard to each wicked one (12) and besides, that they have transgressed all the letters in the Tora, as it is written (Dan. ix. 11): “Yea, all Israel have transgressed thy Law”. It is not written ‘al torateka but ‘et, אתtorateka, for they have transgressed from ‘Aleph, אto Taw, ת, (13) 4O statutes have they transgressed for each letter.

44:10 Forthwith Abraham, Isaac and Jacob wept. (14) Then said to them the Holy One, blessed be He: “Abraham, my beloved, Isaac, my Elect one, Jacob, my firstborn! (15) How can I now deliver them from among the nations of the world?” And forthwith MIKAEL, the Prince of Israel, cried and wept with a loud voice and said (Ps. x. i): “Why standest thou afar off, O Lord?”

Metatron shows R. Ishmael past and future events recorded on the Curtain of the Throne.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 45.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron said to me:

45:1 Come, and I will show thee the Curtain of MAQOM (the Divine Majesty) which is spread before the Holy One, blessed be He, (and) whereon are graven all the generations of the world and all their doings, both what they have done and what they will do until the end of all generations.

45:2 And I went, and he showed it to me pointing it out with his fingers Mike a father who teaches his children the letters of Tora. And I saw each generation,

the rulers of each generation (1),

and the heads of each generation,

the shepherds of each generation,

the oppressors (drivers) of each generation,

the keepers of each generation,

the scourgers of each generation, (2)

the overseers of each generation,

the judges of each generation,

the court officers of each generation ,

the teachers of each generation,

the supporters of each generation, (3)

the chiefs of each generation,

the presidents of academies of each generation,

the magistrates of each generation,

the princes of each generation,

the counsellors of each generation, (4)

the nobles of each generation,

and the men of might of each generation, (4)

the elders of each generation,

and the guides of each generation.

45:3 And I saw Adam, his generation, their doings and their thoughts, (5)

Noah (6) and his generation, their doings and their thoughts, and the generation of the flood, their doings and their thoughts, Shem and his generation, their doings and their thoughts,

Nimrod and the generation of the confusion of tongues, and his generation, their doings and their thoughts,

Abraham and his generation, their doings and their thoughts, Isaac and his generation, their doings and their thoughts, (7) Ishmael and his generation, their doings and their thoughts,

Jacob and his generation, their doings and their thoughts,

Joseph and his generation, their doings and their thoughts,

the tribes and their generation, their doings and their thoughts,

Amram and his generation, their doings and their thoughts,

Moses and his generation, their doings and their thoughts,

45:4 Aaron (8) and Mirjam (9) their works and their doings,

(10) the princes and the elders, their works and doings,

Joshua and his generation, their works and doings,

the judges and their generation, their works and doings,

Eli and his generation, their works and doings,

(11) Phinehas, their (?) works and doings,

Elkanah and his generation, their works and their doings,

Samuel and his generation, their works and doings,

(12) the kings of Judah with their generations, their works and their doings,

the kings of Israel and their generations, their works and their doings,

(13) the princes of Israel, their works and their doings; the princes of the nations of the world, their works and their doings,

the heads of the councils of Israel, their works and their doings; the heads of (the councils in) the nations of the world, their generations, their works and their doings;

(14) the rulers of Israel and their generation, their works and their doings;

the nobles of Israel and their generation, their works and their doings; the nobles of the nations of the world and their generation(s), their works and their doings;

the men of reputation in Israel, their generation, their works and their doings; (15)

the judges of Israel, their generation, their works and their doings; the judges of the nations of the world and their generation, their works and their doings;

the teachers of children in Israel, their generations, their works and their doings; the teachers of children in the nations of the world, their generations, their works and their doings;

the counsellors (interpreters) of Israel, their generation, their works and their doings; the counsellors (interpreters) of the nations of the world, their generation, their works and their doings;

all the prophets of Israel, their generation, their works and their doings; all the prophets of the nations of the world, their generation, their works and their doings;

45:5 and all the fights and wars that the nations (16) of the world wrought against the people of Israel in the time of their kingdom.

And I saw Messiah, son of Joseph, and his generation “and their” works and their doings that they will do against the nations of the world (17). And I saw Messiah, son of David, and his generation, and all the fights and wars, and their works and their doings that they will do with Israel both for good and evil. And I saw all the fights and wars that Gog and Magog will fight (18) in the days of Messiah, and all that the Holy One, blessed be He, will do with them in the time to come.

45:6 (19) And all the rest of all the leaders of the generations and all the works of the generations both in Israel and in the nations of the world, (20) both what is done and what will be done hereafter to all generations until the end of time, (all) were graven on the Curtain of MAQOM. And I saw all these things with my eyes; and after I had seen it, I opened my mouth in praise of MAQOM (the Divine Majesty) (saying thus, Eccl. viii. 4, 5): “For the King’s word hath power (and who may say unto him: What doest thou?) Whoso keepeth the commandments shall know no evil thing”. And I said: (Ps. civ. 24) “O Lord, how manifold are thy works!”

The place of the stars shown to

R. Ishmael.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 46.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron said to me:

46:1 (Come and I will show thee) the space (1) of the stars a (2) that are standing (3) in Raqia’ night by night in fear (4) of the Almighty (MAQOM) and (I will show thee) where they go and where they stand.

46:2 I walked by his side, and he took me by his hand and pointed out all to me with his fingers. And they were standing (5) on sparks of flames round the Merkaba of the Almighty (MAQOM). What did Metatron do? At that moment he clapped his hands and (6) chased them off from their place. Forthwith they flew off (7) on flaming wings, rose and fled from the four sides of the Throne of the Merkaba, and (as they flew) he told me the names (8) of every single one. As it is written (Ps. cxlvii. 4): “He telleth the number of the stars; he giveth them all their names”, teaching, that the Holy One, blessed be He, has given a name to each one of them.

46:3 And they all enter in counted order under the guidance of (lit. through, by the hands of) RAHATIEL to Raqia’ ha-shSHamayim to serve the world. And they go out in counted order to praise the Holy One, blessed be He, with songs and hymns, according as it is written (Ps. xix. i): “The heavens declare the glory of God”.

46:4 But in the time to come the Holy One, blessed be He, (9) will create them anew, as it is written (Lam. iii. 23): “They are new every morning”. And they open their mouth and utter a song. Which is the song that they utter? (Ps. viii. 3): “When I consider thy heavens”.

Metatron shows R. Ishmael the spirits of the punished Angels.

3 ENOCH.

CHAPTER 47.

R. Ishmael said: Metatron said to me:

47:1 Come and I will show thee the souls (1) of the Angels and the spirits of (2) the ministering servants whose bodies (3) have been burnt in the fire of MAQOM (the Almighty) that goes forth from his little finger. And they have been made into fiery coals in the midst of the fiery river (Nehar di-Nur). But their spirits and their souls are standing behind the Shekina.

47:2 Whenever the ministering Angels utter a song at a wrong time or as not appointed (4) to be sung (5) they are burnt (6) and consumed by the fire of their Creator and by a flame from their Maker,

A:

E:

in the places (chambers) of the whirlwind, for it blows upon them and drives them

in their place (= on the spot); and a whirlwind blows upon them and throws them down

into the Nehar di-Nur: and there they are made into numerous mountains (7) of burning coal. But their spirit and their soul return (8) to their Creator, and all are standing behind their Master.

47:3 And I went (9) by his side and he took me by his hand ; and he showed me all the souls of the Angels and the spirits of the ministering servants who were standing behind the Shekina (10) upon wings (11) of the whirlwind and walls of fire surrounding them.

47:4 At that moment Metatron opened to me the gates of the walls within which they were standing behind the Shekina, And I lifted up my eyes and saw them, and behold, the likeness of every one was as (that of) An